Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Phylogeny

  • comprehensive phylogeny
  • host phylogeny
  • mitochondrial phylogeny
  • molecular phylogeny
  • mtdna phylogeny
  • parasite phylogeny
  • plant phylogeny
  • primate phylogeny
  • rdna phylogeny
  • robust phylogeny
  • species phylogeny

  • Terms modified by Phylogeny

  • phylogeny reconstruction

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2007
    C. Galley
    We construct a species-level phylogeny for the Pentaschistis clade based on chloroplast DNA, from the following regions: trnL-F, trnT-L, atpB-rbcL, rpL16, and trnD-psbA. The clade comprises 82 species in three genera, Pentaschistis, Pentameris, and Prionanthium. We demonstrate that Prionanthium is nested in Pentaschistis and that this clade is sister to a clade of Pentameris plus Pentaschistis tysonii. Forty-three of the species in the Pentaschistis clade have multicellular glands and we use ancestral character state reconstruction to show that they have been gained twice or possibly once, and lost several times. We suggest that the maintenance, absence, loss, and gain of glands are correlated with leaf anatomy type, and additionally that there is a difference in the degree of diversification of lineages that have these different character combinations. We propose that both glands and sclerophyllous leaves act as defense systems against herbivory, and build a cost/benefit model in which multicellular glands or sclerophyllous leaves are lost when the alternative defense system evolves. We also investigate the association between leaf anatomy type and soil nutrient type on which species grow. There is little phylogenetic constraint in soil nutrient type on members of the Pentaschistis clade, with numerous transitions between oligotrophic and eutrophic soils. However, only orthophyllous-leaved species diversify on eutrophic soils. We suggest that the presence of these glands enables the persistence of orthophyllous lineages and therefore diversification of the Pentaschistis clade on eutrophic as well as oligotrophic soils. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Lukas Rüber
    Abstract., The American seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini) are highly diverse both in morphology and ecology with many endemics in the Caribbean region. We have reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of 54 Gobio-somatini taxa (65 individuals) based on a 1646-bp region that includes the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Val, and 16S rRNA genes. Our results support the monophyly of the seven-spined gobies and are in agreement with the existence of two major groups within the tribe, the Gobiosoma group and the Microgobius group. However, they reject the monophyly of some of the Gobiosomatini genera. We use the molecular phylogeny to study the dynamics of speciation in the Gobiosomatini by testing for departures from the constant speciation rate model. We observe a burst of speciation in the early evolutionary history of the group and a subsequent slowdown. Our results show a split among clades into coastal-estuarian, deep ocean, and tropical reef habitats. Major habitat shifts account for the early significant acceleration in lineage splitting and speciation rate and the initial divergence of the main Gobiosomatini clades. We found that subsequent diversification is triggered by behavior and niche specializations at least in the reef-associated clades. Overall, our results confirm that the diversity of Gobiosomatini has arisen during episodes of adaptive radiation, and emphasize the importance of ecology in marine speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2003
    John P. Huelsenbeck
    Abstract., The importance of accommodating the phylogenetic history of a group when performing a comparative analysis is now widely recognized. The typical approaches either assume the tree is known without error, or they base inferences on a collection of well-supported trees or on a collection of trees generated under a stochastic model of cladogenesis. However, these approaches do not adequately account for the uncertainty of phylogenetic trees in a comparative analysis, especially when data relevant to the phylogeny of a group are available. Here, we develop a method for performing comparative analyses that is based on an extension of Felsenstein's independent contrasts method. Uncertainties in the phylogeny, branch lengths, and other parameters are accommodated by averaging over all possible trees, weighting each by the probability that the tree is correct. We do this in a Bayesian framework and use Markov chain Monte Carlo to perform the high-dimensional summations and integrations required by the analysis. We illustrate the method using comparative characters sampled from Anolis lizards. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Sara M. Handy
    Dinoflagellates are a highly diverse and environmentally important group of protists with relatively poor resolution of phylogenetic relationships, particularly among heterotrophic species. We examined the phylogeny of several dinophysiacean dinoflagellates using samples collected from four Atlantic sites. As a rule, 3.5 kb of sequence including the nuclear ribosomal genes SSU, 5.8S, LSU, plus their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2 regions were determined for 26 individuals, including representatives of two genera for which molecular data were previously unavailable, Ornithocercus F. Stein and Histioneis F. Stein. In addition, a clone library targeting the dinophysiacean ITS2 and LSU sequences was constructed from bulk environmental DNA from three sites. Three phylogenetic trees were inferred from the data, one using data from this study for cells identified to genus or species (3.5 kb, 28 taxa); another containing dinoflagellate SSU submissions from GenBank and the 12 new dinophysiacean sequences (1.9 kb, 56 taxa) from this study; and the third tree combing data from identified taxa, dinophysiacean GenBank submissions, and the clone libraries from this study (2.1 kb, 136 taxa). All trees were congruent and indicated a distinct division between the genera Phalacroma F. Stein and Dinophysis Ehrenb. The cyanobionts containing genera Histioneis and Ornithocercus were also monophyletic. This was the largest molecular phylogeny of dinophysoid taxa performed to date and was consistent with the view that the genus Phalacroma may not be synonymous with Dinophysis. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Hiroshi Kawai
    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the little-studied filamentous brown alga Discosporangium mesarthrocarpum (Meneghini) Hauck using rbcL and partial 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the species forms a monophyletic clade with Choristocarpus tenellus (Kütz.) Zanardini that is sister to all other brown algae. Although D. mesarthrocarpum has unique disk-shaped plurilocular reproductive organs, D. mesarthrocarpum and C. tenellus share the following basic morphological features, which are considered to be plesiomorphic characters in the brown algae: (1) apical (and diffuse) growth; (2) uniseriate, subdichotomously branched filaments; (3) multiple chloroplasts per cell without pyrenoids; and (4) lack of heterotrichy and of phaeophycean hairs. The rbcL DNA sequence of an Australian D. mesarthrocarpum specimen showed considerable deviation from Mediterranean and Macaronesian specimens. Therefore, the presence of a second species in the genus is suggested; however, the taxonomic treatment of this putative species is not pursued in the present report. Regarding the higher-ranking systematic position of D. mesarthrocarpum, reinstatement of Discosporangiaceae and Discosporangiales is proposed, and the inclusion of Choristocarpaceae in the order is also suggested. Under short-day and long-day culture conditions at 15°C,25°C, Mediterranean D. mesarthrocarpum exhibited a direct type of life history, with a succession of uniseriate filamentous thalli bearing characteristic disk-shaped plurilocular zoidangia, but thalli did not survive at 10°C and below. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    A Bayesian analysis, utilizing a combined data set developed from the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA gene sequences, was used to resolve relationships and clarify generic boundaries among 84 strains of plastid-containing euglenophytes representing 11 genera. The analysis produced a tree with three major clades: a Phacus and Lepocinlis clade, a Discoplastis clade, and a Euglena, Colacium, Trachelomonas, Strombomonas, Monomorphina, and Cryptoglena clade. The majority of the species in the genus Euglena formed a well-supported clade, but two species formed a separate clade near the base of the tree. A new genus, Discoplastis, was erected to accommodate these taxa, thus making the genus Euglena monophyletic. The analysis also supported the monophyly of Colacium, Trachelomonas, Strombomonas, Monomorphina, and Cryptoglena, which formed two subclades sister to the Euglena clade. Colacium, Trachelomonas, and Strombomonas, all of which produce copious amounts of mucilage to form loricas or mucilaginous stalks, formed a well-supported lineage. Our analysis supported retaining Strombomonas and Trachelomonas as separate genera. Monomorphina and Cryptoglena formed two well-supported clades that were sister to the Colacium, Trachelomonas, and Strombomonas clade. Phacus and Lepocinclis, both of which have numerous small discoid chloroplasts without pyrenoids and lack peristaltic euglenoid movement (metaboly), formed a well-supported monophyletic lineage that was sister to the larger Euglena through Cryptoglena containing clade. This study demonstrated that increased taxon sampling, multiple genes, and combined data sets provided increased support for internal nodes on the euglenoid phylogenetic tree and resolved relationships among the major genera in the photosynthetic euglenoid lineage. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Tomomi Yano
    Among five species of the genus Plocamium Lamouroux distributed around Japan, P. cartilagineum (Linnaeus) Dixon, P. recurvatum Okamura and P. telfairiae (Hooker and Harvey) Harvey are often difficult to distinguish morphologically from each other. Our previous study demonstrated that P. recurvatum and P. telfairiae were divided into two groups, A and C, based on RUBISCO spacer sequence and that the specimens belonging to group C had acidic cell saps. In this study, we inferred evolutionary relationships of these Plocamium species from internal transcribed spacer sequence of the ribosomal RNA genes and obtained a similar topology to the RUBISCO spacer tree. Color of the dried specimens in the acidic group C was darker red than that in the non-acidic group A, although there was no difference in color in living thalli. The Br, concentration in the cell sap of the acidic group C was 20 times higher than that of the non-acidic group. We could not find any morphological differences to distinguish clearly between groups A and C despite exhaustive investigation of field-collected and cultured thalli in both P. recurvatum and P. telfairiae. These results suggest that the color of dried specimens and the composition of intracellular inorganic ions are significant criteria for interpreting phylogenetic relationships in Japanese Plocamium spp. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2004

    The phenology, life history, ultrastructure of reproductive structures, and molecular phylogeny using rbcL and rDNA (5.8S, internal transcribed spacer 2, and partial 26S) gene sequences of Stschapovia flagellaris, endemic to the northwestern Pacific Ocean, were studied. This species was first classified in the order Delamareales together with Delamarea, Coelocladia, and Cladothele. Those three genera, however, were later transferred to Dictyosiphonales, whereas the systematic position of Stschapovia remained unclear. At Abashiri, Hokkaido, Japan, the species regenerated by forming a new erect thallus from a perennial crustose holdfast or by presumably parthenogenetic development of eggs released from the erect thallus. There was no alternation of generations. In winter, the monoecious erect thallus formed reproductive structures (i.e. plurilocular antheridia and oogonia) in the thickened part of the thallus. Sperm had a chloroplast with an eyespot and a long anterior and short posterior flagellum. Eggs contained numerous disc-shaped chloroplasts, physodes, and vacuoles. Neither sexual attraction of the presumptive sperm by eggs nor their sexual fusion was observed. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the closest phylogenetic relationship between Stschapovia and Halosiphonaceae, and they grouped with Phyllariaceae and Tilopteridaceae (Tilopteridales s. s.). Stschapovia and Tilopteridaceae have several important morphological similarities: chloroplasts lacking pyrenoids, lack of sexual reproduction despite the release of obvious sperm, occurrence of monoecious gametophytes, and similarity in the early developmental pattern of the erect thallus. In conclusion, we propose the establishment of the new family Stschapoviaceae to accommodate Stschapovia and the placement of the family in the order Tilopteridales together with Tilopteridaceae, Halosiphonaceae, and Phyllariaceae. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Stacy M. Edgar
    The phylogeny of 67 populations representing 45 species of Aulacoseira Thwaites was estimated by maximum parsimony methods using a combination of nucleotide sequence data and qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics of the silica cell wall gathered primarily from original observation by LM and SEM. A new type of character using continuous quantitative variables that describe the ontogenetic-allometric trajectories of cell wall characteristics over the life cycle (size range) of diatoms is introduced. In addition to the 45 Aulacoseira species, the phylogeny also incorporated one Miosira Krammer, Lange-Bertalot, and Schiller species and two outgroup species (Melosira varians Agardh and Stephanopyxis nipponica Gran & Yendo). Fifteen species, represented by 24 populations, also contained molecular data from the nuclear genome (18S rDNA), and 11 of these species (18 populations) contained data from the chloroplast genome (rbcL) as well, which were sequenced or downloaded from GenBank. The phylogeny of Aulacoseira is composed of five major clades: 1) an A. crenulata (Ehrenburg) Thwaites and A. italica (Ehrenburg) Simonsen clade, which is the most basal; 2) an A. granulata (Ehrenburg) Simonsen complex clade; 3) an A. ambigua (Grunow) Simonsen clade; 4) an A. subarctica (O. Müller) Haworth and A. distans (Ehrenburg) Simonsen clade; and 5) an A. islandica (O. Müller) Simonsen clade that also contained endemic species from Lake Baikal, Siberia and many extinct Aulacoseira taxa. Monophyly of Aulacoseira can only be achieved if Miosira is no longer given separate generic status. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Ingo Busse
    Molecular studies based on small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences addressing euglenid phylogeny hitherto suffered from the lack of available data about phagotrophic species. To extend the taxon sampling, SSU rRNA genes from species of seven genera of phagotrophic euglenids were investigated. Sequence analyses revealed an increasing genetic diversity among euglenid SSU rDNA sequences compared with other well-known eukaryotic groups, reflecting an equally broad diversity of morphological characters among euglenid phagotrophs. Phylogenetic inference using standard parsimony and likelihood approaches as well as Bayesian inference and spectral analyses revealed no clear support for euglenid monophyly. Among phagotrophs, monophyly of Petalomonas cantuscygni and Notosolenus ostium, both comprising simple ingestion apparatuses, is strongly supported. A moderately supported clade comprises phototrophic euglenids and primary osmotrophic euglenids together with phagotrophs, exhibiting a primarily flexible pellicle composed of numerous helically arranged strips and a complex ingestion apparatus with two supporting rods and four curved vanes. Comparison of molecular and morphological data is used to demonstrate the difficulties to formulate a hypothesis about how the ingestion apparatus evolved in this group. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Louise E. Phillips
    The genus Lenormandia Sonder is currently composed of nine species from Australia and New Zealand. Some of these are well known, but others are rare and ill defined. Material of all nine species has been examined and found to fall into three discrete morphological groups forming highly supported clades on analysis of 18S rDNA sequences. The first group contains four Australian-endemic species and includes the type species L. spectabilis Sonder. Plants have a cleft apex that is not inrolled, a distinctive rhombic surface areolation pattern caused by a one- to two-layered medulla of interlocking cells, lack pseudopericentral cells, and produce their reproductive structures on the blade surfaces. The type species of the genus Lenormandiopsis, L. latifolia (Harvey et Greville) Papenfuss, was found to belong to this group and is thus returned to Lenormandia where it was originally placed. Species falling into the other two groups are removed to new genera that are being described separately. One extremely rare species of Lenormandia from southwestern Australia is transferred to the delesseriacean genus Phitymophora. [source]


    O.-M. Lee
    Cosmarium and Staurastrum are the two most diverse genera of placoderm desmids (Family Desmidiaceae), with approximately 1100 and 800 species, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of relationships of species has been extremely difficult. In a monograph of North American placoderm desmids, Prescott et al. described early phylogenetic work that concluded Staurastrum to be polyphyletic and certainly polymorphic. Likewise, Cosmarium has also been viewed as polyphyletic, and a number of workers have proposed splitting these genera. The classical view of West and West grouped species within each genus into two divisions and 6,8 sections based on wall features and semicell shape. We sequenced rbcL from 18 species of Cosmarium (2 divisions, 7 sections) and 12 species of Staurastrum (2 divisions and 7 sections) and performed a phylogenetic analysis (parsimony, maximum likelihood, bootstrap) using other placoderm desmids and Zygnematales as outgroups. The results exhibit little support for the monophyly of sections or divisions of the two genera. Furthermore, although there is support for the monophyly of clades within each genus, there is also support for a separate clade containing species from both genera. [source]


    S. Nemeth
    Phylogenetic hypotheses for the pantropical marine green algal genus, Caulerpa, were inferred based on analyses of nuclear-encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Results of these analyses were used to assess the correspondence between rDNA phylogeny and traditional sectional taxonomy, to identify synapomorphic morphological characters (including assimilator morphology and chloroplast ultrastructure), and to examine marine biogeographic hypotheses for the genus. Ribosomal DNA ITS sequences were aligned for thirty-three species and intraspecific taxa of Caulerpa. Results indicate limited correspondence between phylogeny and sectional taxonomy for the genus, (e.g., the sections Filicoideae and Sedoideae were not monophyletic). In contrast, chloroplast morphology could be mapped to the tree topology with limited homoplasy. Pantropical isolates of the filicoidean species, Caulerpa sertularioides and Caulerpa mexicana each formed monophyletic groups. Caulerpa reyesii was included as a derived taxon within the Caulerpa taxifolia clade, suggesting that these species were conspecific and affirmed the lack of correspondence between phylogeny and assimilator morphology. Isolates and various intraspecific taxa of Caulerpa racemosa did not form a monophyletic group. Instead, these taxa formed a heterogeneous assemblage with other sedoidean and filicoidean taxa. Within the C. sertularioides clade, Caribbean and Atlantic isolates formed a basal paraphyletic group, whereas eastern and western Pacific isolates formed a more derived monophyletic group. Therefore, these results are not consistent with an Indo-West Pacific origin of this species. [source]

    Phylogeny of the teashirt-related zinc finger (tshz) gene family and analysis of the developmental expression of tshz2 and tshz3b in the zebrafish

    Joana S. Santos
    Abstract The tshz genes comprise a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors. However, despite the major role played by Drosophila tsh during the development of the fruit fly, the expression and function of other tshz genes have been analyzed in a very limited set of organisms and, therefore, our current knowledge of these genes is still fragmentary. In this study, we perform detailed phylogenetic analyses of the tshz genes, identify the members of this gene family in zebrafish and describe the developmental expressions of two of them, tshz2 and tshz3b, and compare them with meis1, meis2.1, meis2.2, pax6a, and pax6b expression patterns. The expression patterns of these genes define a complex set of coexpression domains in the developing zebrafish brain where their gene products have the potential to interact. Developmental Dynamics 239:1010,1018, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Phylogeny of Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera : Pemphigidae) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear EF1, and mitochondrial COII genes

    Zi-xiang YANG
    Abstract Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four subspecies of Rhus gall aphids based on 1694 base pairs of nuclear elongation factor-1, (EF1,) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) DNA sequence data. The results suggest that Melaphidini is monophyletic and at the genus level, Schlechtendalia, Nurudea, and Floraphis were each monophyletic. Kaburagia and Meitanaphis were not monophyletic and therefore inconsistent with the current classification. The North American sumac gall aphid, Melaphis rhois, was most closely related to the East Asian Floraphis species, although this was poorly supported. The conservation of gall morphology with respect to aphid phylogeny rather than their host plants suggests that gall morphology is largely determined by the aphids. While there is no evidence of strict co-speciation between the aphids and their primary host plants, switching between recently diverged host plants may be involved in the speciation process in Melaphidini. [source]

    Phylogeny of cyclic nitramine-degrading psychrophilic bacteria in marine sediment and their potential role in the natural attenuation of explosives

    Jian-Shen Zhao
    Abstract Previously we reported on in situ mineralization of cyclic nitramine explosives including hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in marine sediment from Halifax Harbour. In the present study, we isolated several novel psychrophilic bacteria from the sediment with optimal growth temperature at 10 or 15 °C. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA genes identified the isolates as members of the gamma and delta subdivisions of Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Clostridiales. The isolates mineralized 3.7,45.2% of RDX (92 ,M) in 82 days of incubation at 10 °C under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions with the gamma subdivision isolates demonstrating the highest mineralization (45.2% of total C). Removal of RDX by all isolates was accompanied by the formation of all three nitroso derivatives, with the mono nitroso derivative (MNX) being the major one. Isolates of the delta proteobacteria and Fusobacteria removed HMX with concurrent formation of the mononitroso derivative (NO-HMX). Using resting cells of isolates of the gamma subdivision, methylenedinitramine (MEDINA) and 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) were detected, suggesting ring-cleavage following denitration of either RDX and/or its initially reduced product, MNX. These results clearly demonstrate that psychrophilic bacteria capable of degrading cyclic nitramines are present in the marine sediment, and might contribute to the in situ biodegradation and natural attenuation of the chemicals. [source]

    Phylogeny and biogeography of Yellow-headed and Blue-fronted Parrots (Amazona ochrocephala and Amazona aestiva) with special reference to the South American taxa

    IBIS, Issue 3 2007
    The Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) has a broad Neotropical distribution, ranging from Mexico to the Amazon Basin, and a history of complex taxonomy and controversial species limits. Recent molecular analyses have started to clarify the taxonomic arrangement of the complex, but have not included a representative geographical sampling from South America. These studies have shown that the Yellow-headed complex can be divided into three main lineages, and seems to be paraphyletic, due to the inclusion of the Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva) that occurs in central South America. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of 45 representatives of the Yellow-headed complex from South and Central America, plus 13 Blue-fronted individuals from different localities in South America. Our analyses recover the three primary lineages found previously in the Yellow-headed complex, show that there is genetic structure in the South American lineage, which can be divided into two well-supported, closely related clades, and demonstrate that Blue-fronted samples are distributed in both clades. Differentiation of South American Blue-fronted and Yellow-headed Parrot populations does not correspond to the plumage differences used to distinguish the Blue-fronted Parrot from the Yellow-headed Parrot, nor to plumage differences used to distinguish among South American Yellow-headed subspecies. This suggests that traditional taxonomy based on plumage characters needs revision, and that this may be an interesting example of ongoing divergence-with-gene-flow related to the forest/open area ecotone in southern Amazonia. [source]

    Phylogeny of nucleus medianus of the posterior tubercle in rayfinned fishes

    R. Glenn NORTHCUTT
    Abstract The brains of ray-finned fishes form a morphocline of increasing complexity, from cladistians through teleosts. This is particularly apparent in the posterior tubercle of the diencephalon. In cladistians, the posterior tubercle consists of a periventricular nucleus and a migrated nucleus medianus that is fused across the midline. In more advanced ray-finned fishes, such as gars and bowfins, the posterior tubercle comprises numerous additional migrated nuclei, termed the preglomerular complex, in addition to a more well developed nucleus medianus. In teleosts, the most derived ray-finned fishes, there is an even more elaborate preglomerular complex, but there is no recognizable nucleus medianus. In an attempt to explain the variation in the posterior tubercle of the diencephalon in ray-finned fishes, the immunohistochemistry and connections of nucleus medianus were examined in cladistians, gars and bowfins. In each of these taxa, nucleus medianus exhibits large numbers of calretinin-positive neurons and has ascending projections that terminate in several divisions of the pallium. Although teleosts, such as goldfish, also exhibit numerous cell groups in the posterior tubercle that are rich in calretinin, none of these cell groups has connections that are comparable to those of nucleus medianus in non-teleost ray-finned fishes. It is possible, therefore, that nucleus medianus was lost with the origin of teleosts. [source]

    Phylogeny of the Cocculinoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Ellen E. Strong
    Abstract. The superfamily Cocculinoidea is a group of marine, deep-water, limpet-like gastropods. Recent speculation surrounding their affinities has concentrated on their placement within the Gastropoda. However, phylogenetic relationships within the Cocculinoidea, especially the monophyly of families and genera within the group, remain poorly understood. Phylogenetic analysis of 31 morphological characters for 15 cocculinoidean taxa and 2 outgroups resulted in a single most parsimonious tree, length=70, CI=0.62, and RI=0.71. Monophyly of the Cocculinoidea, Cocculinidae, and the genera Cocculina and Coccopigya was supported; Paracocculina and Coccocrater were found to be paraphyletic. Character optimization demonstrates that many characters often cited as diagnostic of various taxa, are often homoplastic and/or synapomorphies at different hierarchical levels. [source]

    Phylogeny of major lineages of suboscines (Passeriformes) analysed by nuclear DNA sequence data

    Martin Irestedt
    Phylogenetic relationships among major groups of passeriform birds were studied by analyses of nucleotide sequence data from two nuclear genes, c- myc and RAG-1. The results corroborated both the monophyly of the order Passeriformes, and the major dichotomy into oscine and suboscine passerines previously suggested based on syringeal morphology and DNA-DNA hybridizations. The representatives of the Old World suboscines (families Eurylaimidae, Philepittidae and Pittidae) formed a monophyletic clade. The New World suboscines clustered into two clades. The first contained Conopophaga (Conopophagidae), Furnarius (Furnariidae), Lepidocolaptes (Dendrocolaptidae), Thamnophilus (Formicariidae), and Rhinocrypta (Rhinocryptidae). Previously, the monophyly of this group has been inferred from their possession of a unique, "tracheophone" syrinx, and from DNA-DNA hybridisation data. The second clade of New World suboscines includes Gubernetes and Muscivora (Tyrannidae), Phytotoma (Phytotomidae), Tityra (Cotingidae) and Pipra (Pipridae). This group of families have been considered monophyletic based on morphology (although ambiguously) and DNA-DNA hybridisation. The sister group relationship of Tityra and Phytotoma supports the previously supposed cotingid affinity of Phytotoma. Nuclear DNA data also unambiguously group the lyrebirds Menura with the oscines. The presented results from the analysis of nuclear DNA agree well with morphology and DNA-DNA hybridisation data. The precise age of the divergences studied herein are unknown but based on interpretations of the fossil record of passerine birds many of them might date back to the early Tertiary. The agreement between data from the nuclear DNA and other sources, along with the fact that neither of the studied genes showed sign of saturation, indicate the great potential of these two nuclear genes to resolve very old divergences in birds. [source]

    Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of cnidarian life cycles

    A. G. Collins
    To investigate the evolution of cnidarian life cycles, data from the small subunit of the ribosome are used to derive a phylogenetic hypothesis for Medusozoa. These data indicate that Cnidaria is monophyletic and composed of Anthozoa and Medusozoa. While Cubozoa and Hydrozoa are well supported clades, Scyphozoa appears to be paraphyletic. Stauromedusae is possibly the sister group of either Cubozoa or all other medusozoans. The phylogenetic results suggest that: the polyp probably preceded the medusa in the evolution of Cnidaria; within Hydrozoa, medusa development involving the entocodon is ancestral; within Trachylina, the polyp was lost and subsequently regained in the parasitic narcomedusans; within Siphonophorae, the float originated prior to swimming bells; stauromedusans are not likely to be descended from ancestors that produced medusae by strobilation; and cubozoan polyps are simplified from those of their ancestors, which possessed polyps with gastric septa and four mesogleal muscle bands and peristomial pits. [source]

    Phylogeny and speciation of the eastern Asian cyprinid genus Sarcocheilichthys

    L. Zhang
    The genus Sarcocheilichthys is a group of small cyprinid fishes comprising 10 species/sub-species widely distributed in East Asia, which represents a valuable model for understanding the speciation of freshwater fishes in East Asia. In the present study, the molecular phylogenetic relationship of the genus Sarcocheilichthys was investigated using a 1140 bp section of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Two different tree-building methods, maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian methods, yielded trees with almost the same topology, yielding high bootstrap values or posterior probabilities. The results showed that the genus Sarcocheilichthys consists of two large clades, clades I and II. Clade I contains Sarcocheilichthys lacustris, Sarcocheilichthys sinensis and Sarcocheilichthys parvus, with S. parvus at a basal position. In clade II, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus microoculus is at a basal position; samples of the widespread species, Sarcocheilichthys nigripinnis, form a large subclade containing another valid species Sarcocheilichthys czerskii. Sarcocheilichthys kiangsiensis is retained at an intermediate position. Since S. czerskii is a valid species in the S. nigripinnis clade, remaining samples of S. nigripinnis form a paraphyly. This speciation process is attributed to geographical isolation and special environmental conditions experienced by S. czerskii and stable environments experienced by the other S. nigripinnis populations. This type of speciation process was suggested to be very common. Samples of Sarcocheilichthys sinensis sinensis and Sarcocheilichthys sinensis fukiensis that did not form their own monophyletic groups suggest an early stage of speciation and support their sub-species status. Molecular clock analysis indicates that the two major lineages of the genus Sarcocheilichthys, clades I and II diverged c. 8·89 million years ago (mya). Sarcocheilichthys v. microoculus from Japan probably diverged 4·78 mya from the Chinese group. The northern,southern clades of S. nigripinnis began to diverge c. 2·12 mya, while one lineage of S. nigripinnis evolved into a new species, S. czerski, c. 0·34 mya. [source]

    Morphological evolution of the lizard skull: A geometric morphometrics survey

    C. Tristan Stayton
    Abstract Patterns of diversity among lizard skulls were studied from a morphological, phylogenetic, and functional perspective. A sample of 1,030 lizard skulls from 441 species in 17 families was used to create a lizard skull morphospace. This morphospace was combined with a phylogeny of lizard families to summarize general trends in the evolution of the lizard skull. A basal morphological split between the Iguania and Scleroglossa was observed. Iguanians are characterized by a short, high skull, with large areas of attachment for the external adductor musculature, relative to their sister group. The families of the Iguania appear to possess more intrafamilial morphological diversity than families of the Scleroglossa, but rarefaction of the data reveals this to be an artifact caused by the greater number of species represented in Iguanian families. Iguanian families also appear more dissimilar to one another than families of the Scleroglossa. Permutation tests indicate that this pattern is real and not due to the smaller number of families in the Iguanidae. Parallel and convergent evolution is observed among lizards with similar diets: ant and termite specialists, carnivores, and herbivores. However, these patterns are superimposed over the more general phylogenetic pattern of lizard skull diversity. This study has three central conclusions. Different clades of lizards show different patterns of disparity and divergence in patterns of morphospace occupation. Phylogeny imposes a primary signal upon which a secondary ecological signal is imprinted. Evolutionary patterns in skull metrics, taken with functional landmarks, allow testing of trends and the development of new hypotheses concerning both shape and biomechanics. J. Morphol. 263:47,59, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    15 Phylogeny of the chlorophyta: inferences from 18S and 26S rDNA

    M. A. Buchheim
    Recent studies of the Chlorophyceae using 18S and 26S rDNA data in meta-analysis have demonstrated the power of combining these two sets of rDNA data. Furthermore, the 26S rDNA data complement the more conserved 18S gene for many chlorophycean lineages. Consequently, this data approach was pursued in an expanded taxon-sampling scheme for the Chlorophyta, with special reference to the classes Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. Results of these new phylogenetic analyses identify Microspora sp. (UTEX LB 472) and Radiofilum transversale (UTEX LB 1252) as sister taxa which, in turn, form a basal clade in the Cylindrocapsa alliance (Treubaria, Trochiscia, Elakatothrix). The relative position of the "Cylindrocapsa" clade within the Chlorophyceae remains uncertain. The enhanced taxon-sampling has not resolved the relative positions of the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales or Chaetopeltidales. Furthermore, the Sphaeropleaceae are supported as members of the Sphaeropleales in only some analyses, raising concerns about the status of the order. Although based on a limited set of taxa (currently <10), a combined data approach reveals support for a monophyletic Trebouxiophyceae that includes the distinctive organisms, Geminella and Eremosphaera. The goal of a well-resolved phylogeny for the Chlorophyta remains just that, a goal. Achieving that goal obviously will require additional taxon sampling in the Prasinophyceae and Ulvophyceae, as well as, the Trebouxiophyceae. Moreover, it is clear that other genes (e.g., cp-atpB, cp-rbcL, cp-16S, mt-nad5) will be needed to help address problems of resolution based on the rDNA data alone. Supported by NSF DEB 9726588 and DEB 0129030. [source]

    Phylogeny and phylogeography of the Lozekia,Kovacsia species group (Gastropoda: Hygromiidae)

    Zoltán Fehér
    Abstract The Lozekia,Kovacsia species group comprises three species of high conservation concern, Lozekia transsilvanica (Westerlund, 1876), Lozekia deubeli (M. Kimakowicz, 1890) and Kovacsia kovacsi (Varga and L. Pintér, 1972), which occupy relatively small ranges in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. Despite their conservation concern, the phylogeny and biogeographical history of these species have not been studied by molecular methods up to now. This study, based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences, has two main objectives: (i) to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the group in order to test the latest morphology-based system, proposed by Nordsieck [1993, Das System der paläarktischen Hygromiidae (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Helicoidea). Arch Molluskenkunde 122:1] and (ii) to reconstruct the distribution history of the three species. The monophyly and thus the systematic distinctness of the three species was confirmed, but our findings do not support the monophyly of the Lozekia genus and therefore contradict the current system of the species group. Genetic diversity was found to be much higher within L. deubeli than within the other two species, a possible explanation of this phenomenon is that L. transsilvanica and K. kovacsi are more recently evolved, younger species. Nested clade phylogeographycal analysis showed that the three species evolved by fragmentation events; probably L. deubeli and the ancestor of the other two species split first. At the intraspecific level, fragmentation events, as well as range expansion, played a significant role in the biogeographical history of this species group. As our findings are based on a single mitochondrial gene, we feel premature to propose changes in the generally accepted system and nomenclature. Further molecular phylogenetic analyses, also involving nuclear DNA sequences, should clarify if the evolutionary scenario suggested by our data is valid, and the three species can indeed be placed within the same genus, Lozekia. Zusammenfassung Die Lozekia,Kovacsia Artengruppe umfasst drei endemische Arten, Lozekia transsilvanica (Westerlund, 1876), Lozekia deubeli (M. Kimakowicz, 1890) und Kovacsia kovacsi (Varga and L. Pintér, 1972), die relativ kleine Verbreitungsgebiete in der karpatisch-pannonischen Region besitzen. Trotz ihrer naturschutzfachlichen Bedeutung wurde die Phylogenie ind biogeographische Historie dieser Arten bisher nicht mit molekularen Methoden untersucht. In dieser Studie werden, basierend auf mitochondrialen COI-Sequenzen, zwei Hauptziele verfolgt: (i) Ermittlung der phylogenetischen Beziehungen in der Gruppe um das aktuelle morphologie.basierte System von Nordsieck (1993) zu testen, und (ii) Rekonstruktion der Verbreitungsgeschichte der drei Arten. In Übereinstimmung mit morphologischen Merkmalsausprägungen wurde die Monophylie und somit die systematische Eigenständigkeit der drei Arten bestätigt, im Gegensatz zur Monophylie der Gattung Lozekia. Die genetische Diversität in L. deubeli war viel höher als in den anderen beiden Arten. Eine mögliche Erklärung dieses Befundes ist, dass L. transsilvanica und K. kovacsi rezenter evolvierte, junge Arten sind. Eine Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) zeigte, dass die drei Arten durch Fragmentierungsereignisse entstanden, wahrscheinlich teilten sich L. deubeli und der Vorläufer der anderen beiden Arten zuerst. Auf dem intraspezifischen Niveau spielten Fragmentierungsereignisse und ebenso Arealausdehnungen eine signifikante Rolle in der biogeographischen Geschichte der Artengruppe. Da unsere Ergebnisse auf einem einzigen mitochondrialen Gen basieren, ist es zu früh für Veränderungen am generell akzeptierten System und der Nomenklatur. Weitere molekular-phylogenetische Analysen, die auch nukleäre DNA sequenzen involvieren, müssen das auf unseren Daten basierende evolutionäre Szenario bestätigen und die Fragen klären, ob die drei Arten tatsächlich zur gleichen Gattung, Lozekia, gehören. [source]

    Phylogeny of Dicranophoridae (Rotifera: Monogononta) , a maximum parsimony analysis based on morphological characters

    O. Riemann
    Abstract This study presents the first phylogenetic analysis of Dicranophoridae (Rotifera: Monogononta), a species rich rotifer family of about 230 species currently recognized. It is based on a maximum parsimony analysis including 77 selected ingroup and three outgroup taxa and a total of 59 phylogenetically informative morphological characters. Character coding is based on personal investigation of material collected by the authors and an extensive survey of the literature. Apart from covering general body organization, character coding primarily relies on scanning electron microscopic preparations of the mastax jaw elements. Our study suggests monophyly of Dicranophoridae with a clade of Dicranophorus and Dorria as the sister taxon of all other dicranophorid species. Monophyly of Encentrum, the most species rich genus within Dicranophoridae, cannot be demonstrated. Within Dicranophoridae our study identifies the monophyletic taxa Caudosubbasifenestrata, Intramalleata, Praeuncinata and Proventriculata, each based on unambiguous character transformations evolved in their stem lineages. However, resolution within Praeuncinata and Proventriculata is very limited. Although some terminal clades within Praeuncinata and Proventriculata are recognized, basal splits remain obscure. Probably, other characters such as DNA sequence data are needed to further our understanding of phylogenetic relationships within these poorly resolved taxa. Zusammenfassung Die hier vorgelegte Studie stellt die erste phylogenetische Analyse des Taxons Dicranophoridae (Rotifera: Monogononta) dar, einer artenreichen Familie der Rotiferen mit zurzeit etwa 230 validen Arten. Die resultierenden phylogenetischen Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen fußen auf einer Maximum Parsimonie Analyse mit 77 ausgewählten Vertretern der Innen, und 3 Vertretern der Außengruppe bei insgesamt 59 Parsimonie,informativen Merkmalen. Die Kodierung der Merkmale basiert einerseits auf Material, das von den Autoren selbst gesammelt und bestimmt wurde und andererseits auf einem ausgedehnten Studium der relevanten Literatur. Neben der Erfassung von Merkmalen zur allgemeinen Körperorganisation stützt sich die Merkmalskodierung vor allem auf rasterelektronenmikroskopische Präparationen der Hartelemente des Mastax. Das Ergebnis der Analyse stützt die Monophylie der Dicranophoridae. Innerhalb der Dicranophoridae stellt ein monophyletisches Taxon, das die Gattungen Dicranophorus und Dorria umfasst, die Schwestergruppe aller übrigen Dicranophoridae dar. Die bei weitem artenreichste Gattung Encentrum lässt sich nicht als Monophylum begründen. Als monophyletische Teilgruppen innerhalb der Dicranophoridae identifiziert unsere Analyse die Taxa Caudosubbasifenestrata, Intramalleata, Praeuncinata und Proventriculata, die jeweils durch mindestens eine unzweideutige Merkmalstransformation in ihren Stammlinien begründet werden. Innerhalb der Taxa Praeuncinata und Proventriculata bietet unsere Analyse nur sehr begrenzte Auflösung. Obgleich sich einzelne Teilgruppen über unzweideutige Merkmalstransformationen als Monophyla begründen lassen, fehlen Merkmale für die Auflösung der basalen Verzweigungen innerhalb der Praeuncinata und Proventriculata. Es ist zu erwarten, dass andere Merkmalssysteme, wie zum Beispiel DNA Sequenzdaten, bei der Aufklärung der Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen innerhalb dieser Teilgruppen Klärung erbringen. [source]

    Phylogeny of Thalassinidea (Crustacea, Decapoda) inferred from three rDNA sequences: implications for morphological evolution and superfamily classification

    L. M. Tsang
    Abstract The infraorder Thalassinidea is a group of cryptic marine burrowing decapods of which the higher taxonomy is often contentious. The present analysis attempts to reconstruct phylogenetic relationship among 12 of the 13 currently recognized families using partial nuclear 18S, 28S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. The infraorder is divided into two distinct clades, with the first clade consisting of Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Axianassidae and Upogebiidae, and the second clade including Axiidae, Calocarididae, Eiconaxiidae, Callianassidae, Ctenochelidae, Micheleidae, Strahlaxiidae and Callianideidae. Within the first clade, the Upogebiidae is the basal family. The Axianassidae shows low affinity to other laomediid genera indicating that it is a valid family. The interfamilial relationships are less well resolved in the second clade. The Axiidae is paraphyletic with respect to Calocarididae and Eiconaxiidae. Thus, the status of these two latter families is not supported if the currently defined Axiidae is maintained. All three families appear to be basal in the thalassinidean clade. The Micheleidae is closely related to the Callianideidae and they form a sister group to the Strahlaxiidae. The monophyletic Callianassidae aligns with the Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae clade. The relationship among the Axiidae + Calocarididae + Eiconaxiidae clade, Callianassidae + Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae clade and the Ctenochelidae cannot be resolved which might be due to a rapid radiation of the three lineages. Our results do not support the generally used classification scheme of Thalassinidea and suggest that the infraorder might be divided into two superfamilies instead of three as suggested based on larval morphology, second pereiopod morphology in adults and gastric mill structure. The two superfamilies are Thalassinoidea (i.e. Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Upogebiidae and Axianassidae) and Callianassoidea (i.e. Axioidea + Callianassoidea, as defined in Martin and Davis (2001) but excluding Laomediidae and Upogebiidae). It also appears that gill-cleaning adaptations are important in thalassinidean evolution while the presence of linea thalassinica is a result of parallel evolution. Résumé L'infraordre des Thalassinidea est un groupe de décapodes marins fouisseurs cryptiques dont la taxonomie au niveau supérieur est souvent controversée. Cette analyse tente de reconstruire les relations phylogénétiques entre 12 familles sur les 13 actuellement reconnues en utilisant les séquences partielles de rDNA nucléaire 18S, 28S et de rDNA mitochondrial 16S. L'infraordre est divisé en deux clades distincts, le premier comprenant les Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Axianassidae et Upogebiidae, et le deuxième comprenant les Axiidae, Calocarididae, Eiconaxiidae, Callianassidae, Ctenochelidae, Micheleidae, Strahlaxiidae et Callianideidae. Dans le premier clade, les Upogebiidae est la famille basale. Les Axianassidae montre peu d'affinité avec les autres genres de laomedidés, ce qui indique que la famille est valide. Les relations interfamiliales sont moins bien résolues dans le second clade. La famille des Axiidae est paraphylétique par rapport aux Calocarididae et Eiconaxiidae. Ainsi le statut de ces deux dernières familles n'est pas supporté si la famille des Axiidae est maintenue dans sa définition actuelle. Toutes les trois familles apparaissent basales dans le clade thalassinidéen. La famille des Micheleidae est très proche des Callianideidae et elles forment un groupe frère des Strahlaxiidae. La famille monophylétique des Callianassidae s'aligne avec le clade Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae. La relation entre le clade Axiidae + Calocarididae + Eiconaxiidae, le clade des Callianassidae + Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae et la famille des Ctenochelidae ne peut être résolue, ce qui pourrait être dûà une radiation rapide des trois lignées Nos résultats ne supportent pas le schéma de classification généralement utilisé pour les Thalassinidea et suggèrent que l'infraordre pourrait être divisé en deux superfamilles au lieu de trois comme suggéré sur la base de la morphologie larvaire, de la morphologie du deuxième péréiopode de l'adulte et de la structure du moulin gastrique. Les deux superfamilles sont: les Thalassinoidea (c'est-à-dire Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Upogebiidae et Axianassidae) et Callianassoidea (c'est-à-dire Axioidea + Callianassoidea, comme définis dans Martin et Davis 2001 mais excluant les Laomediidae et les Upogebiidae). Il apparaît aussi que les adaptations pour le nettoyage des branchies sont importantes dans l'évolution thalassinidéenne alors que la présence de la linea thalassinica est le résultat d'une évolution parallèle. [source]

    Phylogeny of the Eurasian freshwater turtles of the genus Mauremys Gray 1869 (Testudines), with special reference to a close affinity of Mauremys japonica with Chinemys reevesii

    M. Honda
    Phylogenetic relationships of the freshwater turtles of the genus Mauremys and representatives of several other batagurid genera were inferred from variations in 863 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Results strongly suggested the non-monophyly of Mauremys by indicating the closest affinity of Mauremys japonica with Chinemys reevesii, the type species of the genus Chinemys. Recent morphological analyses of the batagurid genera suggested that Mauremys is a basal stock of the subfamily Geoemydinae, whereas Chinemys is a member of the subfamily Batagurinae as supported by several putative synapomorphs with other batagurine genera. It is thus probable that the morphological character states used to define Mauremys actually represent symplesiomorphy, and that morphological character states shared between Chinemys and other batagurine genera have resulted from convergence. Also, our results did not support a sister-group relationship between Mauremys annamensis and Mauremys mutica, which has been implicitly or explicitly assumed by a number of previous authors on the basis of morphological data. Instead, M. annamensis was indicated to be closest to Mauremys iversoni, a species assumed to be most divergent among the East Asian Mauremys by previous authors. Phylogenie der eurasischen Su¨ßwasserschildkro¨ten der Gattung Mauremys Gray 1869 (Testudines), mit besonderem Hinweis auf eine enge A¨hnlichkeit von Mauremys japonica mit Chinemys reevesii. Die phylogenetischen Beziehungen zwischen den Süßwasserschildkröten der Gattung Mauremys und Vertretern einiger anderer bataguriner Gattungen wurde aus den Unterschieden an 863 Positionen der 12S-und der 16S-rRNA-Gene des Mitochondriengenoms ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse weisen sehr stark darauf hin, daß die Gattung Mauremys wegen der starken Ähnlichkeit zwischen M. japonica und Chinemys reevesii nicht monophyletisch sein kann. Neue morphologische Analysen der batagiurinen Gattungen ließen vermuten, daß Mauremys einen basalen Ast der Unterfamilie Geomydinae darstellt, während Chinemys zur Unterfamile Batagurinae gehört, was aus den anzunehmenden Synapomorphien mit anderen batagurinen Gattungen gestützt wird. Es ist daher auch wahrscheinlich, daß die zur Beschreibung von Mauremys verwendeten morphologischen Merkmalszustände eher Plesiomorphien darstellen und daß die morphologischen Merkmalsausprägungen, die Chinemys und anderen batagurinen Gattungen gemeinsam sind, auf Konvergenz beruhen. Unsere Ergebnisse unterstützen auch nicht eine Schwestergruppen-Beziehung zwischen M. anamensis und M. mutica, was direkt oder indirekt von einer Zahl von früheren Untersuchern auf Grund morphologischer Daten angenommen wurde. Statt dessen erwies sich M. anamensis am engsten verwandt mit M. iversoni, einer Art, die von früheren Autoren als am stärksten divergent zu den ostasiatischen Mauremys-Arten angesehen wurde. [source]

    Phylogeny, phylogeography, and geographic variation of Sylvisorex howelli (Soricidae), an endemic shrew of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    William T. Stanley
    Abstract The Eastern Arc Mountains of eastern Africa are notable for the high levels of endemism exhibited by various forest-dwelling organisms of this ancient montane archipelago. There has been virtually no assessment of the variation among populations of small mammal species living on these unique mountains, but recent faunal surveys have produced sufficient material to initiate such studies. Cranial morphometric and DNA sequence data were examined from six populations of Sylvisorex howelli Jenkins, 1984, an endemic shrew found in several different massifs of the Eastern Arc Mountains, to assess variation across the archipelago in the context of various hypotheses of historical biogeography. Twenty-two cranial measurements were analysed using principal components analysis. Age classes (based on tooth wear) and sex had little effect on the variation exhibited by the variables studied. Overall, specimens of S. howelli from the East Usambara Mountains are smaller than specimens from other known populations. The mitochondrial ND2 and 12S rRNA genes from representatives of each montane population of S. howelli in addition to several crocidurine taxa from eastern Africa and three soricine outgroup species were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships among these taxa. Neither maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, nor Bayesian analyses support monophyly of the genus Sylvisorex, but S. howelli populations were consistently recovered as a well-supported clade. Over 40 individuals of S. howelli from six disjunct montane ranges, comprising the entire known distribution of the species, were sequenced for 504 base pairs of ND2 to investigate phylogeographic patterns. Phylogenetic analysis recovered six reciprocally monophyletic haplotype clades grouped by locality. Branch lengths are consistent with relatively long periods of isolation among populations from the Uluguru, Ukaguru, Nguru, Nguu, East Usambara and West Usambara Mountains, with low levels of diversity observed within each population. These results are interpreted within the historical context of the Eastern Arc Mountains. [source]

    Tutorial on Computational Linguistic Phylogeny

    Johanna Nichols
    Over the last 10 or more years, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of computational techniques (many of which come directly from biology) for estimating evolutionary histories (i.e., phylogenies) of languages. This tutorial surveys the different methods and different types of linguistic data that have been used to estimate phylogenies, explains the scientific and mathematical foundations of phylogenetic estimation, and presents methodologies for evaluating a phylogeny estimation method. [source]