Performance Scale (performance + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Performance Scale

  • karnofsky performance scale


  • Selected Abstracts


    Severity of anxiety and work-related outcomes of patients with anxiety disorders

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 12 2009
    Steven R. Erickson PharmD.
    Abstract Background: This study examined associations between anxiety and work-related outcomes in an anxiety disorders clinic population, examining both pretreatment links and the impact of anxiety change over 12 weeks of treatment on work outcomes. Four validated instruments were used to also allow examination of their psychometric properties, with the goal of improving measurement of work-related quality of life in this population. Methods: Newly enrolled adult patients seeking treatment in a university-based anxiety clinic were administered four work performance measures: Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), and Functional Status Questionnaire Work Performance Scale (WPS). Anxiety severity was determined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Clinical Global Impressions, Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I) was completed by patients to evaluate symptom change at a 12-week follow-up. Two severity groups (minimal/mild vs. moderate/severe, based on baseline BAI score) were compared to each other on work measures. Results: Eighty-one patients provided complete baseline data. Anxiety severity groups did not differ in job type, time on job, job satisfaction, or job choice. Patients with greater anxiety generally showed lower work performance on all instruments. Job advancement was impaired for the moderate/severe group. The multi-item performance scales demonstrated better validity and internal consistency. The WLQ and the WPAI detected change with symptom improvement. Conclusion: Level of work performance was generally associated with severity of anxiety. Of the instruments tested, the WLQ and the WPAI questionnaire demonstrated acceptable validity and internal reliability. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Social functioning as an outcome measure in schizophrenia studies

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2007
    T. Burns
    Objective:, Deficits in social functioning are a core feature of schizophrenia. Method:, A literature search of English language articles published between January 1990 and December 2006 was undertaken to identify: i) scales used most frequently to assess social functioning in schizophrenia; and ii) the most frequently used social functioning scales in randomized, controlled trials of antipsychotics. A further search (without time limits) examined their psychometric properties. Results:, A total of 301 articles employed social functioning scales in the assessment of schizophrenia. These contained 87 potentially relevant measures. Only 14 randomized, controlled studies of antipsychotic agents were identified that examined social functioning. Scales varied greatly in terms of measurement approach, number and types of domains covered and scoring systems. A striking lack of data on psychometric properties was observed. Conclusion:, Limited consensus on the definition and measurement of social functioning exists. The Personal and Social Performance Scale is proposed as a useful tool in future research. [source]


    Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of the Cognitive Performance Scale (Minimum Data Set) and the Mini-Mental State Exam for the detection of cognitive impairment in nursing home residents

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 4 2007
    Louis Paquay
    Abstract Objective To compare the diagnostic accuracy of an outcome measurement scale of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument for nursing homes (MDS/RAI-NH), the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) for the detection of cognitive impairment. The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly , Revised (CAMDEX-R) was used as the reference standard. Study design and setting This study was part of a larger prospective study (QUALIDEM) involving a diagnostic procedure and two-year follow-up on the quality of primary care for demented patients. CAMDEX-R and MDS/RAI-NH were administered to 198 residents, aged 65 or more, living in 42 low and high care institutions for aged people. Main outcome measures Indicators of diagnostic accuracy: sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, odds ratio and area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results The CAMDEX-based prevalence of cognitive impairment was 75%. The diagnostic values of a CPS score of two or more for the detection of cognitive impairment were: sensitivity,=,0.81; specificity,=,0.80; PPV,=,0.92; NPV,=,0.57. The diagnostic values of a MMSE score of less than or equal 23 were: sensitivity,=,0.97; specificity,=,0.59; PPV,=,0.88; NPV,=,0.85. For CPS, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.81,0.91), and not significantly different (p,=,0.63) from the MMSE score, 0.88 (0.83,0.93). Conclusions CPS and MMSE demonstrated similar performance to detect cognitive impairment in nursing home residents. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Correlation between Braden Scale and Palliative Performance Scale in advanced illness

    INTERNATIONAL WOUND JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
    Vincent Maida
    Abstract This study describes the significant correlation between the Braden Scale (BS) and the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) in patients with advanced illness that has not been previously reported. The analysis was based on a prospective sequential case series of 664 patients suffering from advanced illness who were referred to a regional palliative medicine programme in Toronto, Canada. Baseline BS and PPS scores assessed within 24 hours of referral were considered for analysis. After controlling for age, gender, consult site and diagnosis (cancer versus non cancer), we observed a significant positive correlation between baseline PPS and BS scores (r = 0·885, P < 0·001). These findings suggest that for patients with advanced illness where BS is not routinely used, PPS could be considered as a proxy for pressure ulcer risk assessment. [source]


    Factors associated with lower quality of life among patients receiving palliative care

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 9 2009
    Ying Yu Chui
    Abstract Title.,Factors associated with lower quality of life among patients receiving palliative care. Aim., This paper is a report of a study conducted to (1) assess the quality of life (QoL) and physical functioning status of patients diagnosed with advanced cancer and receiving palliative care; (2) determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between their physical functioning and QoL and (3) identify the demographic and disease-related variables related to their QoL. Background., Achieving the best possible QoL is a major goal in palliative care. However, research findings about the relationship between QoL and demographic variables have been inconsistent. Method., Three hundred patients with advanced cancer were recruited from four district hospitals in Hong Kong between February 2005 and July 2006. Their QoL and physical functioning status were assessed by face-to-face interview, using the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (Hong Kong version) and the Palliative Performance Scale respectively. Results., Participants reported reduced ambulation, inability to perform hobbies or housework, and the need for occasional assistance in self-care (mean: 64·6 out of 100, sd: 19·3, range: 20,100). QoL was fair (mean: 6·2 out of 10, sd: 1·5, range: 0·9,10). There was a weak positive association between physical functioning and QoL scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that patients who were older, female, had ever been married, or had higher physical functioning tended to have better QoL. Conclusion., More could be done in symptom and psychosocial management to improve patients' QoL, in particular for those who are younger, male or single, or who have lower physical functioning. [source]


    Post-discharge health care needs of patients after lung cancer resection

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 17-18 2010
    Kwua-Yun Wang
    Aims and objective., To determine the health care needs of patients after surgical resection of lung cancer at discharge and evaluate the significance of factors associated with such needs. Background., Other studies have found that symptom distress level, social supports and health beliefs are associated with health care needs. Design., Sixty-two participants were recruited from a thoracic surgery clinic at a medical centre in Taipei from July,December 2005. Data related to demographic variables, disease characteristics, functional status, symptom distress and social support were collected. Methods., The patients were administered the Karnofsky Performance Scale, the Symptom Distress Scale,Chinese Modified Form, the Social Support Scale (adapted from the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List), the Health Needs Scale and self-reported rating scales for pain. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression models. Results., Pulmonary function was found to be correlated with the level of need for health care information and physiological care. Self-perceived symptom distress and degree of distress were also correlated with levels of need for information, physiological care and psychosocial care. The level of pain was found to be correlated with the level of need for health care information and physiological care. After controlling for pain level, multivariate analysis revealed that self-perceived symptom severity (p = 0·032) and degree of distress (p = 0·043) were modestly correlated with the need for health care. Conclusions., Pulmonary function, self-perceived symptom distress, degree of distress and level of pain were correlated with the level of need for health care information and physiological care. Self-perceived symptom severity and degree of distress were independent predictors of health care needs. Relevance to clinical practice., Administration of relevant questionnaires to assess postoperative symptom distress may be necessary for optimal disease management. [source]


    Concurrent validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale,Revised

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 2 2006
    V. Scott Hooper
    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p < .001), ranging from .33 to .74. The UNIT Full Scale score was 5 points higher than the Leiter-R Full Scale score, t = 4.73, p < .001. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 143,148, 2006. [source]


    Transdermal fentanyl in the management of children with chronic severe pain

    CANCER, Issue 12 2005
    Results from an international study
    Abstract BACKGROUND The current study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of a transdermal fentanyl delivery system for the relief of chronic pain in a pediatric population, and also to validate titration recommendations and conversion to transdermal fentanyl from oral opioid therapy. METHODS This 15-day (with 3-month extension), single-arm, open-label trial was conducted at 66 sites in 10 countries. A total of 199 pediatric patients (ages 2,16 years) with both malignant and nonmalignant conditions who were receiving oral or parenteral opioids for moderate to severe chronic pain were enrolled. Transdermal fentanyl doses were titrated upward according to the rescue medication consumed during the previous application period. Degree of pain was assessed by patients and parents/guardians using visual and numeric scales. Level of play and quality of life were assessed using the Play Performance Scale (PPS) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Adverse events were monitored on Days 1,15. Hypoventilation and sedation were monitored every 4 hours during the first 72 hours of the study. RESULTS A total of 173 patients completed the primary treatment period and 130 entered the extension phase. The average daily pain intensity scores were reported to have decreased by Day 16 and improvements in the mean PPS scores were observed to the end of the extension period. The CHQ scores demonstrated improvements in 11 of 12 domains after Month 1 of the extension period. CONCLUSIONS Transdermal fentanyl was found to be a safe and well tolerated alternative to oral opioid treatment for children ages 2,16 years who were previously exposed to opioid therapy. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]


    Effects of Qi therapy (external Qigong) on symptoms of advanced cancer: a single case study

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 5 2005
    M.S. LEE phd
    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Qi therapy (external Qigong) in the management of symptoms of advanced cancer in a man. We used a single case study design to evaluate the effectiveness of Qi therapy (external Qigong) in a 35-year-old man with advanced cancer (Stage IV) involving metastases in the stomach, lung and bone (Karnofsky performance scale: KPS, 40: requires special care and assistance, disabled). Treatment involved six days of pre-assessment, eight treatment sessions on alternate days over 16 days, and a two-week follow-up phase. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the patient's self-reported symptoms of cancer over the intervention and follow-up periods. Following treatment, VAS scores' analysis revealed beneficial effects on pain, vomiting, dyspnoea, fatigue, anorexia, insomnia, daily activity and psychological calmness. These improvements were maintained over the two-week follow-up phase. After the first Qi therapy session, the patient discontinued medication and could sit by himself; after the fourth session, the patient was able to walk and use the toilet without assistance (improvement in KPS: 70: care for self, unable to perform normal activity or to do active work). Although limited by the single case study approach, our results support previous studies on this topic and provide reasons to conduct controlled clinical trials. [source]


    Developing a valid and reliable self-efficacy in clinical performance scale

    INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    F. Cheraghi phd
    Aim:, This paper describes the development and testing of the Self-Efficacy in Clinical Performance (SECP) instrument for nursing students. Background:, Accurate measurement of self-efficacy can be used to predict nursing students' clinical performance. The literature review indicated there is no existing self-efficacy in clinical performance instrument for Iranian nursing students. Methods:, To clarify the concept of self-efficacy in clinical performance, 28 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups were conducted. A self-efficacy framework with well-developed theoretical constructs was formed. A review of literature and content analysis of the interview transcripts identified subscales and items to be included in the instrument. Then, a methodological design was used. The SECP was developed into 69 Likert-format items, which were evaluated by 20 nursing experts in the form of content validity index. The scale's validity and reliability were tested in a randomized sample of 207 final year nursing students. Findings:, The final scale consists of four dimensions with 37 items. The overall scale internal reliability had , = 0.96; the dimensions Cronbach's , ranged from 0.90 to 0.92. Test,retest reliability with a 2-week time interval was: r = 0.94. In addition, concurrent validity was obtained (r = 0.73, P = 0.01). Conclusions:, The SECP has demonstrated evidence of content validity, construct validity, concurrent validity, internal consistency reliability and stability. Statistical analysis provided an objective tool for assessing nursing students' self-efficacy in clinical performance. It may have been fruitful to further test the instrument with students from other years of their education. [source]


    Distinguishing between task and contextual performance for nurses: development of a job performance scale

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 6 2007
    Jaimi H. Greenslade
    Abstract Title.,Distinguishing between task and contextual performance for nurses: development of a job performance scale Aim., This paper is a report of a development and validation of a new job performance scale based on an established job performance model. Background., Previous measures of nursing quality are atheoretical and fail to incorporate the complete range of behaviours performed. Thus, an up-to-date measure of job performance is required for assessing nursing quality. Methods., Test construction involved systematic generation of test items using focus groups, a literature review, and an expert review of test items. A pilot study was conducted to determine the multidimensional nature of the taxonomy and its psychometric properties. All data were collected in 2005. Findings., The final version of the nursing performance taxonomy included 41 behaviours across eight dimensions of job performance. Results from preliminary psychometric investigations suggest that the nursing performance scale has good internal consistency, good convergent validity and good criterion validity. Conclusion., The findings give preliminary support for a new job performance scale as a reliable and valid tool for assessing nursing quality. However, further research using a larger sample and nurses from a broader geographical region is required to cross-validate the measure. This scale may be used to guide hospital managers regarding the quality of nursing care within units and to guide future research in the area. [source]


    Prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical expression of O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, P-glycoprotein, and multidrug resistance protein-1 in glioblastomas

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Takao Nakagawa
    We studied the expression of O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (O6 -MGMT), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1) in 23 glioblastomas using RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and immunohistochemistry, and analyzed their association with overall patient survival. Univariate analysis of collected data demonstrated that the expressions of O6 -MGMT and MRP-1 detected by immunohistochemistry, in addition to the consistent factors, including preoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), radical surgery, and tumor location and extension, were significant prognostic factors for the overall survival (OS) of patients with glioblastoma, who received nimustine (ACNU)-based chemotherapy in association with surgery and radiotherapy. Among them, following multivariate analysis, preoperative KPS, radical surgery, tumor location, and the expression of O6 -MGMT remained as significant prognostic factors. These findings suggest that immunohistochemical analysis of O6 -MGMT in patients with glioblastoma can be a useful method to predict the effects of chemotherapy and identify alternative chemotherapeutic regimens for O6 -MGMT-positive patients. [source]


    Going beyond competencies: An exploratory study in defining exemplary workplace learning and performance practitioners

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2009
    Terri Freeman Smith
    This study was an exploratory investigation used to identify exemplary performance in four of the areas of expertise (AOEs) as described in the American Society for Training and Development's Mapping the Future: New Workplace Learning and Performance Competencies (2004). Qualitative data were collected from the following four AOEs: (1) delivering training, (2) designing learning, (3) improving human performance, and (4) measuring and evaluating. Research suggests that an exemplary performer could have productivity differences 12 times greater than performers at the bottom of the performance scale and 85% greater than an average performer (Hunter, Schmidt, & Judiesch, 1990). Critical incidents were collected from behavioral event interviews of 23 exemplary performers and 9 typical performers. An analysis of the findings suggests that an exemplary performer may hold at least four key behaviors: taking calculated risks, entrepreneurial and visionary planning, documented business performance to support and influence change, and political prudence and leadership savvy. [source]


    Emergency Department Case-finding for High-risk Older Adults: The Brief Risk Identification for Geriatric Health Tool (BRIGHT)

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
    Michal Boyd RN
    Abstract Objective:, The objective was to test the ability of the Brief Risk Identification for Geriatric Health Tool (BRIGHT) to identify older emergency department (ED) patients with functional and physical impairment. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional study in which 139 persons ,75 years, who presented to an urban New Zealand ED over a 12-week period, completed the 11-item BRIGHT case-finding tool. Then, within 10 days of their index ED visit, 114 persons completed a comprehensive geriatric assessment. A "yes" response to at least 3 of the 11 BRIGHT items was considered "positive." Primary outcome measures were instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), cognitive performance scale (CPS), and activities of daily living (ADL). Results:, The BRIGHT-identified IADL deficit (64% prevalence) with a sensitivity of 0.76, specificity of 0.79, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.91, p < 0.01); cognitive deficit (35% prevalence) sensitivity of 0.78, specificity of 0.54, and ROC of 0.66 (95% CI = 0.55 to 0.76, p = 0.006); and ADL deficit (29% prevalence) sensitivity of 0.83, specificity of 0.53, and ROC of 0.64 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.75, p = 0.020). Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) for the three outcomes of interest were 3.6, 1.7, and 1.8, respectively. Negative likelihood ratios (LR,) were 0.3, 0.4, and 0.3. Conclusions:, The 11-item BRIGHT successfully identifies older adults in the ED with decreased function and may be useful in differentiating elder patients in need of comprehensive assessment. [source]


    Primary central nervous system lymphoma: The role of consolidation treatment after a complete response to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy,

    CANCER, Issue 5 2008
    Meltem Ekenel MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. The most effective treatment for a new diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma is high-dose methotrexate (MTX)-based chemotherapy followed by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). However, this combined modality treatment carries an increased risk of delayed neurotoxicity. For patients who achieve a complete response (CR) after induction that uses high-dose MTX-based chemotherapy, it is not clear if consolidation treatment is necessary. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to assess the impact of consolidation treatment after a CR to initial induction chemotherapy on disease control and survival. METHODS. The authors retrospectively analyzed 122 patients who achieved a CR after initial MTX-based chemotherapy. The benefit of consolidation WBRT, high-dose cytarabine (HDAC), or both on failure-free (FFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed. RESULTS. With a median follow-up of 60 months, FFS was longer in patients who received WBRT plus HDAC as consolidation treatment (P = .03 by univariate analysis); there was no difference in OS observed among patients who received no consolidation treatment, HDAC alone, WBRT plus HDAC, or WBRT alone. Age and Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) were the only independent prognostic factors. Patients who received WBRT alone or in combination with HDAC had higher rates of neurotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS. Consolidation treatment with WBRT, HDAC, or both does not appear to improve survival in patients who achieved a CR with induction MTX-based therapy. Age, KPS, and risk of delayed neurotoxicity must be considered in the choice of consolidation regimens. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


    Performance of young people with Down syndrome on the Leiter-R and British picture vocabulary scales

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
    S. Glenn
    Abstract Background The British picture vocabulary scales (BPVS-II) and the Leiter international performance scales (Leiter-R), both restandardised in 1997, are often used in experimental studies to match individuals with intellectual impairment. Both provide a brief measure of mental age, and cover a wide ability range using a simple format. The BPVS-II assesses verbal comprehension and the Leiter nonverbal abilities. The issue is which to choose. People with Down syndrome (DS), for example, have particular problems in language and so the BPVS may provide an underestimation of ability. Method The present study investigated this by comparing the performance of 46 young people with DS (21 females, 25 males, mean age 19 years 10 months) on the BPVS-II (verbal mental age , VMA) and the Leiter-R brief IQ (nonverbal mental age , NVMA). Results Contrary to expectations VMAs were significantly higher than NVMAs (6 years 6 months and 5 years 2 months, respectively). There was a significant correlation of 0.61 between the VMA and NVMA, and both discriminated participants at all levels of ability. However, the Leiter-R brief IQ scores provided poor discrimination at the bottom end of the IQ range (IQ 36). Conclusion Both the BPVS-II and the Leiter-R provide mental age equivalent scores that are useful for plotting developmental progress, although absolute mental ages may differ. [source]


    Scale sensitivity of synthetic long-term vegetation time series derived through overlay of short-term field records

    JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    Otto Wildi
    Abstract Questions: Is change in cover of dominant species driving the velocity of succession or is it species turnover (1)? Is the length of the time-step chosen in sampling affecting our recognition of the long-term rate of change (2)1 Location: 74 permanent plots located in the Swiss National Park, SE Switzerland, ca. 1900 m a.s.l. Methods: We superimpose several time-series from permanent plots to one single series solely based on compositional dissimilarity. As shown earlier (Wildi & Schütz 2000) this results in a synthetic series covering about 400 to 650 yr length. Continuous power transformation of cover-percentage scores is used to test if the dominance or the presence-absence of species is governing secondary succession from pasture to forest. The effect of time step length is tested by sub-samples of the time series. Results: Altering the weight of presence-absence versus dominance of species affects the emerging time frame, while altering time step length is uncritical. Where species turnover is fast, different performance scales yield similar results. When cover change in dominant species prevails, the solutions vary considerably. Ordinations reveal that the synthetic time series seek for shortest paths of the temporal pattern whereas in the real system longer lasting alternatives exist. Conclusions: Superimposing time series differs from the classical space-for-time substitution approach. It is a computation-based method to investigate temporal patterns of hundreds of years fitting between direct monitoring (usually limited to decades) and the analysis of proxy-data (for time spans of thousands of years and more). [source]


    Fast, scalable, and distributed restoration in general mesh optical networks

    BELL LABS TECHNICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2001
    Gary P. Austin
    Service providers are demanding transport network solutions that can accommodate exponential traffic growth and, at the same time, provide novel services such as point-and-click provisioning of very high bandwidth circuits, optical bandwidth service management, fast protection and restoration, and bandwidth on demand. It is becoming increasingly clear that the required scalability (terabits/s to petabits/s) and cost structure can only be provided by transparent optical cross connects (OXCs). The challenge, then, is to make the optical network consisting of OXCs, dense wavelength division multiplexers (DWDMs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) dynamic and intelligent. A major aspect of this intelligence is fast provisioning and restoration. In this paper, we present a fast, scalable, and distributed solution for optical layer restoration in general mesh-type optical networks, which is being implemented as part of the Optical Navigator System (ONS) residing in Lucent's LambdaRouter product. The key ingredients to our solution are a fast and scalable restoration strategy, a fast and scalable connection setup strategy, a contention-free wavelength assignment strategy, and a fast and reliable data communications network to exchange signaling messages. We also introduce novel concepts of demand bundling and optical virtual paths that ensure that restoration performance scales with network and traffic volumes. Together these components provide an intelligent optical networking solution that not only guarantees restoration times within few hundreds of milliseconds, but also achieves scalability. [source]