Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Personality

  • abnormal personality
  • antisocial personality
  • borderline personality
  • human personality
  • individual personality
  • normal personality
  • partner personality
  • patient personality

  • Terms modified by Personality

  • personality assessment
  • personality assessment inventory
  • personality attribute
  • personality change
  • personality characteristic
  • personality construct
  • personality development
  • personality difference
  • personality dimension
  • personality disorder
  • personality disorder diagnosis
  • personality disorder feature
  • personality disorder symptom
  • personality disorder trait
  • personality disorders
  • personality disposition
  • personality domain
  • personality factor
  • personality feature
  • personality inventory
  • personality judgment
  • personality measure
  • personality pathology
  • personality profile
  • personality psychologist
  • personality psychology
  • personality questionnaire
  • personality research
  • personality scale
  • personality similarity
  • personality structure
  • personality style
  • personality test
  • personality theory
  • personality trait
  • personality type
  • personality variable

  • Selected Abstracts


    We integrated the proactive personality and the self-concordance model literatures to hypothesize and test a model that explicates the processes through which proactive personality relates to employee life satisfaction, in-role performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Across 3 time periods, data were collected from 165 employees and their supervisors. Results indicated that more proactive individuals were more likely to set self-concordant goals and attain their goals, which in turn predicted psychological need satisfaction. Psychological need satisfaction subsequently predicted employee life satisfaction, in-role performance, and OCBs. Further, goal attainment directly predicted employee life satisfaction. Our results also indicated that proactive personality's relations with employee life satisfaction, in-role performance, and OCBs were entirely indirect through goal self-concordance, goal attainment, and psychological need satisfaction. [source]


    The purpose of this multilevel study was to test whether regulatory focus mechanisms (promotion focus and prevention focus; Higgins, 1997, American Psychologist, 52, 1280,1300; Higgins, 2000, American Psychologist, 55, 1217,1230) can help explain how group safety climate and individual differences in Conscientiousness relate to individual productivity and safety performance. Results, based on a sample of 254 employees from 50 work groups, showed that safety climate and conscientiousness predicted promotion and prevention regulatory focus, which in turn mediated the relationships of safety climate and Conscientiousness with supervisor ratings of productivity and safety performance. Implications for theory and research on climate, motivation, and performance and avenues for future research are discussed. [source]


    Many practices in the field of industrial-organizational psychology assume that individual performance is stable across time; yet, little is actually known about the extent to which performance varies within individuals. We specifically address this issue by exploring the longitudinal influence of a situational opportunity (referrals received from the central office) on intraindividual performance outcomes of sales representatives. We also explore Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience as traits that explain variation in adaptation to changes in referrals. Our results show that more weekly variation in individual performance resides within individuals than between individuals. A majority of this variance is explained by the situational opportunity of referrals. Furthermore, the positive relationship between referrals and outcomes is stronger for sales representatives high on Conscientiousness, but weaker for representatives high on Openness to Experience. [source]


    The purpose of this study is to examine the nature and magnitude of the relationship between 2 widely accepted models for classifying individual differences,the 5-factor model of personality and Holland's RI-ASEC occupational types. Based on extensive meta-analyses, our results illustrate that there are meaningful relations between some FFM personality dimensions and some RIASEC types. The strongest relationships were obtained between the RIASEC types of enterprising and artistic with the FFM personality dimensions of Extraversion and Openness to Experience, p= .41 and .39, respectively. Three other RIASEC types had moderate correlations with at least 1 FFM personality trait. In contrast, the realistic type was not related to any FFM personality traits. Multiple regression analyses in which each RIASEC type is regressed on the FFM scores (based on meta-analytic estimates), revealed a multiple R of .11 for realistic, .26 for investigative, .42 for artistic, .31 for social, .47 for enterprising, and .27 for conventional types. The overall conclusion from the study is that although FFM personality traits and RIASEC types are related, they are not merely substitutes for each other. [source]


    The study tests the distinction between typical and maximum criteria with ratings of transformational leadership performance, and examines whether the criterion-related validities of the five factor model differ for the two types of criteria. Using an East Asian military sample (n= 1,259) where multiple ratings of typical and maximum performance were obtained from different sources, we used structural equation modeling to test the typical/maximum performance distinction. Results found that typical and maximum performance are different latent constructs and that this distinction is present even after considering rating method factors (i.e., rater source, time). The importance of this distinction is shown by the fact that validities for the personality constructs were not equally predictive of both criteria: Openness was most predictive of maximum performance, Neuroticism was most predictive of typical performance, and Extroversion was predictive of both. By distinguishing typical from maximum performance constructs, relationships between personality and transformational leadership were found to be stronger than previous research suggested. [source]

    Lesbian Television Personalities,A Queer New Subject

    Jennifer Reed
    First page of article [source]

    Science on the Air: Popularizers and Personalities on Radio and Early Television by Marcel Chotkowski LaFollette

    Matthew H. Hersch
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Diving into the Depth-Scape: Exuberance and Personalities

    Yael Reisner
    Abstract Exuberance is about more than appearance. Yael Reisner argues that it engenders an emotional response. It provides a whole ,depth-scape' of expression by offering extensive qualities that go beyond the merely practical or the required. Exuberance proffers a full emotional range from the horrific to the sublime, which requires complexity but also the presence of creative personalities who lend personal interpretation to the design process. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Child behaviour and adult personality: comparisons between criminality groups in Finland and Sweden

    Professor Lea Pulkkinen
    Background; Lately there has been an increasing interest in whether personality traits are associated with criminal behaviour in male and female subjects. Criminality and alcohol abuse are often associated. Delinquent adolescents are impulsive and danger seeking. Childhood aggression may be a precursor of adult criminality. Method Using longitudinal data, adult personality and childhood behaviours were examined for groups of non-criminals and criminals of Finnish (n = 268) and Swedish (n + 169) samples, and crime groups were compared in the two cultures. Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were given at adult age and the participants had been observed and rated by their teachers in respect of behaviour in childhood (at age 8 years and 13 years, respectively). Results Male offenders with alcohol problems (Finnish and Swedish) had significantly higher scores on psychopathy-related personality traits in adulthood than other subgroups, as indicated by higher impulsivity, muscular tension and lower socialization. They also displayed higher scores on teacher-rated aggressiveness in childhood than the non-criminal groups. The female subgroup displaying criminal activity was small. It did not differ significantly from non-offenders in adult personality characteristics. Female offenders, however, showed early indications of lower sociability (in Finland) and higher aggressiveness and disharmony in childhood than non-offenders (in Sweden). Discussion The study suggests that early problem behaviours are precursors of subsequent criminal activity in at least two cultures. The results emphasize the importance of longitudinal research programmes. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in OCD with and without comorbid social anxiety disorder: preliminary findings,

    Franklin R. Schneier M.D.
    Abstract Dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been reported to be low in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) and obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD), but it has not been studied in persons with comorbid OCD and GSAD (OCD+GSAD). D2 receptor availability was assessed in 7 subjects with OCD+GSAD, 8 with OCD, and 7 matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects, all unmedicated adults. D2 receptor availability was assessed with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) to measure binding potential (BP) of the D2 receptor radiotracer [123I] iodobenzamide ([123I]IBZM). Mean striatal [123I]IBZM BP was significantly lower in the OCD+GSAD group (72.58 mL/g, SD=18.17) than in the HC group (118.41 mL/g, SD=45.40; P=.025). Mean BP in the OCD group (93.08 mL/g, SD=36.90) did not differ significantly from the HC group (P=.247). Trait detachment, as measured by the Detachment subscale of the Karolinska Scales of Personality, was negatively correlated with D2 availability across all subjects (rs=,.55, P=.013). Comorbid GSAD and OCD may be associated with decreased availability of D2 receptors in the striatum, consistent with prior findings in GSAD. Prior findings of decreased D2 receptor availability in noncomorbid OCD were not confirmed. Decreased D2 receptor availability was also associated with trait detachment, supporting prior findings in samples of healthy subjects. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,7, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Personality and lexical decision times for evaluative words

    Peter Borkenau
    Abstract We studied personality influences on accessibility of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in a sample of 129 students. Self-reports and reports by knowledgeable informants on extraversion, neuroticism, approach temperament and avoidance temperament were combined with a go/no-go lexical decision task that included pleasant, unpleasant and neutral words, and two response modes, manual and vocal. The data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Extraversion and approach temperament predicted faster identification of pleasant words than of neutral and of unpleasant words. Vocal responses took longer than manual responses, but mode of response did not interact with the valence of the words. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The basic cognition of jealousy: an evolutionary perspective

    Jon K. Maner
    Abstract Penke and Asendorpf (European Journal Of Personality, vol 21, this issue) argue compellingly that research on jealousy would benefit from more direct investigation of cognitive processes, and report on research providing mixed evidence for sex differences in jealousy. We identify three limitations to the empirical approach utilised by Penke and Asendorpf, and highlight novel conceptual and methodological approaches for directly examining the basic cognitive mechanisms associated with jealousy and intrasexual rivalry. Investigating the basic cognition of intrasexual rivalry will help expand the scope of jealousy-related research. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality and team performance: a meta-analysis,

    Miranda A. G. Peeters
    Abstract Using a meta-analytical procedure, the relationship between team composition in terms of the Big-Five personality traits (trait elevation and variability) and team performance were researched. The number of teams upon which analyses were performed ranged from 106 to 527. For the total sample, significant effects were found for elevation in agreeableness (,,=,0.24) and conscientiousness (,,=,0.20), and for variability in agreeableness (,,=,,0.12) and conscientiousness (,,=,,0.24). Moderation by type of team was tested for professional teams versus student teams. Moderation results for agreeableness and conscientiousness were in line with the total sample results. However, student and professional teams differed in effects for emotional stability and openness to experience. Based on these results, suggestions for future team composition research are presented. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, identity styles and authoritarianism: an integrative study among late adolescents

    Bart Duriez
    Abstract The relations between five personality factors, three identity styles, the prejudice dispositions of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO) and racial prejudice were investigated in a Flemish-Belgian late adolescent sample (N,=,328). Results show that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness relate to racial prejudice but that these relations were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. In addition, results show that whereas RWA relates to Conscientiousness and lack of Openness to Experience, SDO relates to lack of Agreeableness and lack of Openness to Experience. The relation between Conscientiousness and RWA and between Openness to Experience and SDO was fully mediated by the identity styles. However, Openness to Experience had a direct influence on RWA and Agreeableness had a direct influence on SDO. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, creativity and latent inhibition

    Giles St J. Burch
    The current study set out to investigate the relationship between creativity, multi-dimensional schizotypy and personality more generally. This was achieved by analysing scores on a range of personality scales and measures of creativity, where it was found that the creativity measures were more closely related to asocial-schizotypy than positive-schizotypy. The study also sought to test Eysenck's prediction (1993, 1995) that, given the putative relationship between creativity and psychosis-proneness, high psychosis-prone scoring individuals and high creativity scoring individuals would demonstrate the same cognitive style of ,overinclusiveness' on latent inhibition. However, the results failed to demonstrate any evidence of a shared ,widening of the associative horizon' between high creativity and high psychosis-prone scorers. The findings are discussed in relation to multi-dimensional schizotypy. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality and marital satisfaction: a behavioural genetic analysis

    Erica L. Spotts
    Previous research has found that genetic and nonshared environmental factors influence marital quality (Spotts et al., 2004). The current study explored personality as a source for these genetic and environmental individual differences. A sample of 752 Swedish twin women and their spouses were used. Genetic and environmental influences were found for self-report measures of marital quality, but only environmental factors contributed to the variance of observational measures of marital quality. Wives' personality characteristics accounted for genetic and nonshared environmental variance in the wives' own marital satisfaction, their husbands' marital satisfaction, and the agreement between the spouses on the quality of their marriage. Genetic influences on the correlation between wives' genetically influenced personality characteristics and their husbands' marital satisfaction indicate a gene,environment correlation. Contrary to expectations, husbands' personality did not explain large portions of wives' marital satisfaction beyond that explained by wives' personality. This study emphasizes the importance of spousal personality to the well-being of marriages, and results are discussed within the context of three different theories regarding associations between personality and marital quality. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Coping as a mediator between personality and stress outcomes: a longitudinal study with cataract surgery patients

    Nina Knoll
    Personality and coping were specified as predictors of emotional outcomes of a mildly stressful medical procedure. Situation-specific coping was examined in contrast to dispositional coping, and it was tested whether one or the other would mediate the relationship between higher-order personality factors and stress outcomes. Cataract patients (N=110) participated at four measurement points in time during a six-week period surrounding their scheduled surgery. Dispositional coping did not mediate the personality,outcome relationship. In contrast, situation-specific coping acquired a mediator status between personality and adaptational criteria and accounted for independent outcome variance once personality traits were included as predictors in the models. Thus, the data suggest that whether or not coping mediates between personality factors and affective outcomes may be related to the methodological approaches of its operationalization. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality and social network effects on romantic relationships: a dyadic approach

    Franz J. Neyer
    The quality of romantic relationships and their associations with both partners' personality traits and social networks were studied in 100 younger couples. The similarity of partners was modest with respect to personality traits, and moderate to large with respect to the perceived quality of the partner relationship and their social networks. While similarity in personality was unrelated to relationship quality, dyadic analyses showed that one's perceived quality of relationship was better predicted by one's own personality (i.e. actor effects) than by the personality of one's partner (i.e. partner effects). Moreover, relationship quality could to some extent be predicted by the quality of the social network once the personality traits of each partner were controlled. Results are discussed from a transactional view of personality and relationships. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Loving styles: relationships with personality and attachment styles

    Patrick C. L. Heaven
    We investigated the ability of the major personality dimensions, some of their underlying facet scales, and attachment styles to predict primary and secondary loving styles, as conceptualized by Lee. Personality was assessed using the International Personality Item Pool, and attachment styles through an inventory devised by Collins and Read. Respondents were 302 undergraduate students (212 females; 90 males) who participated in the study in exchange for course credit. Results of regression path analysis showed that N was the only personality dimension without direct predictive links to loving styles. Instead, the influence of N was through an anxious attachment style. There were no personality predictors of Agape, and similarities were also observed between these results and those obtained in Hong Kong. The results are discussed with reference to previous studies and some suggestions for further research are also noted. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, self-esteem, and self-construal as correlates of forgivingness

    Félix Neto
    The relationship between forgivingness (enduring resentment, sensitivity to circumstances, and overall propensity to forgive) and a number of personality dimensions relevant to forgivingness was examined. These dimensions were self-esteem, shyness and embarrassment, on one hand, and self-construal and perceived loneliness, on the other hand. The main relationships between forgivingness and personality concerned the interpersonal dimensions of personality: shyness, embarrassment, independence from others, and interdependence with others. However, the intra-personal, strictly self-referential concomitants of these dimensions (self-esteem and loneliness) were not much linked to forgivingness. Furthermore, each personality factor had a distinct link with forgivingness: independence made the resentment still more enduring, shyness and social embarrassment exacerbated the sensitivity to circumstances, and interdependence increased the willingness to forgive. These findings throw light on the double aspect of forgiveness as intra- and inter-individual and on the relative independence of these aspects. The observed pattern of relationships varied notably (and significantly) as a function of the participants' genders. It could be therefore important, in future studies, to compute systematically correlation coefficients or assess main effects separately for women and men. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, expectations, and response strategies in multiple-choice question examinations, in university students: a test of Gray's hypotheses

    César Ávila
    The relation between personality and type of error made in multiple-choice examinations when correction for guessing is applied was investigated across two studies. Our general hypothesis was that disinhibited subjects (those scoring high on the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale and/or low on the Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) scale) would make more incorrect responses and fewer omission errors (blanks) than inhibited subjects (those with high SP and/or low SR scores). The meta-analyses of 19 examinations in study 1 confirmed our hypotheses for SP, SR, and extraversion. Regression analyses on effect sizes revealed that SP differences were obtained in examinations with low marks, whereas SR differences were obtained in examinations with more responses and fewer questions. Study 2 showed that a low-mark expectation increased omissions in high-SP subjects, whereas a high-mark expectation increased incorrect responses in high-SR subjects. These results suggest two different mechanisms mediating inhibition/disinhibition: one associated with aversive motivation, and the other with appetitive motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, cognition, and university students' examination performance

    Pru Phillips
    A prospective study explored the relationship between personality traits (as defined by the five factor model), type of motivation (as defined by self-determination theory), and goal-specific cognitions (including those specified by the theory of planned behaviour) as antecedents of degree performance amongst undergraduate students. A sample of 125 students completed a questionnaire two to three months before their final examinations. Structural equation modelling was used to explore relationships. Intention and perceived behavioural control explained 32% of the variance in final degree marks, with intention being the strongest predictor. Controlling for theory of planned behaviour variables, anticipated regret, good-student identity, controlled extrinsic motivation, Conscientiousness, and Openness had direct significant effects on intention. In total, 65% of the variance in intention was explained. The resultant model illustrates how personality traits may affect examination performance by means of mediators such as intention, anticipated regret, student identity, and autonomous intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality of children with accident-related injuries

    Margarete Vollrath
    Previous studies based on a variety of behaviour, temperament, and personality measures identified a pattern of over-activity, impulsiveness, emotional instability, and aggressiveness in children who are prone to accidents. The present study is the first to study accident-prone children by means of a comprehensive test for the assessment of the Five Factor model (Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999). 118 children, aged 6,15 years, who were hospitalized due to an accident-related injury, were contrasted with 184 school-children of the same age. Lower socio-economic status was under-represented in both groups. Children who were exposed to accidents had higher scores on the facets of energy, optimism, and non-shyness (Extraversion domain), and lower scores on the facets of concentration and achievement striving (Conscientiousness domain). There was no indication of higher aggressiveness, impulsiveness, or emotional instability in the group exposed to accidents, and there were no gender-by-accident interactions. Results suggest that there is a relatively benign pattern of personality traits that is related to greater accident hazard in children. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality and approaches to learning as predictors of academic achievement

    Åge DisethArticle first published online: 12 DEC 200
    The relationship between personality, approaches to learning, and academic achievement was investigated. Two different undergraduate student samples, totalling 310 students, participated in the study. Results showed the expected significant correlations between the personality factors of openness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, on the one hand, and deep, surface, and strategic approaches to learning, on the other. A significant negative correlation between surface approach and achievement was observed in sample 1. In sample 2, achievement was positively correlated with neuroticism, openness, and deep approach, and negatively correlated with agreeableness. Path analysis showed that each approach to learning was predicted by multiple personality traits, and that academic achievement was predicted by approaches to learning. A separate analysis showed that the relationship between openness and achievement was mediated by a deep approach to learning. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality and absenteeism: a meta-analysis of integrity tests

    Deniz S. Ones
    Until recently, research focus has been on a variety of demographic, attitudinal, and organizational variables in predicting and explaining absenteeism. If personality traits predict absenteeism, then it may be possible to use measures of these traits to identify and select job applicants and thereby reduce absenteeism rates. In this research, our goal was to examine whether integrity tests could be used to predict absenteeism. Meta-analysis was applied to studies of the validity of pre-employment integrity tests for predicting voluntary absenteeism. Twenty-eight studies based on a total sample of 13,972 were meta-analysed. The estimated mean predictive validity of personality-based integrity tests was 0.33. This operational validity generalized across various predictor scales, organizations, settings, and jobs (SD,,=,0.00). Overt integrity tests, however, showed much lower predictive validity for absenteeism and greater variability than personality-based tests (,,=,0.09; SD,,=,0.16). The results indicate that a personnel selection approach to reducing absenteeism in organizations may be a useful strategy, particularly if personality-based integrity tests are utilized. Potential explanations for differences between these results and those found for Big Five measures of personality are offered. Future research investigating models of absenteeism should incorporate the personality constructs assessed by integrity tests. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Individual differences in creativity: personality, story writing, and hobbies

    Uwe Wolfradt
    This study investigated the relationship between creativity and personality among college students from a variety of major fields of study. Indicators of creativity were ratings of written stories, lists of personal hobbies, and scores on the Creative Personality Scale (CPS; Gough, 1979). Personality was assessed broadly using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae, 1985) as well as measures of depersonalization, intolerance of ambiguity, faith in intuition, and problem-solving styles. The results showed a positive relationship between openness to experience and all creativity measures. Moreover, high scores on intuition and extraversion were the best predictors for creativity as measured by the CPS. Story creativity was predicted by low scores on conscientiousness. Depersonalization was not significantly related to creativity. The results of this investigation confirm and extend previous research in demonstrating a close association between creativity and specific personality traits. Future research should clarify the nature of the creative personality across individuals of differing levels and domains of expertise. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Different personality patterns in non-socialized (juvenile delinquents) and socialized (air force pilot recruits) sensation seekers

    Anna Maria Dåderman
    Young delinquents are known to be sensation seekers. Not all sensation seekers become delinquents: many engage in socially accepted activities, such as mountaineering or parachute jumping. The present study compares 47 juvenile delinquents (mean age 17 years) with 18 Swedish air force pilot recruits (mean age 23 years) and 19 conscripts (mean age 18 years) as a control group. Sensation-seeking behaviour, impulsiveness, and psychiatric/psychological vulnerability were measured by the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS), the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Two separate multivariate analyses of variance were performed, followed up by stepdown analyses to identify those personality scale scores that contributed uniquely. In order to clarify the relationships, the pooled within-group correlations among scales were computed. Juvenile delinquents and pilot recruits were both high in sensation seeking, but on different subscales. Delinquents were high in impulsiveness, somatic anxiety, and extraversion,sociability, and low in socialization, suggesting psychiatric/psychological vulnerability. The findings may have implications for the treatment of juvenile delinquents. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, gender, and crying

    Mathell Peter
    This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated in crying frequency and crying proneness, but not with respect to mood changes after crying. As predicted, women reported a higher frequency of crying and more proneness to cry both for negative and positive reasons. For women, all these crying indices were negatively associated with Emotional Stability. For men, only a significant negative relationship between Emotional Stability and crying for negative reasons emerged. No clear links were found between personality and mood changes after crying. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant predictive role of gender for crying proneness, even when controlling for personality differences, but not for crying frequency. Adding personality by gender interaction terms resulted in a disappearance of the main effect of sex, while significant interactions with personality factors showed up for crying frequency and general crying proneness. It is suggested that future research on the relationship between personality and crying should focus more on the underlying mechanisms of observed relationships. Furthermore, it is recommended that future research should examine the role of different emotion regulation strategies. In addition, biological factors, temperament, upbringing measures, and socio-demographic variables should be taken into account. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Foreign Language Teaching Style and Personality

    Thomas C. Cooper
    The principal findings of the study were: (1)the type distribution among pre-service foreign language students in the sample confirmed the pattern found by other studies of foreign language teachers, a group of individuals with a high proportion of feeling types; (2) the TAP Questionnaire distinguished the personality types from one another; and (3)the TAP Questionnaire indicated that preferred teaching activities usually matched the personality dimensions of the participant. Some of the pedagogical implications for foreign language teachers are discussed. [source]