Personality Inventory (personality + inventory)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Personality Inventory

  • minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
  • multiphasic personality inventory
  • neo personality inventory
  • revised neo personality inventory

  • Selected Abstracts

    Sexual dysfunction and physicians' perception in medicated patients with major depression in Taiwan

    Kao Ching Chen M.D.
    Abstract Although prevalent during antidepressant treatment, sexual dysfunction (SD) is frequently ignored by both physicians and patients in Asia. In spite of impact of SD on medicated patients with major depression, sexual issues and illness remain a forbidden topic for most Asian people. The aims of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of SD among stable outpatients taking different antidepressants in Taiwan; (2) investigate the factors related to SD; (3) compare physician-perceived with patient-reported prevalence rates of antidepressant-associated SD; and (4) study the differences of SD among antidepressant subgroups. In this cross-sectional observational study, 125 medicated patients with major depression were recruited. Patients were assessed using the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ), Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ), Quality of Life Index (QOL), and neuroticism scores in the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI). Sixty-two physicians completed the Physician Antidepressant Experience Questionnaire. The estimated prevalence rate of SD was 53.6% (95% CI = 44.9,62.3%) in medicated patients with major depression. There were no significant differences in prevalence rate of SD among different antidepressants. The SD subgroup had poorer quality of life and lower moods than the non-dysfunction subgroup. An underestimation of the prevalence of SD by physicians was noted. Because antidepressant-associated SD is highly prevalent and seriously underestimated by physicians, greater physicians' recognition and better patients' education are imperative when prescribing antidepressants. Depression and Anxiety. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The influence of health threat communication and personality traits on personal models of diabetes in newly diagnosed diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
    V. L. Lawson
    Abstract Background, Personal models of diabetes, i.e. patients' beliefs about symptoms, treatment effectiveness, consequences (impact on life, seriousness) and emotional response to possible short- and long-term complications, have been associated with diabetes self-care behaviours. Little work has examined potential determinants of personal models. Aims, To examine the influence of health threat communication and personality traits on personal models in newly diagnosed patients. Methods, Newly diagnosed patients (n = 158; 32 Type 1 and 126 Type 2) completed the Big Five Personality Inventory, Diabetes Health Threat Communication Questionnaire (DHTCQ), Personal Models of Diabetes Interview-Adapted (PMDI) and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R). Results, Emotional responses to diabetes (PMDI) were associated with perceptions of a more threatening health message (22% explained variance), less emotional stability (5%) and the presence of dependent children (3%). Emotional representations (IPQ-R) were associated with a threatening health message (6%) and less emotional stability (15%). An adverse view of consequences (PMDI) was predicted by a more threatening/less reassuring health message (15%), less emotional stability (6%) and Type 1 diabetes (4%). Consequences (IPQ-R) were predicted by perceptions of a more threatening health message (20%), being less agreeable/cooperative (7%) and having dependent children (4%). Treatment effectiveness beliefs (PMDI) were associated with perceptions of a more reassuring health message (31%), younger age (3%) and more openness/intellect (2%). Conclusions, Personal models of diabetes are influenced by health threat communication, demographic and personality factors. These findings support the concept of tailoring health messages to the needs of individual patients and provide information on factors to be taken into account in the education process. [source]

    Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic socio-demographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. [source]

    Quality-of-Life and Behavioral Outcome Measures in Randomized Controlled Trials of Antiepileptic Drugs: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting Standards

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2000
    Gus A. Baker
    Summary: Purpose: To review the methodology and use of quality-of-life and behavioral measures used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Trial reports were found by searching a previously developed comprehensive database of epilepsy RCTs and searching through journals by hand. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and methodological and quality-of-life and behavioral measure data were extracted. Results: There were 52 different measures used in 46 trials, with the Profile of Mood States, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory being applied the most frequently. Overall, evidence of the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of measures used in populations of people with epilepsy was sparse. There was also little information on the clinical interpretation of the results. Conclusion: Our results highlight a consistent failure to apply quality-of-life and behavioral measures in RCTs in a systematic way. We found repeated evidence of researchers' failure to review the use of previous measures and selection of measures without evidence of their appropriateness for use in a population with epilepsy. We recommend the use of quality-of-life and behavioral measures in RCTs with proven psychometric properties in a population with epilepsy. [source]

    More than the Big Five: Egoism and the HEXACO model of personality

    Reinout E. de Vries
    Abstract Egoism is a personality trait that is associated with self-enriching and self-centred behaviours. Research has suggested that egoism lies beyond the Big Five personality factors. Recently, the HEXACO model of personality has been proposed as an alternative to the Big Five model. In three studies, the relation between the HEXACO Personality Inventory and egoism, conceptualized using three different questionnaires (DPQ Egoism, SPI Egotism and the Egoism Scale), is investigated. In all three studies, the HEXACO Honesty,Humility factor scale was the most important predictor of egoism. Additionally, in two studies in which FFM measures were used, the HEXACO Personality Inventory explained more variance in egoism than did the FFPI (Study 2) and the NEO-PI-R (Study 3). Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits of Russians from the observer's perspective

    Jüri Allik
    Abstract Data were collected by the members of the Russian character and personality survey from 39 samples in 33 administrative areas of the Russian Federation. Respondents (N,=,7065) identified an ethnically Russian adult or college-aged man or woman whom they knew well and rated the target using the Russian observer rating version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Factor analyses within samples showed that the factor structure of an international sample combining data from 50 different cultures was well replicated in all 39 Russian samples. Sex differences replicated the known pattern in all samples, demonstrating that women scored higher than men on most of the neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness facet scales. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated consistent age differences for four factors: Older individuals compared to younger ones were less extraverted and open but more agreeable and conscientious. The mean levels of traits were similar in all 39 samples. Although in general personality traits in Russians closely followed the universal pattern, some reliable culture-specific effects were also found that future studies can help interpret. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of self-enhancement on agreement on personality profiles

    Peter Borkenau
    Abstract Effects of self-enhancement and socially desirable responding (SDR) on rater agreement for personality profiles were studied in 304 students. Dyads of participants described themselves and their peer on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) that measures 30 facets of personality. In addition, participants filled in six scales measuring self-enhancement or SDR. Data analyses focussed on moderator and suppressor effects of SDR on the similarity between self-reported and other reported NEO-PI-R profiles. Three kinds of profile agreement were distinguished: (a) normative agreement; (b) distinctive agreement and (c) profile normativeness, that is, how strongly a self-reported personality profile resembled the average profile of all participants. There were no moderator or suppressor effects on distinctive agreement, but SDR predicted profile normativeness quite strongly. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    German lexical personality factors: relations with the HEXACO model

    Michael C. Ashton
    Abstract We correlated the scales of the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI) with adjective scale markers of factors previously obtained in indigenous lexical studies of personality structure in the German language. Self-ratings obtained from a sample of 323 German participants showed a pattern of strong convergent and weak discriminant correlations, supporting the content-based interpretation of the German lexical factors in terms of the HEXACO dimensions. Notably, convergent correlations were strong for both the broader and the narrower variants of the Honesty-Humility factor as observed in German lexical studies. Also, convergent correlations for HEXACO Openness to Experience were, as expected, stronger for German adjectives describing a creative and intellectual orientation than for German adjectives describing intellectual ability. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Neediness and connectedness and the five-factor model of personality

    David M. Dunkley
    Abstract This study examined maladaptive and relatively more adaptive forms of dependency, as measured by the neediness and connectedness factors of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), within a comprehensive scheme of personality provided by the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). University students (n,=,475) completed the DEQ, NEO-PI-R, and a measure of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that neediness reflected anxiety, self-consciousness, vulnerability, unassertiveness, and inactivity, whereas connectedness reflected anxiety, warmth, agreeableness, and valuing of relationships. Neediness demonstrated stronger relations than connectedness with depressive symptoms. These results support the validity of DEQ neediness and connectedness as measures of maladaptive and relatively more adaptive forms of dependency. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Self and partner personality in intimate relationships

    Dick P. H. Barelds
    Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between both partners' personality and marital quality in married or cohabiting heterosexual couples. In Study 1 (N,=,1380, or 690 couples), personality was assessed by means of the Dutch Personality Questionnaire, whereas in Study 2 (N,=,564, or 282 couples) personality was assessed by means of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory. We expected neuroticism to relate negatively, and extraversion positively, to marital quality. Furthermore, we expected that spouses would only marginally resemble each other with regard to personality, and that differences in personality would not affect marital quality, when controlling for the individual's levels of personality. All expectations were confirmed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The five-factor personality inventory: cross-cultural generalizability across 13 countries

    A. A. Jolijn Hendriks
    In the present study, we investigated the structural invariance of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) across a variety of cultures. Self-report data sets from ten European and three non-European countries were available, representing the Germanic (Belgium, England, Germany, the Netherlands, USA), Romance (Italy, Spain), and Slavic branches (Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia) of the Indo-European languages, as well as the Semito-Hamitic (Israel) and Altaic (Hungary, Japan) language families. Each data set was subjected to principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation and orthogonal Procrustes rotation to optimal agreement with (i) the Dutch normative structure and (ii) an American large-sample structure. Three criteria (scree test, internal consistency reliabilities of the varimax-rotated components, and parallel analysis) were used to establish the number of factors to be retained for rotation. Clear five-factor structures were found in all samples except in the smallest one (USA, N,=,97). Internal consistency reliabilities of the five components were generally good and high congruence was found between each sample structure and both reference structures. More than 80% of the items were equally stable within each country. Based on the results, an international FFPI reference structure is proposed. This reference structure can facilitate standardized communications about Big Five scores across research programmes. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The construct validity of three entry level personality inventories used in the UK: cautionary findings from a multiple-inventory investigation,

    Neil Anderson
    This paper reports psychometric analyses into the convergent and divergent validity of three popular entry-level measures of occupational personality in the UK and Continental Europe. A sample of 504 individuals completed all three measures: the British version of the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI), the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ Version FS5.2), and the Business Personality Indicator (BPI). In addition, independent ratings of the conceptual loading of primary source scales onto the Five Factor Model (FFM) were obtained (n,=,66). Data were used in a three-stage analytical procedure directed at examining psychometric and construct validity. Results are reported for descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, Cohen's d), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas), and exploratory factor analyses. Findings into the construct validity of first-order scales (i.e. primary source scales) and second-order scales (i.e. FFM loadings) are presented in detail, including multitrait,multimethod (MTMM) analyses of convergent and divergent validity. For some scales, the observed variability in our sample suggested significant range restriction/enhancement. It was found that scale reliabilities were generally lower than those typically reported by the test publishers, and that published factor structures for these measures could not be replicated by the authors for this sample of individuals. Further independent construct validity research into occupational personality inventories is encouraged based upon our proposed model of single-, dual-, and multiple-inventory construct validation studies. Practically, our findings suggest that when IWO psychologists or personnel professionals aim to select/screen job applicants for a particular personality trait those who are selected may vary depending on (i) which personality inventory is used, (ii) the actual variability in the applicant sample tested, and (iii) reliability of the scales under consideration. As such, this study sounds a note of caution. Future research is called for to replicate these findings. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Major depression, chronic minor depression, and the five-factor model of personality

    Kate L. Harkness
    Fifty-eight outpatients with major depression completed the NEO Personality Inventory at intake (time 1) and after up to three months of anti-depressant treatment (time 2). Within this group, 26 patients met additional Research Diagnostic Criteria for chronic minor depression. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant decreases in Neuroticism scores, and significant increases in Extraversion and Conscientiousness scores, from time 1 to time 2 for both patient groups. In addition, despite similar symptom severity at time 2, the patients with major depression+chronic minor depression scored significantly higher on the Angry Hostility facet of Neuroticism and significantly lower on Agreeableness than those with major depression alone. We suggest from these findings that Angry Hostility and low Agreeableness may represent a trait vulnerability in individuals with chronic minor depression that persists even following remission of the major depressive state, and that this may help to explain their high rates of relapse and recurrence. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Evaluating cluster analysis solutions: an application to the Italian NEO personality inventory

    Claudio Barbaranelli
    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of cluster analysis solutions. Internal criteria and replication issues are compared and applied to empirical data collected from an Italian sample of 421 young adults, using the NEO Personality Inventory. The following internal criteria were considered: C, gamma, and G(,+,) indices, and point-biserial correlation. Replication was examined (i) ,internally' using double cross-validation and bootstrap approaches and (ii) ,externally' by comparing the solution obtained on the Italian sample with the results obtained in German and Spanish samples. While replication analyses supported three- and four-cluster solutions, internal criteria (with the exception of point-biserial correlation) tended to privilege solutions with a much larger number of groups. Advantages and limitations of the different strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, gender, and crying

    Mathell Peter
    This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated in crying frequency and crying proneness, but not with respect to mood changes after crying. As predicted, women reported a higher frequency of crying and more proneness to cry both for negative and positive reasons. For women, all these crying indices were negatively associated with Emotional Stability. For men, only a significant negative relationship between Emotional Stability and crying for negative reasons emerged. No clear links were found between personality and mood changes after crying. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant predictive role of gender for crying proneness, even when controlling for personality differences, but not for crying frequency. Adding personality by gender interaction terms resulted in a disappearance of the main effect of sex, while significant interactions with personality factors showed up for crying frequency and general crying proneness. It is suggested that future research on the relationship between personality and crying should focus more on the underlying mechanisms of observed relationships. Furthermore, it is recommended that future research should examine the role of different emotion regulation strategies. In addition, biological factors, temperament, upbringing measures, and socio-demographic variables should be taken into account. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Factors Associated With Burden of Primary Headache in a Specialty Clinic

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2003
    Eugene M. Cassidy MRCPsych
    Objective.,To examine factors associated with social, occupational, and psychological burden of common primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache). Background.,The personal and social burden of primary headache is high. Health, occupational, social, and psychological factors contributing to burden in people with disabling headache have not been fully unravelled. Methods.,One hundred eighty consecutive patients with either migraine or tension-type headache attending a specialty headache outpatient clinic for the first time were evaluated over a 9-month period. Headache subtype was operationally defined according to International Headache Society criteria. Headache frequency, duration, and severity were recorded. Occupational and social disability were quantified using the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Psychological burden was quantified using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Premorbid vulnerability to life stress was quantified using the neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Results.,Patients with frequent (chronic) headache scored higher on the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire and had higher Beck Depression Inventory and General Health Questionnaire depression scores than those with less frequent (episodic) headache. Frequency of headache, but not pain severity, duration, or diagnosis, predicted both Migraine Disability Assessment total disability and General Health Questionnaire/Beck Depression Inventory depression. Neuroticism was predictive of depression but not disability. Patients with chronic migraine had the highest depression and disability scores. Conclusion.,The number of days per month with headache is a key determinant of headache-related burden in those attending specialty clinics. Frequent (chronic) headache is associated with significantly higher psychopathology scores and general social impairment, but the direction of this relationship is not clear. Those with migraine and chronicity are the most impaired. [source]

    Narcissism and Cardiovascular Reactivity to Rejection Imagery,

    Kristin L. Sommer
    This study examined the interactive effects of imagined rejection and narcissism on cardiovascular reactivity (CVR). Participants completed measures of overt narcissism (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979), overt,covert narcissism (Margolis & Thomas, 1980), and trait self-esteem. They then imagined 2 scenarios culminating in either interpersonal acceptance or rejection. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed before, during, and after the imagery. Overt,covert narcissism was positively associated with task increases in SBP and DBP and recovery elevation of HR following rejection, but not acceptance. Similar effects on SBP were found for the Entitlement/Exploitativeness dimension of the NPI. Lower self-esteem predicted greater task increases in SBP, DBP, and HR across conditions. Implications for health are discussed. [source]

    Psychological profile in oral lichen planus

    Kiro Ivanovski
    Abstract Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an oral lesion with an enigmatic etiology. To explore the possibility of psycho-somatization, we evaluated the psychological personality profiles of OLP patients. Methods: Twenty patients with reticular; 20 with erosive form of OLP, and 25 controls were tested with the psychological Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-202 test. Eight clinical scales (hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, and hypomania) as well as cortisol level, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD16 markers by group were compared. Psychosomatization was evaluated by the use of internalization ratio (IR) Index. Results: A characteristic MMPI profile was noted in the OLP groups with high IR index value. Significant differences among the groups were detected for cortisol, CD4, CD8, and CD16 counts. Mean values for hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria were all significantly different with significantly higher mean scores for both reticular and erosive OLP subjects compared with controls. Conclusions: Prolonged emotive stress in many OLP patients may lead to psychosomatization and may contribute to the initiation and clinical expression of this oral disorder. Clinical significance: If additional research involving a larger and more diverse sample of patients confirms these findings, clinical trials will be needed to determine whether adjunctive psychological intervention provides a benefit in treating patients with OLP. [source]

    Remembering and honoring Paul Meehl

    Albert Ellis
    The author commemorates Paul Meehl by briefly presenting some of his cardinal contributions to clinical psychology, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), rational,emotive behavior therapy, and clinical versus statistical prediction. He also describes a few of his personal contacts with him. Meehl modeled a way of thinking, and thinking about thinking, that should be useful to all clinical psychologists. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 61: 1231,1232, 2005. [source]

    Personality and psychopathology in an impulsive aggressive college sample

    Laura E. Helfritz
    Abstract Certain personality traits have been associated with impulsive aggression in both college and community samples, primarily irritability, anger/hostility, and impulsivity. The literature regarding the psychopathology associated with impulsive aggression is relatively sparse and strongly emphasizes DSM-IV-TR [APA, 2000] Axis II personality disorders, although some comorbidity with Axis I clinical disorders has been reported. The current study compares impulsive aggressive (IA) college students with their non-aggressive peers on several self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. Personality results were as predicted, with IAs scoring higher than controls on measures of impulsivity and aggression. Additionally, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), which was given for exploratory purposes, revealed a unique pattern of psychopathic traits in impulsive aggression that contained key differences from the callous-unemotional profile seen in premeditated aggression. Contrary to our hypothesis that a specific pattern of psychopathology (personality disorders, bipolar disorder, and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) would emerge for impulsive aggression, IAs scored significantly higher than controls on nearly every clinical scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, Anxiety-Related Disorders, Depression, Mania, Schizophrenia, Borderline Features, Antisocial Features, Alcohol Problems, and Drug Problems), indicating a global elevation of psychopathology. In conclusion, while the personality traits and behaviors that characterize impulsive aggression are relatively consistent across individuals, its associated psychopathology is unexpectedly variable. Aggr. Behav. 00:1,10, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparing Two Alternative Measures of General Personality in the Assessment of Psychopathy: A Test of the NEO PI-R and the MPQ

    Eric T. Gaughan
    ABSTRACT This study examined the interrelations between two measures of personality, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen & Waller, 2008), and their relations with psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates. Results revealed good convergence between conceptually related personality traits; however, the NEO PI-R facets accounted for more variance in the MPQ subscales (mean R2=.49) than did MPQ subscales in NEO PI-R facets (mean R2=.35). Both accounted for substantial proportions of variance in psychopathy scores, although the NEO PI-R accounted for larger proportions and manifested greater incremental validity when using the broader domains of each measure; the differences decreased when the narrower facets/subscales were used. The results suggest that, although both measures assess psychopathy-related traits, the NEO PI-R provides a more complete description because of its assessment of interpersonal antagonism and the central role of this construct in psychopathy. [source]

    Comparing Clinical and Social-Personality Conceptualizations of Narcissism

    Joshua D. Miller
    ABSTRACT There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptualization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism,one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality research (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988),across two samples. Sample 1 (N=271) was composed of undergraduates, whereas Sample 2 (N=211) was composed of parents of the Sample 1 participants. The scales were significantly interrelated but manifested divergent relations with general personality traits, personality disorders (including expert prototypal ratings of narcissism), recollections of parenting received, and psychological distress and self-esteem. PDQ-4 narcissism captured an emotionally unstable, negative-affect-laden, and introverted variant of narcissism; NPI narcissism captured an emotionally resilient, extraverted form. The clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism primarily share a tendency to use an antagonistic interpersonal style. Implications for the DSM-V are discussed. [source]

    Parenting Narcissus: What Are the Links Between Parenting and Narcissism?

    Robert S. Horton
    ABSTRACT Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological control) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high school students (Study 2) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, a trait self-esteem scale, and standard measures of the three parenting dimensions. Parental warmth was associated positively and monitoring was associated negatively with both types of narcissism. Psychological control was positively associated with narcissism scores from which trait self-esteem variance had been removed. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed, limitations are addressed, and future research directions are suggested. [source]

    Normal and Abnormal Personality Traits: Evidence for Genetic and Environmental Relationships in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart

    Kristian E. Markon
    ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated substantial correlations between normal and abnormal personality traits. Yet little is known about how these correlations are mediated genetically and environmentally: Do normal and abnormal personality traits stem from the same underlying genes and environments? We addressed this question using data from 128 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA). Additive genetic and nonshared environmental correlations between scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI),an index of abnormal personality,and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ),an index of normal personality,were estimated. Results indicated that phenotypic correlations between normal and abnormal personality were mediated by genetic as well as environmental factors, although the magnitude of genetic mediation tended to be larger overall. Moreover, the patterns of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships among the scales were similar, suggesting that influences on normal and abnormal personality act through systems common to both. It is suggested that future research focus on the neurogenetic substrates of these shared systems and how dysfunction in these systems influences development of disordered personality. [source]

    Personality Profiles and the Prediction of Categorical Personality Disorders

    Robert R. McCrae
    Personality disorders (PDs) are usually construed as psychiatric categories characterized by a unique configuration of traits and behaviors. To generate clinical hypotheses from normal personality trait scores, profile agreement statistics can be calculated using a prototypical personality profile for each PD. Multimethod data from 1,909 psychiatric patients in the People's Republic of China were used to examine the accuracy of such hypotheses in the Interpretive Report of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Profile agreement indices from both self-reports and spouse ratings were significantly related to PD symptom scores derived from questionnaires and clinical interviews. However, accuracy of diagnostic classification was only modest to moderate, probably because PDs are not discrete categorical entities. Together with other literature, these data suggest that the current categorical system should be replaced by a more comprehensive system of personality traits and personality-related problems. [source]

    Psychopathology in Pregnant Drug-Dependent Women With and Without Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2001
    Donna R. Miles
    Background : Individuals with comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders are at particularly high risk for a variety of problems, including other psychiatric disorders. In general, patients with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence tend to have more severe dependence problems and often have poorer treatment outcomes than individuals with single disorders. For treatment-seeking pregnant women, psychiatric comorbidity can lead to relapse and premature treatment dropout, with adverse consequences to mother and infant. Methods: Psychopathology, as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory,Revised (MMPI-2), was examined in 170 pregnant women admitted to a comprehensive treatment program for cocaine or opiate dependence. Most were single (75%) and African American (80%), with a mean age of 29 years. Thirty-six met DSM-III-R criteria for both alcohol and drug dependence (alcohol positive), whereas 134 were drug dependent only (alcohol negative). Results: Alcohol-positive women had higher levels of psychopathology than alcohol-negative women, with higher scores on scales 2 (Depression), 4 (Psychopathic Deviance), 8 (Schizophrenia), and 0 (Social Introversion;p < 0.05). The mean MMPI-2 profile for alcohol-positive women was 2-4-8 (Depression-Psychopathic Deviance-Schizophrenia; all T-scores > 65), whereas alcohol-negative women had only a scale 4 increase. Conclusions: Results suggest that pregnant, drug-dependent women with comorbid alcohol dependence present for treatment with greater psychopathology and thus may require more intense interventions than pregnant, drug-dependent women without comorbid alcohol dependence. Alcohol use by pregnant women is particularly important to address in treatment, because alcohol is a known teratogen associated with mental retardation and behavioral problems. [source]

    Do prior knowledge, personality and visual perceptual ability predict student performance in microscopic pathology?

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 6 2010
    Laura Helle
    Medical Education 2010:44:621,629 Objectives, There has been long-standing controversy regarding aptitude testing and selection for medical education. Visual perception is considered particularly important for detecting signs of disease as part of diagnostic procedures in, for example, microscopic pathology, radiology and dermatology and as a component of perceptual motor skills in medical procedures such as surgery. In 1968 the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) was introduced in dental education. The aim of the present pilot study was to explore possible predictors of performance in diagnostic classification based on microscopic observation in the context of an undergraduate pathology course. Methods, A pre- and post-test of diagnostic classification performance, test of visual perceptual skill (Test of Visual Perceptual Skills, 3rd edition [TVPS-3]) and a self-report instrument of personality (Big Five Personality Inventory) were administered. In addition, data on academic performance (performance in histology and cell biology, a compulsory course taken the previous year, in addition to performance on the microscopy examination and final examination) were collected. Results, The results indicated that one personality factor (Conscientiousness) and one element of visual perceptual ability (spatial relationship awareness) predicted performance on the pre-test. The only factor to predict performance on the post-test was performance on the pre-test. Similarly, the microscopy examination score was predicted by the pre-test score, in addition to the histology and cell biology grade. The course examination score was predicted by two personality factors (Conscientiousness and lack of Openness) and the histology and cell biology grade. Conclusions, Visual spatial ability may be related to performance in the initial phase of training in microscopic pathology. However, from a practical point of view, medical students are able to learn basic microscopic pathology using worked-out examples, independently of measures of personality or visual perceptual ability. This finding should reassure students about their abilities to improve with training independently of their scores on tests on basic abilities and personality. [source]

    Medical student attitudes to risk taking and self-perceived influence on medical practice

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 8 2006
    Michael Weissberg
    Context, Little has been published on medical student risk-taking attitudes and behaviours and whether students think these attributes will affect how they treat patients. Objectives, Our aims were to assess for an association between risk-taking attitudes and behaviours, such as problematic substance use, self-reported risky behaviours, and self-reported accidents, and to test for an association between risk-taking attitudes and student perceptions of the influence of these attitudes on future clinical practice. Methods, Three consecutive classes of Year 2 medical students (n = 315) completed a self-administered, 29-item questionnaire. Risk-taking attitudes were evaluated using a 6-question, risk-taking scale adapted from the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI). Results, A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between risk-taking attitudes (JPI) and problematic substance use (r = 0.34; P < 0.01), self-reported risky behaviours (r = 0.47; P < 0.01), and self-reported accidents (r = 0.33; P < 0.01). Students who did not think their attitudes toward risk would affect their clinical decision making scored significantly higher on our measure of risk-taking attitudes (t306 = , 4.60; P < 0.01). Students who did not think that their drinking, drug taking or sexual behaviour would affect how they counselled patients on these matters scored significantly higher on our measure of problematic substance use (t307 = , 2.51; P = 0.01). Conclusions, Although risk-taking attitudes have been associated with significant differences in clinical decision making among doctors, in our sample students with high risk-taking attitudes and behaviours were significantly less likely than their colleagues to think their attitudes would affect their clinical practice. Implications for medical education are discussed. [source]

    MMPI Profile as an Outcome "Predictor" in the Treatment of Noncancer Pain Patients Utilizing Intraspinal Opioid Therapy

    NEUROMODULATION, Issue 3 2001
    Daniel M. Doleys PhD
    Objective. To evaluate changes in Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles pre- and post-treatment involving intrathecal opioid therapy. Patients and Methods. This study reports on 30 patients that were evaluated pre- and post-intraspinal opioid therapy. Treatment duration was slightly more than four years. Each patient experienced chronic non-cancer pain deemed suitable for trialing and subsequent implantation of a drug administration system (DAS). On average the patients had experienced pain for 8.4 years and had a mean of 3.2 pain-related surgeries. Results. The patients could be divided into "positive change group" and "negative change group" based upon pre- and post-treatment MMPI profiles. Those patients in the negative change group had more "normal profiles" pretreatment. This group evidenced less reduction in pain and was found to be using slightly higher levels of intraspinal opioids. Conclusions. These results would suggest that the MMPI profile may not be a good "predictor" of long-term outcome utilizing intraspinal opioid therapy. Indeed, patients with the more normal profile pretreatment did not fare as well as those with the more elevated profile. A positive change in MMPI profile from pre- to post-treatment was associated with a higher level of pain reduction. Patient selection therefore should be based not on a single test such as the MMPI, but on consistency across multiple sources of information including physical examination, complaints of pain and disability, behavioral observations, and psychological testing. [source]

    Smaller amygdala is associated with anxiety in patients with panic disorder

    Fumi Hayano phd
    Aims:, Anxiety a core feature of panic disorder, is linked to function of the amygdala. Volume alterations in the brain of patients with panic disorder have previously been reported, but there has been no report of amygdala volume association with anxiety. Methods:, Volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were manually measured using magnetic resonance imaging obtained from 27 patients with panic disorder and 30 healthy comparison subjects. In addition the amygdala was focused on, applying small volume correction to optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). State,Trait Anxiety Inventory and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised were also used to evaluate anxiety. Results:, Amygdala volumes in both hemispheres were significantly smaller in patients with panic disorder compared with control subjects (left: t = ,2.248, d.f. = 55, P = 0.029; right: t = ,2.892, d.f. = 55, P = 0.005). VBM showed that structural alteration in the panic disorder group occurred on the corticomedial nuclear group within the right amygdala (coordinates [x,y,z (mm)]: [26,,6,,16], Z score = 3.92, family-wise error-corrected P = 0.002). The state anxiety was negatively correlated with the left amygdala volume in patients with panic disorder (r = ,0.545, P = 0.016). Conclusions:, These findings suggested that the smaller volume of the amygdala may be associated with anxiety in panic disorder. Of note, the smaller subregion in the amygdala estimated on VBM could correspond to the corticomedial nuclear group including the central nucleus, which may play a crucial role in panic attack. [source]