Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Photometry

  • band photometry
  • flicker photometry
  • heterochromatic flicker photometry
  • infrared photometry

  • Selected Abstracts

    Exposure Fusion: A Simple and Practical Alternative to High Dynamic Range Photography

    T. Mertens
    I.4.8 [Image Processing]: Scene Analysis , Photometry, Sensor Fusion Abstract We propose a technique for fusing a bracketed exposure sequence into a high quality image, without converting to High dynamic range (HDR) first. Skipping the physically based HDR assembly step simplifies the acquisition pipeline. This avoids camera response curve calibration and is computationally efficient. It also allows for including flash images in the sequence. Our technique blends multiple exposures, guided by simple quality measures like saturation and contrast. This is done in a multiresolution fashion to account for the brightness variation in the sequence. The resulting image quality is comparable to existing tone mapping operators. [source]

    Structure and dynamics of galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc , I. The stellar and ionized-gas kinematics

    A. Pizzella
    ABSTRACT Photometry and long-slit spectroscopy are presented for a sample of six galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The characterizing parameters of the bulge and disc components were derived by means of a two-dimensional photometric decomposition of the images of the sample galaxies. Their surface-brightness distribution was assumed to be the sum of the contribution of a Sérsic bulge and an exponential disc, with each component being described by elliptical and concentric isophotes of constant ellipticity and position angle. The stellar and ionized-gas kinematics were measured along the major and minor axes in half of the sample galaxies, whereas the other half was observed only along two diagonal axes. Spectra along two diagonal axes were obtained also for one of the objects with major and minor axis spectra. The kinematic measurements extend in the disc region out to a surface-brightness level ,R, 24 mag arcsec,2, reaching in all cases the flat part of the rotation curve. The stellar kinematics turns out to be more regular and symmetric than the ionized-gas kinematics, which often shows the presence of non-circular, off-plane and non-ordered motions. This raises the question about the reliability of the use of the ionized gas as the tracer of the circular velocity in the modelling of the mass distribution, in particular in the central regions of low surface-brightness galaxies. [source]

    Photometry of cometary nuclei: rotation rates, colours and a comparison with Kuiper Belt Objects,

    C. Snodgrass
    ABSTRACT We present time-series data on Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) 17P/Holmes, 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson and 137P/Shoemaker-Levy 2. In addition we also present results from ,snap-shot' observations of comets 43P/Wolf-Harrington, 44P/Reinmuth 2, 103P/Hartley 2 and 104P/Kowal 2 taken during the same run. The comets were at heliocentric distances of between 3 and 7 au at this time. We present measurements of size and activity levels for the snap-shot targets. The time-series data allow us to constrain rotation periods and shapes, and thus bulk densities. We also measure colour indices (V,R) and (R,I) and reliable radii for these comets. We compare all of our findings to date with similar results for other comets and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). We find that the rotational properties of nuclei and KBOs are very similar, that there is evidence for a cut-off in bulk densities at ,0.6 g cm,3 in both populations, and the colours of the two populations show similar correlations. For JFCs, there is no observational evidence for the optical colours being dependent on either position in the orbit or orbital parameters. [source]

    CIE Expert Symposium on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry

    Article first published online: 22 FEB 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Elevated sweat sodium associated with pulmonary oedema in meningococcal sepsis

    M. Eisenhut
    Abstract Background, We observed a temporary positive sweat test with sodium and chloride levels greater than 60 mmol L,1 following meningococcal septicaemia. Objective was to investigate whether this finding is reproducible and whether this disturbance in epithelial sodium transport is related to sepsis-induced pulmonary oedema. Materials and methods, Twenty-four children with a diagnosis of meningococcal septicaemia and 10 controls with noninfectious critical illness admitted to the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital were included. Sweat collection was by pilocarpine iontophoresis in the acute phase of the illness (days 1,5) and on follow up. Sodium and chloride concentrations were determined by flame photometry. Results, In patients with meningococcal septicaemia, sweat sodium and chloride concentrations were significantly higher in the acute compared with the recovery phase, with a mean (SD) of 31·0 (14·6) mmol L,1 in the acute vs. 19·6 (10·2) mmol L,1 on recovery for sodium and 21·0 (12·1) mmol L,1 in the acute vs. 11·8 (4·9) mmol L,1 on recovery for chloride (P < 0·01, t -test, for sodium and chloride). Sweat sodium and chloride were significantly higher in patients with meningococcal disease compared with controls and in the acute phase in patients with septicaemia-related pulmonary oedema [mean (SD) sodium: 41·0 (15·4) mmol L,1 and chloride: 28·8 (14·3) mmol L,1] compared with septic patients without [mean (SD) sodium: 24·5 (10·1) mmol L,1 and chloride: 15·3 (7·9) mmol L,1] (P < 0·01 for sodium and chloride). Conclusions, This is the first study to provide in vivo evidence of reduced epithelial sodium transport in children with septicaemia and of its association with pulmonary oedema. [source]

    A novel in vitro flat-bed perfusion biofilm model for determining the potential antimicrobial efficacy of topical wound treatments

    R.M.S. Thorn
    Abstract Aims:, To develop an in vitro flat-bed perfusion biofilm model that could be used to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of topically applied treatments. Methods and Results:,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were grown within continuously perfused cellulose matrices. Enumeration of the biofilm density and eluate was performed at various sampling times, enabling determination of the biofilm growth rate. Two antimicrobial wound dressings were applied to the surface of mature biofilms and periodically sampled. To enable real-time imaging of biofilm growth and potential antimicrobial kinetics, a bioluminescent Ps. aeruginosa biofilm was monitored using low-light photometry. Target species produced reproducible steady-state biofilms at a density of c. 107 per biofilm support matrix, after 24-h perfusion. Test dressings elicited significant antimicrobial effects, producing differing kill kinetic profiles. There was a good correlation between photon and viable count data. Conclusions:, The model enables determination of the antimicrobial profile of topically applied treatments against target species biofilms, accurately differentiating bactericidal from bacteriostatic effects. Moreover, these effects could be monitored in real time using bioluminescence. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is the first in vitro biofilm model which can assess the antimicrobial potential of topical therapies in a dynamic growth environment. [source]

    Inhomogeneous sodium accumulation in the ischemic core in rat focal cerebral ischemia by 23Na MRI

    Victor E. Yushmanov PhD
    Abstract Purpose To test the hypotheses that (i) the regional heterogeneity of brain sodium concentration ([Na+]br) provides a parameter for ischemic progression not available from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data, and (ii) [Na+]br increases more in ischemic cortex than in the caudate putamen (CP) with its lesser collateral circulation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Materials and Methods 23Na twisted projection MRI was performed at 3 Tesla. [Na+]br was independently determined by flame photometry. The ischemic core was localized by ADC, by microtubule-associated protein-2 immunohistochemistry, and by changes in surface reflectivity. Results Within the ischemic core, the ADC ratio relative to the contralateral tissue was homogeneous (0.63 ± 0.07), whereas the rate of [Na+]br increase (slope) was heterogeneous (P < 0.005): 22 ± 4%/h in the sites of maximum slope versus 14 ± 1%/h elsewhere (here 100% is [Na+]br in the contralateral brain). Maximum slopes in the cortex were higher than in CP (P < 0.05). In the ischemic regions, there was no slope/ADC correlation between animals and within the same brain (P > 0.1). Maximum slope was located at the periphery of ischemic core in 8/10 animals. Conclusion Unlike ADC, 23Na MRI detected within-core ischemic lesion heterogeneity. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:18,24. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transient rise in intracellular calcium produces a long-lasting increase in plasma membrane calcium pump activity in rat sensory neurons

    William J. Pottorf II
    Abstract The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) plays a major role in clearing Ca2+ from the neuronal cytoplasm. Calmodulin stimulates PMCA activity and for some isoforms this activation persists following clearance of Ca2+ owing to the slow dissociation of calmodulin. We tested the hypothesis that PMCA-mediated Ca2+ efflux from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in culture would remain stimulated following increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). PMCA-mediated Ca2+ extrusion was recorded following brief trains of action potentials using indo-1-based photometry in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid. A priming stimulus that increased [Ca2+]i to 506 ± 28 nm (>15 min) increased the rate constant for [Ca2+]i recovery by 47 ± 3%. Ca2+ clearance from subsequent test stimuli remained accelerated for up to an hour despite removal of the priming stimulus and a return to basal [Ca2+]i. The acceleration depended on the magnitude and duration of the priming [Ca2+]i increase, but was independent of the source of Ca2+. Increases in [Ca2+]i evoked by prolonged depolarization, sustained trains of action potentials or activation of vanilloid receptors all accelerated Ca2+ efflux. We conclude that PMCA-mediated Ca2+ efflux in DRG neurons is a dynamic process in which intense stimuli prime the pump for the next Ca2+ challenge. [source]

    Electrokinetic Properties of Nanosized SiC Particles in Highly Concentrated Electrolyte Solutions

    Sheng-Chang Wang
    In this research, the electrokinetic behavior and stability of nanosized SiC particles suspended in various electroplating solutions were studied. Analyses were performed using electrophoretic mobility photometry and streaming current (SC) techniques. The electrolytes included NiCl2, Ni(SO3NH2)2, and Na3Co(NO2)6, which are currently used in composite plating solutions with concentrations as high as 0.5M. The results showed that the adsorption of dissolved Ni2+ ions onto the surface of the SiC in the pH range 4,8 changed the sign and magnitude of the surface potential. Moreover, trivalent complex species Co(NO2)63, replaced nickel species on the SiC surface and decreased the surface charge of SiC to between pH 3 and pH 5. Even in a highly concentrated electrolyte solution, the SiC particles still maintained a positive charge in a Ni(SO3NH2)2 suspension with nickel coplating on the cathode. The difference between the SC reading and the zeta potential, as well as the surface adsorption of various species onto the SiC, are discussed here. [source]

    A study of the massive star-forming region M8 using images from the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera

    Dewangan Lokesh Kumar
    ABSTRACT We present photometry and images (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 ,m) from the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the star-forming region Messier 8 (M8). The IRAC photometry reveals ongoing star formation in the M8 complex, with 64 class 0/I and 168 class II sources identified in several locations in the vicinity of submm gas cores/clumps. Nearly 60 per cent of these young stellar objects (YSOs) occur in about seven small clusters. The spatial surface density of the clustered YSOs is determined to be about 10,20 YSOs pc,2. Fresh star formation by the process of ,collect and collapse' might have been triggered by the expanding H ii regions and winds from massive stars. IRAC ratio images are generated and studied in order to identify possible diagnostic emission regions in M8. The image of 4.5/8.0 ,m reveals a Br, counterpart of the optical Hourglass H ii region, while the ratio 8.0/4.5 ,m indicates PAH emission in a cavity-like structure to the east of the Hourglass. The ratio maps of 3.6/4.5, 5.8/4.5 and 8.0/4.5 ,m seem to identify PAH emission regions in the sharp ridges and filamentary structures seen east to west and north-east to south-west in the M8 complex. [source]

    A model for saturation correction in meteor photometry

    Jean-Baptiste Kikwaya
    ABSTRACT In order to correct for the effect of saturation on photometric measurements of meteors, we have developed a numerical model for saturation and apply it to data gathered using two generation III image intensified video systems on two nights (2008 October 31 and 2008 November 6). The two cameras were pointed in the same direction, and the aperture of one camera was set two stops below the aperture of the other. With these conditions, some meteors saturated one camera but not the other (group I); some saturated both cameras (group II); and some did not saturate either of them (group III). A model of meteor saturation has been developed which uses the image background value, angular meteor speed and the lateral width of the meteor image to simulate the true and saturated light curve of meteors. For group I meteors, we computed a saturation correction and applied it to the saturated light curve. We then compared the corrected saturated curve to the unsaturated curve from the other camera to validate the model. For group II meteors, a saturation correction is calculated and applied to both observed light curves, which have different degrees of saturation, and the corrected curves are compared. We collected 516 meteors, of which 30 were of group I, and seven of group II. For meteors in group I, an average residual of less than 0.4 mag was found between the observed unsaturated light curve and the model-corrected saturated light curve. For meteors in group II, the average residual between the two corrected light curves was 0.3 mag. For our data, the saturation correction goes from 0.5 to 1.9 mag for meteors in group I, and 1.2 to 2.5 mag for meteors in group II. Based on the agreement between the observed and modelled light curves (less than 0.4 mag over all meteors of all groups), we conclude that our model for saturation correction is valid. It can be used to extract the true luminosity of a saturated meteor, which is necessary to calculate photometric mass. Our model also demonstrates that fixed corrections to saturated meteor photometry, not accounting for background levels or angular velocities, do introduce significant error to meteor photometric analyses. [source]

    UBV(RI)C,JHK observations of Hipparcos -selected nearby stars

    C. Koen
    ABSTRACT We present homogeneous, standardized UBV(RI)C photometry for over 700 nearby stars selected on the basis of Hipparcos parallaxes. Additionally, we list JHK photometry for about half of these stars, as well as L photometry for 86 of the brightest. A number of stars with peculiar colours or anomalous locations in various colour,magnitude diagrams are discussed. [source]

    Be/X-ray binary SXP6.85 undergoes large Type II outburst in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    L. J. Townsend
    ABSTRACT The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Be/X-ray binary pulsar SXP6.85 = XTE J0103,728 underwent a large Type II outburst beginning on 2008 August 10. The source was consistently seen for the following 20 weeks (MJD = 54688,54830). We present X-ray timing and spectroscopic analysis of the source as a part of our ongoing Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) monitoring campaign and INTEGRAL key programme monitoring the SMC and 47 Tuc. A comparison with the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III light curve of the Be counterpart shows the X-ray outbursts from this source coincide with times of optical maximum. We attribute this to the circumstellar disc increasing in size, causing mass accretion on to the neutron star. Ground based infrared photometry and H, spectroscopy obtained during the outburst are used as a measure of the size of the circumstellar disc and lend support to this picture. In addition, folded RXTE light curves seem to indicate complex changes in the geometry of the accretion regions on the surface of the neutron star, which may be indicative of an inhomogeneous density distribution in the circumstellar material causing a variable accretion rate on to the neutron star. Finally, the assumed inclination of the system and H, equivalent width measurements are used to make a simplistic estimate of the size of the circumstellar disc. [source]

    Red star-forming and blue passive galaxies in clusters

    Smriti Mahajan
    ABSTRACT We explore the relation between colour (measured from photometry) and specific star formation rate (derived from optical spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4) of over 6000 galaxies (Mr,,20.5) in and around (<3 r200) low-redshift (z < 0.12) Abell clusters. Even though, as expected, most red sequence galaxies have little or no ongoing star formation, and most blue galaxies are currently forming stars, there are significant populations of red star-forming and blue passive galaxies. This paper examines various properties of galaxies belonging to the latter two categories, to understand why they deviate from the norm. These properties include morphological parameters, internal extinction, spectral features such as EW(H,) and the 4000 Å break, and metallicity. Our analysis shows that the blue passive galaxies have properties very similar to their star-forming counterparts, except that their large range in H, equivalent width indicates recent truncation of star formation. The red star-forming galaxies fall into two broad categories, one of them being massive galaxies in cluster cores dominated by an old stellar population, but with evidence of current star formation in the core (possibly linked with active galactic nuclei). For the remaining red star-forming galaxies, it is evident from spectral indices, stellar and gas-phase metallicities and mean stellar ages that their colours result from the predominance of a metal-rich stellar population. Only half of the red star-forming galaxies have extinction values consistent with a significant presence of dust. The implication of the properties of these star-forming galaxies on environmental studies, like that of the Butcher,Oemler effect, is discussed. [source]

    Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey catalogue , I. A sample of systems with components' masses between 1 and 2 M,

    K. G. He, miniak
    ABSTRACT We derive the absolute physical and orbital parameters for a sample of 18 detached eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data base based on the available photometry and our own radial velocity (RV) measurements. The RVs are computed using spectra we collected with the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and its University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES), and the 1.9-m Radcliffe telescope and its Grating Instrument for Radiation Analysis with a Fibre-Fed Echelle (GIRAFFE) at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). In order to obtain as precise RVs as possible, most of the systems were observed with an iodine cell available at the AAT/UCLES and/or analysed using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR). The RVs were measured with TODCOR using synthetic template spectra as references. However, for two objects we used our own approach to the tomographic disentangling of the binary spectra to provide observed template spectra for the RV measurements and to improve the RV precision even more. For one of these binaries, AI Phe, we were able to the obtain an orbital solution with an RV rms of 62 and 24 m s,1 for the primary and secondary, respectively. For this system, the precision in M sin3i is 0.08 per cent. For the analysis, we used the photometry available in the ASAS data base. We combined the RV and light curves using phoebe and jktebop codes to obtain the absolute physical parameters of the systems. Having precise RVs, we were able to reach ,0.2 per cent precision (or better) in masses in several cases but in radii, due to the limited precision of the ASAS photometry, we were able to reach a precision of only 1 per cent in one case and 3,5 per cent in a few more cases. For the majority of our objects, the orbital and physical analysis is presented for the first time. [source]

    Seven young star clusters in the inner region of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Andrés E. Piatti
    ABSTRACT We present CCD photometry in the Washington system C and T1 passbands down to T1, 22 in the fields of L35, L45, L49, L50, L62, L63 and L85, seven poorly studied star clusters in the inner region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We measured T1 magnitudes and C,T1 colours for a total of 114 826 stars distributed throughout cluster areas of 13.7 × 13.7 arcmin2 each. Cluster radii were estimated from star counts distributed throughout the entire observed fields. The seven clusters are generally characterized by a relatively small angular size and by a high field star contamination. We performed an in-depth analysis of the field star contamination of the colour,magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and statistically cleaned the cluster CMDs. Based on the best fits of isochrones computed by the Padova group to the (T1, C,T1) CMDs, we derive ages for the sample, assuming Z= 0.004, finding ages between 25 Myr and 1.2 Gyr. We then examined different relationships between positions in the SMC, age and metallicity of a larger sample of clusters including our previous work whose ages and metallicities are on the same scale used in this paper. We confirm previous results in the sense that the further a cluster is from the centre of the galaxy, the older and more metal poor it is, with some dispersion; although clusters associated with the Magellanic Bridge clearly do not obey the general trend. The number of clusters within , 2° of the SMC centre appears to have increased substantially after ,2.5 Gyr ago, hinting at a burst. [source]

    Global properties of the rich cluster ABCG 209 at z, 0.2. Spectroscopic and photometric catalogue

    A. Mercurio
    ABSTRACT This paper is aimed at giving an overview of the global properties of the rich cluster of galaxies ABCG 209. This is achieved by complementing the already available data with new medium-resolution spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) photometry which allow us to (i) analyse in detail the cluster dynamics, distinguishing among galaxies belonging to different substructures and deriving their individual velocity distributions, using a total sample of 148 galaxies in the cluster region, of which 134 belonging to the cluster; (ii) derive the cluster NIR luminosity function; (iii) study the Kormendy relation and the photometric plane of cluster early-type galaxies (ETGs). Finally we provide an extensive photometric (optical and NIR) and spectroscopic data set for such a complex system to be used in further analyses investigating the nature, formation and evolution of rich clusters of galaxies. The present study shows that the cluster is characterized by a very high value of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion: ,v= 1268+93,84 km s,1, that results in a virial mass of Mvir= 2.95+0.80,0.78× 1015 h,170 M, within Rvir= 3.42 h,170 Mpc. The analysis of the velocity dispersion profile shows that such high value of ,v is already reached in the central cluster region. There is evidence of three significant substructures, the primary one having a velocity dispersion of ,v= 847+52,49 km s,1, which makes it consistent with mass estimates from weak lensing analyses. This observational scenario confirms that ABCG 209 is presently undergoing strong dynamical evolution with the merging of two or more subclumps. This interpretation is also supported by the detection of a radio halo suggesting that there is a recent or ongoing merging. Cluster ETGs follow a Kormendy relation whose slope is consistent with previous studies both at optical and NIR wavelengths. We investigate the origin of the intrinsic scatter of the photometric plane due to trends of stellar populations, using line indices as indicators of age, metallicity and ,/Fe enhancement. We find that the chemical evolution of galaxies could be responsible for the intrinsic dispersion of the photometric plane. [source]

    A shallow though extensive H2 2.122-,m imaging survey of Taurus,Auriga,Perseus , I. NGC 1333, L1455, L1448 and B1

    C. J. Davis
    ABSTRACT We discuss wide-field near-infrared (near-IR) imaging of the NGC 1333, L1448, L1455 and B1 star-forming regions in Perseus. The observations have been extracted from a much larger narrow-band imaging survey of the Taurus,Auriga,Perseus complex. These H2 2.122-,m observations are complemented by broad-band K imaging, mid-IR imaging and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and published submillimetre CO J= 3,2 maps of high-velocity molecular outflows. We detect and label 85 H2 features and associate these with 26 molecular outflows. Three are parsec-scale flows, with a mean flow lobe length exceeding 11.5 arcmin. 37 (44 per cent) of the detected H2 features are associated with a known Herbig,Haro object, while 72 (46 per cent) of catalogued HH objects are detected in H2 emission. Embedded Spitzer sources are identified for all but two of the 26 molecular outflows. These candidate outflow sources all have high near-to-mid-IR spectral indices (mean value of ,, 1.4) as well as red IRAC 3.6,4.5 ,m and IRAC/MIPS 4.5,24.0 ,m colours: 80 per cent have [3.6],[4.5] > 1.0 and [4.5],[24] > 1.5. These criteria , high , and red [4.5],[24] and [3.6],[4.5] colours , are powerful discriminants when searching for molecular outflow sources. However, we find no correlation between , and flow length or opening angle, and the outflows appear randomly orientated in each region. The more massive clouds are associated with a greater number of outflows, which suggests that the star formation efficiency is roughly the same in each region. [source]

    Photometric redshifts for weak lensing tomography from space: the role of optical and near infrared photometry

    F. B. Abdalla
    ABSTRACT We study in detail the photometric redshift requirements needed for tomographic weak gravitational lensing in order to measure accurately the dark energy equation of state. In particular, we examine how ground-based photometry (u, g, r, i, z, y) can be complemented by space-based near-infrared (near-IR) photometry (J, H), e.g. onboard the planned DUNE satellite. Using realistic photometric redshift simulations and an artificial neural network photo- z method we evaluate the figure of merit for the dark energy parameters (w0, wa). We consider a DUNE -like broad optical filter supplemented with ground-based multiband optical data from surveys like the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS and LSST. We show that the dark energy figure of merit would be improved by a factor of 1.3,1.7 if IR filters are added onboard DUNE. Furthermore we show that with IR data catastrophic photo- z outliers can be removed effectively. There is an interplay between the choice of filters, the magnitude limits and the removal of outliers. We draw attention to the dependence of the results on the galaxy formation scenarios encoded into the mock galaxies, e.g. the galaxy reddening. For example, very deep u -band data could be as effective as the IR. We also find that about 105,106 spectroscopic redshifts are needed for calibration of the full survey. [source]

    Luminous red galaxy clustering at z, 0.7 , first results using AAOmega

    Nicholas P. Ross
    ABSTRACT We report on the AAT-AAOmega LRG Pilot observing run to establish the feasibility of a large spectroscopic survey using the new AAOmega instrument. We have selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs) using single epoch SDSS riz -photometry to i < 20.5 and z < 20.2. We have observed in three fields including the COSMOS field and the COMBO-17 S11 field, obtaining a sample of ,600 redshift z, 0.5 LRGs. Exposure times varied from 1,4 h to determine the minimum exposure for AAOmega to make an essentially complete LRG redshift survey in average conditions. We show that LRG redshifts to i < 20.5 can be measured in ,1.5 h exposures and present comparisons with 2SLAQ and COMBO-17 (photo)redshifts. Crucially, the riz selection coupled with the three to four times improved AAOmega throughput is shown to extend the LRG mean redshift from z= 0.55 for 2SLAQ to z= 0.681 ± 0.005 for riz -selected LRGs. This extended range is vital for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Furthermore, we show that the amplitude of LRG clustering is s0= 9.9 ± 0.7h,1 Mpc, as high as that seen in the 2SLAQ LRG Survey. Consistent results for this clustering amplitude are found from the projected and semi-projected correlation functions. This high amplitude is consistent with a long-lived population whose bias evolves as predicted by a simple ,high-peak' model. We conclude that a redshift survey of 360 000 LRGs over 3000 deg2, with an effective volume some four times bigger than previously used to detect BAO with LRGs, is possible with AAOmega in 170 nights. [source]

    Is AGN feedback necessary to form red elliptical galaxies?

    A. Khalatyan
    ABSTRACT We have used the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code gadget-2 to simulate the formation of an elliptical galaxy in a group-size cosmological dark matter halo with mass Mhalo, 3 × 1012 h,1 M, at z= 0. The use of a stellar population synthesis model has allowed us to compute magnitudes, colours and surface brightness profiles. We have included a model to follow the growth of a central black hole and we have compared the results of simulations with and without feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have studied the interplay between cold gas accretion and merging in the development of galactic morphologies, the link between colour and morphology evolution, the effect of AGN feedback on the photometry of early-type galaxies, the redshift evolution in the properties of quasar hosts, and the impact of AGN winds on the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We have found that the early phases of galaxy formation are driven by the accretion of cold filamentary flows, which form a disc galaxy at the centre of the dark matter halo. Disc star formation rates in this mode of galaxy growth are about as high as the peak star formation rates attained at a later epoch in galaxy mergers. When the dark matter halo is sufficiently massive to support the propagation of a stable shock, the gas in the filaments is heated to the virial temperature, cold accretion is shut down, and the star formation rate begins to decline. Mergers transform the spiral galaxy into an elliptical one, but they also reactivate star formation by bringing gas into the galaxy. Without a mechanism that removes gas from the merger remnants, the galaxy ends up with blue colours, which are atypical for its elliptical morphology. We have demonstrated that AGN feedback can solve this problem even with a fairly low heating efficiency. Our simulations support a picture where AGN feedback is important for quenching star formation in the remnant of wet mergers and for moving them to the red sequence. This picture is consistent with recent observational results, which suggest that AGN hosts are galaxies in migration from the blue cloud to the red sequence on the colour,magnitude diagram. However, we have also seen a transition in the properties of AGN hosts from blue and star forming at z, 2 to mainly red and dead at z, 0. Ongoing merging is the primary but not the only triggering mechanism for luminous AGN activity. Quenching by AGN is only effective after the cold filaments have dried out, since otherwise the galaxy is constantly replenished with gas. AGN feedback also contributes to raising the entropy of the hot IGM by removing low-entropy tails vulnerable to developing cooling flows. We have also demonstrated that AGN winds are potentially important for the metal enrichment of the IGM a high redshift. [source]

    Two-Micron All-Sky Survey J01542930+0053266: a new eclipsing M dwarf binary system

    A. C. Becker
    ABSTRACT We report on Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) J01542930+0053266, a faint eclipsing system composed of two M dwarfs. The variability of this system was originally discovered during a pilot study of the 2MASS Calibration Point Source Working Data base. Additional photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey yields an eight-passband light curve from which we derive an orbital period of 2.639 0157 ± 0.000 0016 d. Spectroscopic followup confirms our photometric classification of the system, which is likely composed of M0 and M1 dwarfs. Radial velocity measurements allow us to derive the masses (M1= 0.66 ± 0.03 M,; M2= 0.62 ± 0.03 M,) and radii (R1= 0.64 ± 0.08 R,; R2= 0.61 ± 0.09 R,) of the components, which are consistent with empirical mass,radius relationships for low-mass stars in binary systems. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the light curves which allow us to uncover complicated degeneracies between the system parameters. Both stars show evidence of H, emission, something not common in early-type M dwarfs. This suggests that binarity may influence the magnetic activity properties of low-mass stars; activity in the binary may persist long after the dynamos in their isolated counterparts have decayed, yielding a new potential foreground of flaring activity for next generation variability surveys. [source]

    Photometric properties and scaling relations of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    F. S. Liu
    ABSTRACT We investigate the photometric properties of the early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) using a carefully selected sample of 85 BCGs from the C4 cluster catalogue with a redshift of less than 0.1. We perform accurate background subtractions and surface photometry for these BCGs to 25 mag arcsec,2 in the Sloan r band. By quantitatively analysing the gradient of the Petrosian profiles of BCGs, we find that a large fraction of BCGs have extended stellar envelopes in their outskirts; more luminous BCGs tend to have more extended stellar haloes that are likely to be connected with mergers. A comparison sample of elliptical galaxies was chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges, for which the same photometric analysis procedure is applied. We find that BCGs have steeper size,luminosity (R,L,) and Faber,Jackson (L,,,) relations than the bulk of early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the power-law indices (, and ,) in these relations increase as the isophotal limits become deeper. For isophotal limits from 22 to 25 mag arcsec,2, BCGs are usually larger than the bulk of early-type galaxies, and a large fraction (,49 per cent) of BCGs have discy isophotal shapes. The differences in the scaling relations are consistent with a scenario where the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early-type galaxies; in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation. We highlight several possible dry merger candidates in our sample. [source]

    Optical photometry and spectroscopy of the accretion-powered millisecond pulsar HETE J1900.1 , 2455

    P. Elebert
    ABSTRACT We present phase resolved optical photometry and spectroscopy of the accreting millisecond pulsar HETE J1900.1,2455. Our R -band light curves exhibit a sinusoidal modulation, at close to the orbital period, which we initially attributed to X-ray heating of the irradiated face of the secondary star. However, further analysis reveals that the source of the modulation is more likely due to superhumps caused by a precessing accretion disc. Doppler tomography of a broad H, emission line reveals an emission ring, consistent with that expected from an accretion disc. Using the velocity of the emission ring as an estimate for the projected outer disc velocity, we constrain the maximum projected velocity of the secondary to be 200 km s,1, placing a lower limit of 0.05 M, on the secondary mass. For a 1.4 M, primary, this implies that the orbital inclination is low, ,20°. Utilizing the observed relationship between the secondary mass and the orbital period in short-period cataclysmic variables, we estimate the secondary mass to be ,0.085 M,, which implies an upper limit of ,2.4 M, for the primary mass. [source]

    The remarkable properties of the symbiotic star AE Circinus

    R. Mennickent
    ABSTRACT We present new optical spectroscopy and photometry, Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) infrared observations and 24 yr of combined American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) and Association Francaise des Observateurs d'Etoiles Variables (AFOEV) photometry of the symbiotic star candidate AE Cir. The long-term light curve is characterized by outbursts lasting several years and having a slow decline of ,2 × 10,4 mag d,1. The whole range of variability of the star in the V band is about 4 mag. The periodogram of the photometric data reveals strong signals at ,342 and 171 d. The presence of the emission feature at ,6830 Å at minimum and the detection of absorption lines of a ,K5 type star confirm the symbiotic classification and suggest that AE Cir is a new member of the small group of s-type yellow symbiotic stars. We estimate a distance of 9.4 kpc. Our spectrum taken at the high state shows a much flatter spectral energy distribution, the disappearance of the ,6830 Å emission feature and the weakness of the He ii 4686 emission relative to the Balmer emission lines. Our observations indicate the presence of emission-line flickering in time-scales of minutes in 2001. The peculiar character of AE Cir is revealed in the visibility of the secondary star at the high and low state, the light curve resembling a dwarf nova superoutburst and the relatively short low states. The data are hard to reconciliate with standard models for symbiotic star outbursts. [source]

    The poorly constrained cluster disruption time-scale in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Geneviève Parmentier
    ABSTRACT We use Monte Carlo simulations, combined with homogeneously determined age and mass distributions, based on multiwavelength photometry, to constrain the cluster formation history and the rate of bound cluster disruption in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star cluster system. We evolve synthetic star cluster systems formed with a power-law initial cluster mass function (ICMF) of spectral index ,=,2 assuming different cluster disruption time-scales. For each of these cluster disruption time-scales, we derive the corresponding cluster formation rate (CFR) required to reproduce the observed cluster age distribution. We then compare, in a ,Poissonian',2 sense, model mass distributions and model two-dimensional distributions in log(mass) versus log(age) space of the detected surviving clusters to the observations. Because of the bright detection limit (MlimV,,4.7 mag) above which the observed cluster sample is complete, one cannot constrain the characteristic cluster disruption time-scale for a 104 M, cluster, tdis4[where the disruption time-scale depends on cluster mass as tdis=tdis4(Mcl/104 M,),, with ,, 0.62], to better than a lower limit, tdis4, 1 Gyr. We conclude that the CFR has been increasing steadily from 0.3 clusters Myr,1 5 Gyr ago to a present rate of (20,30) clusters Myr,1 for clusters spanning a mass range of ,100,107 M,. For older ages, the derived CFR depends sensitively on our assumption of the underlying CMF shape. If we assume a universal Gaussian ICMF, then the CFR has increased steadily over a Hubble time from ,1 cluster Gyr,1 15 Gyr ago to its present value. On the other hand, if the ICMF has always been a power law with a slope close to ,=,2, the CFR exhibits a minimum some 5 Gyr ago, which we tentatively identify with the well-known age gap in the LMC's cluster age distribution. [source]

    Stellar contents and star formation in the young star cluster Be 59

    A. K. Pandey
    ABSTRACT We present UBV Ic CCD photometry of the young open cluster Be 59 with the aim to study the star formation scenario in the cluster. The radial extent of the cluster is found to be ,10 arcmin (2.9 pc). The interstellar extinction in the cluster region varies between E(B,V) , 1.4 to 1.8 mag. The ratio of total-to-selective extinction in the cluster region is estimated as 3.7 ± 0.3. The distance of the cluster is found to be 1.00 ± 0.05 kpc. Using near-infrared (NIR) colours and slitless spectroscopy, we have identified young stellar objects (YSOs) in the open cluster Be 59 region. The ages of these YSOs range between <1 and ,2 Myr, whereas the mean age of the massive stars in the cluster region is found to be ,2 Myr. There is evidence for second-generation star formation outside the boundary of the cluster, which may be triggered by massive stars in the cluster. The slope of the initial mass function, ,, in the mass range 2.5 < M/M,, 28 is found to be ,1.01 ± 0.11 which is shallower than the Salpeter value (,1.35), whereas in the mass range 1.5 < M/M,, 2.5 the slope is almost flat. The slope of the K -band luminosity function is estimated as 0.27 ± 0.02, which is smaller than the average value (,0.4) reported for young embedded clusters. Approximately 32 per cent of H, emission stars of Be 59 exhibit NIR excess indicating that inner discs of the T Tauri star (TTS) population have not dissipated. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and IRAS-HIRES images around the cluster region are also used to study the emission from unidentified infrared bands and to estimate the spatial distribution of optical depth of warm and cold interstellar dust. [source]

    Deep spectroscopy of the FUV,optical emission lines from a sample of radio galaxies at z, 2.5: metallicity and ionization,

    A. Humphrey
    ABSTRACT We present long-slit near-infrared (NIR) spectra, obtained using the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) instrument at the Very Large Telescope, which sample the rest-frame optical emission lines from nine radio galaxies at z, 2.5. One-dimensional spectra have been extracted and, using broad-band photometry, have been cross-calibrated with spectra from the literature to produce line spectra spanning a rest wavelength of ,1200,7000 Å. The resulting line spectra have a spectral coverage that is unprecedented for radio galaxies at any redshift. We have also produced a composite of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV),optical line fluxes of powerful, z, 2.5 radio galaxies. We have investigated the relative strengths of Ly,, H,, H,, He ii,1640 and He ii,4687, and we find that Av can vary significantly from object to object. In addition, we have identified new line ratios to calculate electron temperature: [Ne v],1575/[Ne v],3426, [Ne iv],1602/[Ne iv],2423, O iii],1663/[O iii],5008 and [O ii],2471/[O ii],3728. We calculate an average O iii temperature of 14100+1000,600 K. We have modelled the rich emission line spectra, and we conclude that they are best explained by active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization with the ionization parameter U varying between objects. For shock models (with or without the precursor) to provide a satisfactory explanation for the data, an additional source of ionizing photons is required , presumably the ionizing radiation field of the AGN. Single slab photoionization models are unable to reproduce the high- and the low-ionization lines simultaneously: the higher ionization lines imply higher U than do the lower ionization lines. This problem may be alleviated either by combining two or more single slab photoionization models with different U, or by using mixed-medium models such as those of Binette, Wilson & Storchi-Bergmann. In either case, U must vary from object to object. On the basis of N v/N iv] and N iv]/C iv we argue that, while photoionization is the dominant ionization mechanism in the extended emission line regions (EELR), shocks make a fractional contribution (,10 per cent) to its ionization. The N v/N iv] and N iv]/C iv ratios in the broad-line region (BLR) of some quasars suggest that shock ionization may be important in the BLR also. We find that in the EELR of z, 2 radio galaxies the N/H abundance ratio is close to its solar value. We conclude that N/H and metallicity do not vary by more than a factor of 2 in our sample. These results are consistent with the idea that the massive ellipticals which become the hosts to powerful AGN are assembled very early in the history of the universe, and then evolve relatively passively up to the present day. [source]

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of the very low mass companion to the hot DA white dwarf PG 1234+482

    P. R. Steele
    ABSTRACT We present a near-infrared spectrum of the hot (Teff, 55 000 K) hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf PG 1234+482. We confirm that a very low mass companion is responsible for the previously recognized infrared photometric excess. We compare spectra of M and L dwarfs, combined with an appropriate white dwarf model, to the data to constrain the spectral type of the secondary. We find that uncertainties in the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey HK photometry of the white dwarf prevent us from distinguishing whether the secondary is stellar or substellar, and assign a spectral type of L0±1 (M9,L1).Therefore, this is the hottest and youngest (,106 yr) DA white dwarf with a possible brown dwarf companion. [source]

    The UV properties of E+A galaxies: constraints on feedback-driven quenching of star formation

    S. Kaviraj
    ABSTRACT We present the first large-scale study of E+A galaxies that incorporates photometry in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. E+A galaxies are ,post-starburst' systems, with strong Balmer absorption lines indicating significant recent star formation, but without [O ii] and H, emission lines which are characteristic of ongoing star formation. The starburst that creates the E+A galaxy typically takes place within the last Gyr and creates a high fraction (20,60 per cent) of the stellar mass in the remnant over a short time-scale (<0.1 Gyr). We find a tight correlation between the luminosity of our E+A galaxies and the implied star formation rate (SFR) during the starburst. While low-luminosity E+As [M(z) > ,20] exhibit implied SFRs of less than 50 M, yr,1, their luminous counterparts [M(z) < ,22] show SFRs greater than 300 and as high as 2000 M, yr,1, suggesting that luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in the low-redshift Universe could be the progenitors of massive nearby E+A galaxies. We perform a comprehensive study of the characteristics of the quenching that truncates the starburst in E+A systems. We find that, for galaxies less massive than 1010 M,, the quenching efficiency decreases as the galaxy mass increases. However, for galaxies more massive than 1010 M,, this trend is reversed and the quenching efficiency increases with galaxy mass. Noting that the mass threshold at which this reversal occurs is in excellent agreement with the mass above which active galactic nuclei (AGN) become significantly more abundant in nearby galaxies, we use simple energetic arguments to show that the bimodal behaviour of the quenching efficiency is consistent with AGN and supernovae (SN) being the principal sources of negative feedback above and below M, 1010 M,, respectively. The arguments assume that quenching occurs through the mechanical ejection or dispersal of the gas reservoir and that, in the high-mass regime (M > 1010 M,), the Eddington ratios in this sample of galaxies scale as M,, where 1 < , < 3. Finally, we use our E+A sample to estimate the time it takes for galaxies to migrate from the blue cloud to the red sequence. We find migration times between 1 and 5 Gyr, with a median value of 1.5 Gyr. [source]