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  • Selected Abstracts

    THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED Tn5530 from Burkholderia cepacia strain 2a encodes a chloride channel protein essential for the catabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Antonio Sebastianelli
    Summary Chloride channel proteins (ClC) are found in living systems where they transport chloride ions across cell membranes. Recently, the structure/function of two prokaryotic ClC has been determined but little is known about the role of these proteins in the microbial metabolism of chlorinated compounds. Here we show that transposon Tn5530 from Burkholderia cepacia strain 2a encodes a ClC protein (BcClC) which is responsible for expelling Cl, ions generated during the catabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (a chlorinated herbicide). We found that BcClC has the ability to transport Cl, ions across reconstituted proteoliposome membranes. We created two mutants in which the intrachannel glutamate residue of the protein, known to be responsible for opening and closing the channel (i.e. gating), was changed in order to create constitutively open and closed forms. We observed that cells carrying the closed-channel protein accumulated Cl, ions intracellularly leading to a decrease in intracellular pH, cell stasis and death. Further, we established that BcClC has the same gating mechanism as that reported for the ClC protein from Salmonella typhimurium. Our results show that the physiological role of ClC is to maintain cellular homeostasis which can be impaired by the catabolism of chlorinated compounds. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Altered architecture and functional consequences of the mesolimbic dopamine system in cannabis dependence

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Saturnino Spiga
    ABSTRACT Cannabinoid withdrawal produces a hypofunction of mesencephalic dopamine neurons that impinge upon medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the forebrain. After chronic treatment with two structurally different cannabinoid agonists, ,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55 940 (CP) rats were withdrawn spontaneously and pharmacologically with the CB1 antagonist SR141716A (SR). In these two conditions, evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons revealed significant morphometrical reductions in the ventrotegmental area but not substantia nigra pars compacta of withdrawn rats. Similarly, confocal analysis of Golgi,Cox-stained sections of the nucleus accumbens revealed a decrease in the shell, but not the core, of the spines' density of withdrawn rats. Administration of the CB1 antagonist SR to control rats, provoked structural abnormalities reminiscent of those observed in withdrawal conditions and support the regulatory role of cannabinoids in neurogenesis, axonal growth and synaptogenesis by acting as eu-proliferative signals through the CB1 receptors. Further, these measures were incorporated into a realistic computational model that predicts a strong reduction in the excitability of morphologically altered MSN, yielding a significant reduction in action potential output. These pieces of evidence support the tenet that withdrawal from addictive compounds alters functioning of the mesolimbic system and provide direct morphological evidence for functional abnormalities associated with cannabinoid dependence at the level of dopaminergic neurons and their postsynaptic counterpart and are coherent with recent hypothesis underscoring a hypodopaminergic state as a distinctive feature of the ,addicted brain'. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on neuronal responses to nicotine, cocaine and morphine in the nucleus accumbens shell and ventral tegmental area: involvement of PPAR-, nuclear receptors

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Antonio Luchicchi
    ABSTRACT The endocannabinoid system regulates neurotransmission in brain regions relevant to neurobiological and behavioral actions of addicting drugs. We recently demonstrated that inhibition by URB597 of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main enzyme that degrades the endogenous cannabinoid N-acylethanolamine (NAE) anandamide and the endogenous non-cannabinoid NAEs oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, blocks nicotine-induced excitation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons and DA release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (ShNAc), as well as nicotine-induced drug self-administration, conditioned place preference and relapse in rats. Here, we studied whether effects of FAAH inhibition on nicotine-induced changes in activity of VTA DA neurons were specific for nicotine or extended to two drugs of abuse acting through different mechanisms, cocaine and morphine. We also evaluated whether FAAH inhibition affects nicotine-, cocaine- or morphine-induced actions in the ShNAc. Experiments involved single-unit electrophysiological recordings from DA neurons in the VTA and medium spiny neurons in the ShNAc in anesthetized rats. We found that URB597 blocked effects of nicotine and cocaine in the ShNAc through activation of both surface cannabinoid CB1-receptors and alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor. URB597 did not alter the effects of either cocaine or morphine on VTA DA neurons. These results show that the blockade of nicotine-induced excitation of VTA DA neurons, which we previously described, is selective for nicotine and indicate novel mechanisms recruited to regulate the effects of addicting drugs within the ShNAc of the brain reward system. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Tolerance to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is associated with impaired serotonin release

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Karen Jones
    ABSTRACT Tolerance to the behavioural effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) following high dose exposure has been attributed to alterations in serotonergic systems. The present study aimed to determine whether decreased 5-HT release and/or 5-HT2A/C receptor desensitization might play a role in tolerance by measuring the response to selective ligands following MDMA exposure. To this end, the latency to nose poke and emerge from a hide box to an open field arena following administration of various ligands to MDMA pre-treated and control rats was measured. Acute exposure to MDMA (0.0,3.3 mg/kg), the 5-HT releasing stimulant fenfluramine (0.0,2.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT2 receptor agonist m-CPP (0.0,1.25 mg/kg) increased nose poke and emergence latency. Following administration of doses that produce 5-HT2A receptor-mediated behaviours, the 5-HT2 receptor agonist (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane failed to alter nose poke and emergence latency, suggesting a limited role of this receptor subtype in these behaviours. Activation of 5-HT2C receptors was implicated in the behavioural response to both MDMA and m-CPP since the increased emergence latency was dose-dependently attenuated by pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221 (0.0,1.0 mg/kg). Tolerance to the behavioural effect of MDMA and fenfluramine but not m-CPP was produced by prior exposure to MDMA (10 mg/kg administered at two-hour intervals, total 40 mg/kg), and tissue levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were decreased. These findings suggest that tolerance to the increased nose poke and emergence latency produced by MDMA is due to impaired 5-HT release. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Ethanol-induced activation of AKT and DARPP-32 in the mouse striatum mediated by opioid receptors

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Karl Björk
    ABSTRACT The reinforcing properties of ethanol are in part attributed to interactions between opioid and dopaminergic signaling pathways, but intracellular mediators of such interactions are poorly understood. Here we report that an acute ethanol challenge induces a robust phosphorylation of two key signal transduction kinases, AKT and DARPP-32, in the striatum of mice. Ethanol-induced AKT phosphorylation was blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone but unaffected by blockade of dopamine D2 receptors via sulpiride. In contrast, DARPP-32 phosphorylation was abolished by both antagonists. These data suggest that ethanol acts via two distinct but potentially synergistic striatal signaling cascades. One of these is D2-dependent, while the other is not. These findings illustrate that pharmacology of ethanol reward is likely more complex than that for other addictive drugs. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Ghrelin increases intake of rewarding food in rodents

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Emil Egecioglu
    ABSTRACT We investigated whether ghrelin action at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node in the mesolimbic reward system, is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of the consumption of rewarding/palatable food. Mice with a disrupted gene encoding the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) and rats treated peripherally with a GHS-R1A antagonist both show suppressed intake of rewarding food in a free choice (chow/rewarding food) paradigm. Moreover, accumbal dopamine release induced by rewarding food was absent in GHS-R1A knockout mice. Acute bilateral intra-VTA administration of ghrelin increased 1-hour consumption of rewarding food but not standard chow. In comparison with sham rats, VTA-lesioned rats had normal intracerebroventricular ghrelin-induced chow intake, although both intake of and time spent exploring rewarding food was decreased. Finally, the ability of rewarding food to condition a place preference was suppressed by the GHS-R1A antagonist in rats. Our data support the hypothesis that central ghrelin signaling at the level of the VTA is important for the incentive value of rewarding food. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Laura Orio
    ABSTRACT Previous work suggests a role for dopamine D3-like receptors in psychostimulant reinforcement. The development of new compounds acting selectively at dopamine D3 receptors has opened new possibilities to explore the role of these receptors in animal models of psychostimulant dependence. Here we investigated whether the dopamine D3 partial agonist CJB090 (1,10 mg/kg, i.v) and the D3 antagonist PG01037 (8,32 mg/kg, s.c.) modified methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) intravenous self-administration under fixed- (FR) and progressive- (PR) ratio schedules in rats allowed limited (short access, ShA; 1-hour sessions 3 days/week) or extended access (long access, LgA; 6 hour sessions 6 days/week). Under a FR1 schedule, the highest dose of the D3 partial agonist CJB090 selectively reduced methamphetamine self-administration in LgA but not in ShA rats, whereas the full D3 antagonist PG01037 produced no effect in either group. Under a PR schedule of reinforcement, the D3 partial agonist CJB090 reduced the maximum number of responses performed (,breakpoint') for methamphetamine in LgA rats at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, and also it produced a significant reduction in the ShA group at the highest dose. However, the D3 full antagonist PG01037 only reduced PR methamphetamine self-administration in LgA rats at the highest dose of 32 mg/kg with no effect in the ShA group. The results suggest that rats might be more sensitive to pharmacological modulation of dopamine D3 receptors following extended access to methamphetamine self-administration, opening the possibility that D3 receptors play a role in excessive methamphetamine intake. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Repeated ethanol administration modifies the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns in mice: effects associated with behavioral sensitization

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Raúl Pastor
    ABSTRACT Neuroadaptations supporting behavioral sensitization to abused drugs are suggested to underlie pathological, excessive motivation toward drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Drug-induced sensitization has also been linked to increased appetitive responses for non-drug, natural reinforcers. The present research investigated whether ethanol (EtOH)-induced neural changes, inferred from psychomotor sensitization, can modify consumption and intake dynamics for the natural reinforcer, sucrose. The effects of EtOH-induced sensitization in mice on the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns were measured using a lickometer system. After sensitization, sucrose intake dynamics were measured for 1 hour daily for 7 days and indicated more rapid initial approach and consumption of sucrose in EtOH-sensitized groups; animals showed a shorter latency to the first intake bout and an increased number of sucrose bottle licks during the initial 15 minutes of the 1-hour sessions. This effect was associated with increased frequency and size of bouts. For the total 1-hour session, sucrose intake and bout dynamics were not different between groups, indicating a change in patterns of sucrose intake but not total consumption. When sensitization was prevented by the ,-aminobutyric acid B receptor agonist, baclofen, the increased rate of approach and consumption of sucrose were also prevented. Thus, EtOH-induced sensitization, and not the mere exposure to EtOH, was associated with changes in sucrose intake patterns. These data are consistent with current literature suggesting an enhancing effect of drug-induced sensitization on motivational processes involved in reinforcement. [source]

    CLINICAL STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Immunomodulating properties of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam and ethanol in ,club drugs' users

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Simona Pichini
    ABSTRACT Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) toxicity in users, no studies have addressed GHB and other club drugs effects on the immune system under controlled administration. Lymphocyte subsets and functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation were measured in 10 healthy male recreational users of GHB who participated in five experimental sessions within the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double blind, double dummy and cross-over. Drug conditions were: a single oral dose of GHB (40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg), ethanol (0.7 g/kg), flunitrazepam (1.25 mg) and placebo. Acute GHB produced a time-dependent immune impairment in the first 4 hours after drug administration associated with an increase in cortisol secretion. Although total leukocyte count remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in the CD4 T/CD8 T-cell ratio, as well as in the percentage of mature T lymphocytes, probably because of a decrease in both the percentage and absolute number of T helper cells. A significant decrease was also observed in natural killer cells and in functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. Flunitrazepam administration did not produce any change in the immune system, while ethanol intake produced a decrease in B lymphocytes and in lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens. These results provide the first evidence that GHB intake under a controlled environmental setting impairs the immunological status and confirms the alterations in the immune function caused by ethanol. [source]

    GENETIC STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Incorporating age at onset of smoking into genetic models for nicotine dependence: evidence for interaction with multiple genes

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Richard A. Grucza
    ABSTRACT Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes and investigated whether incorporation of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we incorporated the interaction between allele count and age at onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence and 811 non-nicotine-dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main effect models, SNP × AOS interaction models resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus model. Some SNPs previously documented in main effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al. 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (P = 1.5 × 10,5), which encodes a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation and constitutes a promising avenue for gene discovery. [source]

    REVIEW ARTICLE: Cortical control of eye and head movements: integration of movements and percepts

    L. Longtang Chen
    Abstract The cortical control of eye movements is well known. It remains unclear, however, as to how the eye fields of the frontal lobes generate and coordinate eye and head movements. Here, we review the recent advances in electrical stimulation studies and evaluate relevant models. As electrical stimulation is conducted in head-unrestrained, behaving subjects with the evoked eye and head movements sometimes being indistinguishable from natural gaze shifts, a pertinent question becomes whether these movements are evoked by motor programs or sensory percepts. Recent stimulation studies in the visual cortex and the eye fields of the frontal lobes have begun to bring both possibilities to light. In addition, cognitive variables often interact with behavioral states that can affect movements evoked by stimulation. Identifying and controlling these variables are critical to our understanding of experimental results based on electrically evoked movements. This understanding is needed before one can draw inferences from such results to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying natural and complex movements. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Genetics, adaptation, and invasion in harsh environments

    Richard Gomulkiewicz
    Abstract We analyze mathematical models to examine how the genetic basis of fitness affects the persistence of a population suddenly encountering a harsh environment where it would go extinct without evolution. The results are relevant for novel introductions and for an established population whose existence is threatened by a sudden change in the environment. The models span a range of genetic assumptions, including identical loci that contribute to absolute fitness, a two-locus quantitative genetic model with nonidentical loci, and a model with major and minor genes affecting a quantitative trait. We find as a general (though not universal) pattern that prospects for persistence narrow as more loci contribute to fitness, in effect because selection per locus is increasingly weakened with more loci, which can even overwhelm any initial enhancement of fitness that adding loci might provide. When loci contribute unequally to fitness, genes of small effect can significantly reduce extinction risk. Indeed, major and minor genes can interact synergistically to reduce the time needed to evolve growth. Such interactions can also increase vulnerability to extinction, depending not just on how genes interact but also on the initial genetic structure of the introduced, or newly invaded, population. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Propensity of marine reserves to reduce the evolutionary effects of fishing in a migratory species

    Erin S. Dunlop
    Abstract Evolutionary effects of fishing can have unwanted consequences diminishing a fishery's value and sustainability. Reserves, or no-take areas, have been proposed as a management tool for reducing fisheries-induced selection, but their effectiveness for migratory species has remained unexplored. Here we develop an eco-genetic model to predict the effects of marine reserves on fisheries-induced evolution under migration. To represent a stock that undergoes an annual migration between feeding and spawning grounds, we draw model parameters from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the northern part of its range. Our analysis leads to the following conclusions: (i) a reserve in a stock's feeding grounds, protecting immature and mature fish alike, reduces fisheries-induced evolution, even though protected and unprotected population components mix on the spawning grounds; (ii) in contrast, a reserve in a stock's spawning grounds, protecting only mature fish, has little mitigating effects on fisheries-induced evolution and can sometimes even exacerbate its magnitude; (iii) evolutionary changes that are already underway may be difficult to reverse with a reserve; (iv) directly after a reserve is created or enlarged, most reserve scenarios result in yield losses; and (v) timescale is very important: short-term yield losses immediately after a reserve's creation can give way to long-term gains. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Implications of fisheries-induced evolution for stock rebuilding and recovery

    Katja Enberg
    Abstract Worldwide depletion of fish stocks has led fisheries managers to become increasingly concerned about rebuilding and recovery planning. To succeed, factors affecting recovery dynamics need to be understood, including the role of fisheries-induced evolution. Here we investigate a stock's response to fishing followed by a harvest moratorium by analyzing an individual-based evolutionary model parameterized for Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from its northern range, representative of long-lived, late-maturing species. The model allows evolution of life-history processes including maturation, reproduction, and growth. It also incorporates environmental variability, phenotypic plasticity, and density-dependent feedbacks. Fisheries-induced evolution affects recovery in several ways. The first decades of recovery were dominated by demographic and density-dependent processes. Biomass rebuilding was only lightly influenced by fisheries-induced evolution, whereas other stock characteristics such as maturation age, spawning stock biomass, and recruitment were substantially affected, recovering to new demographic equilibria below their preharvest levels. This is because genetic traits took thousands of years to evolve back to preharvest levels, indicating that natural selection driving recovery of these traits is weaker than fisheries-induced selection was. Our results strengthen the case for proactive management of fisheries-induced evolution, as the restoration of genetic traits altered by fishing is slow and may even be impractical. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Probability of emergence of antimalarial resistance in different stages of the parasite life cycle

    Wirichada Pongtavornpinyo
    Abstract Understanding the evolution of drug resistance in malaria is a central area of study at the intersection of evolution and medicine. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major threat to malaria control and directly related to trends in malaria attributable mortality. Artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) are now recommended worldwide as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and losing them to resistance would be a disaster for malaria control. Understanding the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance in the context of different scenarios of antimalarial drug use is essential for the development of strategies protecting ACTs. In this study, we review the basic mechanisms of resistance emergence and describe several simple equations that can be used to estimate the probabilities of de novo resistance mutations at three stages of the parasite life cycle: sporozoite, hepatic merozoite and asexual blood stages; we discuss the factors that affect parasite survival in a single host in the context of different levels of antimalarial drug use, immunity and parasitaemia. We show that in the absence of drug effects, and despite very different parasite numbers, the probability of resistance emerging at each stage is very low and similar in all stages (for example per-infection probability of 10,10,10,9 if the per-parasite chance of mutation is 10,10 per asexual division). However, under the selective pressure provided by antimalarial treatment and particularly in the presence of hyperparasitaemia, the probability of resistance emerging in the blood stage of the parasite can be approximately five orders of magnitude higher than in the absence of drugs. Detailed models built upon these basic methods should allow us to assess the relative probabilities of resistance emergence in the different phases of the parasite life cycle. [source]

    PERSPECTIVE ARTICLE: Why do adaptive immune responses cross-react?

    Karen J. Fairlie-Clarke
    Abstract Antigen specificity of adaptive immune responses is often in the host's best interests, but with important and as yet unpredictable exceptions. For example, antibodies that bind to multiple flaviviral or malarial species can provide hosts with simultaneous protection against many parasite genotypes. Vaccinology often aims to harness such imprecision, because cross-reactive antibodies might provide broad-spectrum protection in the face of antigenic variation by parasites. However, the causes of cross-reactivity among immune responses are not always known, and here, we explore potential proximate and evolutionary explanations for cross-reactivity. We particularly consider whether cross-reactivity is the result of constraints on the ability of the immune system to process information about the world of antigens, or whether an intermediate level of cross-reactivity may instead represent an evolutionary optimum. We conclude with a series of open questions for future interdisciplinary research, including the suggestion that the evolutionary ecology of information processing might benefit from close examination of immunological data. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Potential for anthropogenic disturbances to influence evolutionary change in the life history of a threatened salmonid

    John G. Williams
    Abstract Although evolutionary change within most species is thought to occur slowly, recent studies have identified cases where evolutionary change has apparently occurred over a few generations. Anthropogenically altered environments appear particularly open to rapid evolutionary change over comparatively short time scales. Here, we consider a Pacific salmon population that may have experienced life-history evolution, in response to habitat alteration, within a few generations. Historically, juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Snake River migrated as subyearlings to the ocean. With changed riverine conditions that resulted from hydropower dam construction, some juveniles now migrate as yearlings, but more interestingly, the yearling migration tactic has made a large contribution to adult returns over the last decade. Optimal life-history models suggest that yearling juvenile migrants currently have a higher fitness than subyearling migrants. Although phenotypic plasticity likely accounts for some of the change in migration tactics, we suggest that evolution also plays a significant role. Evolutionary change prompted by anthropogenic alterations to the environment has general implications for the recovery of endangered species. The case study we present herein illustrates the importance of integrating evolutionary considerations into conservation planning for species at risk. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal regimes and their potential evolutionary consequences

    Michael J. Angilletta Jr
    Abstract Dams designed for hydropower and other purposes alter the environments of many economically important fishes, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We estimated that dams on the Rogue River, the Willamette River, the Cowlitz River, and Fall Creek decreased water temperatures during summer and increased water temperatures during fall and winter. These thermal changes undoubtedly impact the behavior, physiology, and life histories of Chinook salmon. For example, relatively high temperatures during the fall and winter should speed growth and development, leading to early emergence of fry. Evolutionary theory provides tools to predict selective pressures and genetic responses caused by this environmental warming. Here, we illustrate this point by conducting a sensitivity analysis of the fitness consequences of thermal changes caused by dams, mediated by the thermal sensitivity of embryonic development. Based on our model, we predict Chinook salmon likely suffered a decrease in mean fitness after the construction of a dam in the Rogue River. Nevertheless, these demographic impacts might have resulted in strong selection for compensatory strategies, such as delayed spawning by adults or slowed development by embryos. Because the thermal effects of dams vary throughout the year, we predict dams impacted late spawners more than early spawners. Similar analyses could shed light on the evolutionary consequences of other environmental perturbations and their interactions. [source]

    RESEARCH ARTICLE: RPD3 and ROM2 are required for multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
    Silvia Borecka-Melkusova
    Abstract The PDR5 gene encodes the major multidrug resistance efflux pump in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In drug-resistant cells, the hyperactive Pdr1p or Pdr3p transcriptional activators are responsible for the PDR5 upregulation. In this work, it is shown that the RPD3 gene encoding the histone deacetylase that functions as a transcriptional corepressor at many promoters and the ROM2 gene coding for the GDP/GTP exchange protein for Rho1p and Rho2p participating in signal transduction pathways are required for PDR5 transcription under cycloheximide-induced and noninduced conditions. Transposon insertion mutations in ROM2, RPD3 and some other genes encoding specific subunits of the large Rpd3L protein complex resulted in enhanced susceptibility of mutant cells to antifungals. In the rpd3, and rom2, mutants, the level of PDR5 mRNA and the rate of rhodamine 6G efflux were reduced. Unlike rpd3,, in rom2, mutant cells the drug hypersensitivity and the defect in PDR5 expression were suppressed by PDR1 or PDR3 overexpressed from heterologous promoters and by the hyperactive pdr3-9 mutant allele. The results indicate that Rpd3p histone deacetylase participating in chromatin remodeling and Rom2p participating in the cell integrity pathway are involved in the control of PDR5 expression and modulation of multidrug resistance in yeast. [source]

    RESEARCH ARTICLE: Fungicidal activity of amiodarone is tightly coupled to calcium influx

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
    Sabina Muend
    Abstract The antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone has microbicidal activity against fungi, bacteria and protozoa. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, amiodarone triggers an immediate burst of cytosolic Ca2+, followed by cell death markers. Ca2+ transients are a common response to many forms of environmental insults and toxic compounds, including osmotic and pH shock, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and high levels of mating pheromone. Downstream signaling events involving calmodulin, calcineurin and the transcription factor Crz1 are critical in mediating cell survival in response to stress. In this study we asked whether amiodarone induced Ca2+ influx was beneficial, toxic or a bystander effect unrelated to the fungicidal effect of the drug. We show that downregulation of Ca2+ channel activity in stationary phase cells correlates with increased resistance to amiodarone. In actively growing cells, extracellular Ca2+ modulated the size and shape of the Ca2+ transient and directly influenced amiodarone toxicity. Paradoxically, protection was achieved both by removal of external Ca2+ or by adding high levels of CaCl2 (10 mM) to block the drug induced Ca2+ burst. Our results support a model in which the fungicidal activity of amiodarone is mediated by Ca2+ stress, and highlight the pathway of Ca2+ mediated cell death as a promising target for antifungal drug development. [source]

    RESEARCH ARTICLE: Farysizyma gen. nov., an anamorphic genus in the Ustilaginales to accommodate three novel epiphytic basidiomycetous yeast species from America, Europe and Asia

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
    João Inácio
    Abstract Among many isolates that resulted from four independent surveys of yeasts associated with plants in Brazil, the USA, Portugal and Taiwan, we have characterized eighteen basidiomycetous strains, two of which were conspecific with the type strain of Rhodotorula acheniorum, whereas the remaining sixteen isolates appeared not to correspond to any previously described species. Microsatellite-PCR fingerprinting with primers M13 and (GTG)5 confirmed that the latter strains formed three genetically distinct groups. Each group was considered to represent a distinct species based on nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data placed the putative novel species in a clade with R. acheniorum and the dimorphic smut fungus Farysia chardoniana. A novel anamorphic genus, Farysizyma, is created to accommodate the three undescribed species, which were named Farysizyma itapuensis, Farysizyma setubalensis and Farysizyma taiwaniana. A new combination, Farysizyma acheniorum, is proposed for R. acheniorum, which may represent the yeast-phase anamorph of Farysia thuemenii. [source]

    REVIEW ARTICLE: An improved manufacturing process for Xyntha/ReFacto AF

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2010
    Summary., ReFacto® Antihemophilic Factor is a second-generation antihaemophilia A product manufactured using a process that includes therapeutic grade human serum albumin (HSA) in the cell culture medium, but is formulated without HSA as a stabilizer. Even though this second-generation antihaemophilia product has a good safety profile, a programme was implemented to eliminate all animal- and human-derived raw materials from the production process, thus producing a third-generation product. To that end, HSA has been removed from the master and working cell banks and from the culture medium. The hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody formerly used in the purification process has been replaced by a chemically synthesized affinity peptide, and a virus-retaining filtration step has been added to enhance the clearance of large viruses, such as retroviruses. The purification process has been validated for the removal of a panel of model viruses and provides significant clearance of all viruses tested. Host cell- and process-derived impurity removal validations also were conducted, including host cell DNA and protein, in addition to the affinity peptide. Compared with the product manufactured according to the original process, these changes had no detectable effect on the structural integrity, stability or clinical efficacy of this antihaemophilia A product. The product produced by the improved manufacturing process is named XynthaÔ/ReFacto AF. [source]

    THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED STEALTH matters: a novel paradigm of durable primate allograft tolerance

    J. M. Thomas
    Summary: We review a novel strategy for tolerance induction developed in rhesus macaques and termed STEALTH. We summarize the evolution of the STEALTH model, the results of successful trials in inducing long-term, stable transplant tolerance in rhesus kidney and diabetic islet recipients and discuss information related to the mechanism by which durable tolerance is induced. STEALTH tolerance is induced by a 3-day treatment course of CD3, immunotoxin (IT) combined with a 14-day treatment with deoxyspergualin (DSG). IT causes profound depletion of sessile lymph node T cells as well as the more accessible circulating T cells. DSG, an inhibitor of HSC 70-mediated NF-,B nuclear translocation, arrests maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, blocks production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by IT administration, and promotes systemic production of Th2 type cytokines that persist indefinitely. Such Th2 cytokine deviation has not been reported in NHP transplant recipients. These studies provide proof of principle in a preclinical model that prevention of both acute and chronic allograft rejection, for at least 2.2,4.9 years of follow-up, can be achieved in NHP in the absence of chronic immunosuppressive drugs or other interventions. This strategy for inducing NHP tolerance is discussed in relation to current tolerance paradigms. [source]

    THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED Effect of Silica Sol on the Properties of Alumina-Based Duplex Ceramic Cores

    Yexia Qin
    A series of alumina-based ceramic cores sintered at 1300°C, 1400°C, and 1500°C for 5 h were prepared, and the phases and microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of colloidal silica sols on the properties of ceramic core was discussed. The properties of these materials were determined. The results indicated that the microstructure of the core is characterized by the presence of substantially unreacted Al2O3 particles having a polycrystalline composition consisting essentially of in situ synthesized 3Al2O3·2SiO2 on the surface of the Al2O3 particles. The colloidal silica sol contents do not have an appreciable effect on the densification and shrinkage of the alumina ceramic core. The ceramic cores of 5 wt% colloidal silica sol contents sintered at 1500°C for 5 h showed the smallest creep deformation in the present research. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Comparison of a point of care device against current laboratory methodology using citrated and EDTA samples for the determination of D-dimers in the exclusion of proximal deep vein thrombosis

    P. M. BAKER
    Summary D-dimer estimation is a routine part of diagnostic algorithms for the exclusion of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We evaluated a point of care device, Biosite Triage (Inverness Medical UK, Cheshire, UK) for the estimation of D-dimers in both samples taken into citrate and EDTA against our routine laboratory D-dimer (Liatest D-dimer, Diagnostica Stago, Reading, UK) performed on the STA-R Evolution. With informed consent, 102 consecutive patients presenting with possible deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were enrolled and D-dimers along with Wells scores and compression ultrasonography (CUS) were recorded. Using the manufacturers' recommended cut offs of 500 ,g/l fibrinogen equivalent units and 400 ,g/l for the Stago and Triage, respectively, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. These were 1.00, 0.42, 0.17, and 1.00 for the Triage machine using citrate samples, 1.00, 0.32, 0.14, and 1.00 using EDTA samples and 1.00, 0.29, 0.16, and 1.00 for the Stago Liatest assay, respectively. Three patients had significantly higher results for the Stago Liatest D-dimer assay compared with the Biosite Triage device although ultrasound scans were negative. Conclusion: The Biosite Triage D-dimer assay performed on either citrate or EDTA samples is comparable with the Stago Liatest laboratory D-dimer assay when used in conjunction with clinical pretest probability scoring and CUS for the exclusion of DVT. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Pro-hepcidin and iron metabolism parameters in multi-time blood donors

    Summary A high number of blood donations may cause iron depletion. The pathophysiology behind this process may involve hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide that acts by inhibiting iron absorption and promoting iron retention in reticuloendothelial macrophages. The aim of this study was to determine serum pro-hepcidin levels and iron metabolism parameters in multi-time blood donors. The study group consisted of 132 multi-time male blood donors and 25 healthy male volunteers (nondonors). Complete blood cell count and iron status including serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), erythropoietin and pro-hepcidin (ELISA) were assessed. In blood donors, ferritin level drops markedly in relation to donation frequency (P < 0.001). In contrast, TIBC and UIBC levels increase progressively corresponding to annual donation frequency. Pro-hepcidin concentration increases significantly with the number of donations per year (P = 0.0290). In blood donors having donated blood with the highest frequency per year, pro-hepcidin levels were positively correlated with haemoglobin (R = 0.31, P < 0.05) and negatively with sTfR (R = ,0.31, P < 0.05). Pro-hepcidin levels increase in relation to blood donation frequency per year. Longitudinal studies focusing on changes in serum hepcidin levels are required to address the question whether hepcidin may contribute to iron metabolism disturbances in multi-times blood donors. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The approach to the mechanism of calcitonin gene-related peptide-inducing inhibition of food intake

    J.-Y. Sun
    Summary The aim of this study was to investigate the anorectic mechanism of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of CGRP (50 ,g/kg) resulted in decline (p < 0.05) in the food intake of rats at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h in comparison with saline control. Compared with saline-treated group, the levels of hypothalamic 3,,5,-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and plasma glucagon were increased (p < 0.05) in CGRP-treated group, but insulin level was decreased (p < 0.05). No significant changes (p > 0.05) in the plasma leptin were observed between two treatment groups. Calcitonin gene-related peptide injection down regulated (p < 0.05) both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) genes at mRNA levels, but up regulated (p < 0.05) the expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) gene. The correlations analysis showed that food intake was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with CCK mRNA, cAMP and glucagon levels. Moreover, there existed negative correlations (p < 0.05) between MCH mRNA and glucagon levels, and positive correlations (p < 0.05) between insulin and leptin levels. The results showed that cAMP acting as the second messenger may play a vital role in the anorectic effects of CGRP. Calcitonin gene-related peptide could stimulate anorexigenic neuropeptides (i.e. CCK) and/or inhibit orexigenic neuropeptides (i.e. NPY and MCH) expression, and ultimately suppressed food intake that was functionally coupled to cAMP/PKA pathway activation. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Application of soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and isolate differing in , -galactosides content to low- and high-fibre diets in growing turkeys

    Z. Zdu, czyk
    Summary The aim of this experiment was to investigate the physiological and growth response of young turkeys (up to 8 weeks of age) to dietary replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by soy protein concentrate (PC) or protein isolate (PI). This replacement resulted in a differentiated dietary concentration of , -galactosides of over 2.5% in the SBM diet, approximately 2% with a mixture SBM and PC, 1% with a PC diet and 0.1% with a PI diet. Each treatment was applied in two ways: with lower (3.5%) or higher (5.3%) dietary crude fibre content, made by supplementation with soybean hulls. The highest and lowest body weight of turkeys was recorded both after the first and second 4-week half of the study in the PC and PI-type diets respectively. A gradual withdrawal of , -galactosides from a diet was accompanied by a decline in ileal tissue mass, ileal viscosity and activity of endogenous maltase (the latter was found to be significant at 4 weeks of age). At the same time, two-way anova revealed that an elevated level of crude fibre (HF treatment) caused an increase in ileal tissue mass (p < 0.05 after 4 weeks of feeding) as well as a decrease in activity level of intestinal sucrase and maltase. The presence of raffinose family oligosaccharides in a diet, in contrast to dietary crude fibre level, significantly affected the caecal metabolism. The rate of bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids in the caeca was distinctly diminished by dietary withdrawal of , -galactosides. In conclusion, the soy protein concentrate, in contrast to the protein isolate preparation, exerted positive effects on the turkeys' growth and gastrointestinal tract physiology and should be considered as an effective SBM substitute. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Ileal endogenous amino acid flow of broiler chickens under high ambient temperature

    A. F. Soleimani
    Summary High environmental temperature has detrimental effects on the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acute heat stress on endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow in broiler chickens. A total of 90, day-old broiler chicks were housed in battery cages in an environmentally controlled chamber. Chicks were fed a nitrogen-free diet on day 42 following either no heat exposure (no-heat) or 2 weeks exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 28 to 42 (2-week heat) or 1 week exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 35 to 42 (1 week heat). The most abundant amino acid in the ileal flow was glutamic acid, followed by aspartic acid, serine and threonine in non-heat stressed group. The EAA flow in 1-week heat and 2-week heat birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those under no heat exposure (14682, 11161 and 9597 mg/kg of dry matter intake respectively). Moreover, the EAA flow of 2-week heat group was less than 1-week heat group by approximately 36%. These observations suggest that the effect of heat stress on EAA flow is mostly quantitative; however, heat stress may also alter the content of EAA flow qualitatively. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Description of development of rumen ecosystem by PCR assay in milk-fed, weaned and finished lambs in an intensive fattening system

    A. Belanche
    Summary This study examined the reticulo-rumen characteristics of the microbial community and its fermentative characteristics in milk-fed, at weaning and finished lambs in a conventional fattening system. Five lambs were assigned to each of three groups: milk-fed lambs slaughtered at 30 days (T30), weaned lambs slaughtered at 45 days (T45) and ,finished lambs' slaughtered at 90 days (T90). At slaughter, rumen size, fermentation parameters (pH, volatile fatty acids and microbial enzyme activity) and protozoal counts were recorded. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify the genes encoding 16S and 18S ribosomal DNA of the rumen bacterial and protozoal populations, respectively, and the sequential colonization of the rumen by cellulolytic (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) and amylolytic (Prevotella ruminicola, Streptococcus bovis) bacteria, and protozoa (Entodinium sp.). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to study the development of rumen microbiota biodiversity. Intake of solid food before weaning caused a significant increase in rumen weight (p < 0.0001) and bacterial DNA (p < 0.05) and volatile fatty acid analysis concentration (p < 0.01), whereas pH declined. In milk-fed lambs, cellulolytic bacteria were evident after 30 days. Thereafter, in the 45-day and 90-day groups, the proportions of R. flavefaciens decreased and R. albus increased. Amylolytic bacteria were present in milk-fed lambs; the proportion of P. ruminicola increased in fattening lambs and S. bovis was the least abundant species. Protozoal concentrations were irregular; milk-fed lambs had a significant number of protozoa species from Entodinium and subfamily Isotrichiidae, but they disappeared at weaning. Lamb rumen were refaunated in some individuals at 90 days (Entodinium and subfamily Diplodiniinae spp.), although individual concentrations were variable. [source]