Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Perpetrators

  • alleged perpetrator
  • homicide perpetrator
  • male perpetrator

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 16 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    The Strength of Perpetrators,The Holocaust in Western Europe, 1940,1944

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2002
    Wolfgang Seibel
    On average, two-thirds of the Jews in German-controlled territory during World War II did not survive. However, the degree of victimization varied considerably, depending on the area examined. In Poland, the Baltic States, the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia, Greece, the territories of Yugoslavia and the Netherlands, more than 70 percent of Jews were killed. In Hungary and the occupied territories of the Soviet Union, the number of Jews killed was close to the average. In Belgium, Norway, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and Denmark, a majority of the Jews survived. At the same time, the structure of Nazi rule over Europe before and during World War II was characterized by a wide variety of administrative regimes. So far, research has not systematically linked different degrees of Jewish victimization to different kinds of administrative regimes. Did different forms of administrative regimes result in differing degrees of Jewish victimization during the Holocaust? The present paper presents both evidence and an operationalization for a related general hypothesis. [source]

    Interpersonal Problems Among Perpetrators and Targets of Workplace Bullying

    Lars Glasø
    This representative study among 2,539 Norwegian employees examines interpersonal problems among targets and perpetrators of workplace bullying. Both targets and perpetrators portrayed elevated levels of interpersonal problems. Yet, the results question the role of a general target personality in explaining exposure to workplace bullying. Although interpersonal problems were reported among 50% of the targets, interpersonal problems were also prevalent in a large proportion of the non-exposed employees. Accordingly, level of interpersonal problems does not easily differentiate targets from non-targets and calls for a broader frame of reference in order to understand the bullying process. [source]

    Young Men as Victims and Perpetrators of Violence in Northern Ireland: A Qualitative Analysis

    Jacqueline Reilly
    This article explores issues of masculinity and violence in the lives of young men in disadvantaged areas in Northern Ireland. Qualitative data were collected in four focus groups, one group of young men from the Catholic community, one group of young men from the Protestant community, one group of community representatives, and one group of Young Offenders (N= 28). Themes were extracted from the data using a grounded approach. Results indicate that social disadvantage is fundamental to experiences of violence and that young men understand the costs and benefits of a masculine identity that incorporates a capacity for violence. Discussion suggests that initiatives to reduce violent behavior should be compatible with socially and culturally acceptable constructions of masculinity. [source]

    Atypical autonomic regulation in perpetrators of violent domestic abuse

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    John C. Umhau
    Perpetrators of domestic violence describe symptoms that are compatible with exaggerated autonomic arousal at the time of the domestic violence. This inappropriate arousal may be reflected in altered heart rate regulation. If heart rate is systematically regulated by vagal mechanisms, then increases in heart rate should correlate with decreases in cardiac vagal activity, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We hypothesized that perpetrators of domestic violence have an alteration in heart rate regulation. To test this hypothesis we compared the results of a postural shift performed on perpetrators, healthy volunteers, and nonviolent alcoholics. Results showed there were no significant differences in heart rate, RSA, or catecholamines. However, the significant inverse relationship between posture-elicited changes in RSA and heart rate present in the healthy volunteers was not found in perpetrators. These differences in the covariation between heart rate and RSA may represent differences in the neural regulation of heart rate and may be related to difficulties in controlling autonomic state. [source]

    Excessive violence and psychotic symptomatology among homicide offenders with schizophrenia

    Taina Laajasalo
    Background,It is not currently known how psychotic symptoms are associated with the nature of violence among homicide offenders with schizophrenia, or, more specifically, whether different psychotic symptoms are differentially linked with excessive violence. Aim,To identify factors associated with the use of excessive violence among homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Methods,Forensic psychiatric examination statements and Criminal Index File data of 125 consecutive Finnish homicide offenders with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were analysed. Results,Nearly one-third of the cases in this sample involved extreme violence, including features such as sadism, mutilation, sexual components or multiple stabbings. Excessive violence was a feature of acts when the offender was not the sole perpetrator or when there was a previous homicidal history. Positive psychotic symptoms, including delusions, were not associated with the use of excessive violence. Conclusions,These results highlight the importance of variables other than clinical state when examining qualitative aspects of homicidal acts, such as the degree and nature of violence, by offenders with schizophrenia. Further study is needed with a more specific focus on the qualities of the violence among different subgroups of offenders, but inclusive of those with psychosis. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Developmental aspects of violence and the institutional response

    Stephen BlumenthalArticle first published online: 14 MAR 200
    Introduction The developmental and attachment literature on violence is reviewed. Violence is conceptualized as an attempt to achieve justice. The cycle of violence is explored with reference to the early experience of perpetrators and their treatment by the criminal justice system after they have committed acts of violence. Aetiology The origins of violence are considered in the context of the experience of trauma in childhood and the consequent damage to ,internal working models' of relationships. The perpetration of violence in later life is viewed in the context of identifying with the aggressor, the obliteration of thought processes and the repetition of the earlier childhood trauma. The offence is considered as a symptom, a symbolic communication, by individuals who are unable to symbolize distress on a verbal level. The institutional response The ,violence begets violence' hypothesis is then extended to include the response of society and its institutions as part of the full circle of the repetition compulsion: the childhood victim who later becomes a perpetrator, then again becomes the victim of a cruel and persecuting system. Incarceration is viewed as a ,compromise formation' in that it fulfils the wish both for punishment and for care, albeit in a highly disguised form and allowing for a defensive state of mind to continue. The therapeutic relationship These issues are considered in the context of the therapeutic relationship and the enactment of early trauma in this setting which may provide insight into the psychological processes at work between the offender and society. Conclusions Understanding violence indicates that, whilst some individuals need to be physically checked, a response which focuses on retribution fails to address the problem of violence and colludes with the very pathology of those who engage in such action. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Violence in a general hospital: comparison of assailant and other assault-related factors on accident and emergency and inpatient wards

    S. Winstanley
    Objective:, This study sought to compare the characteristics of aggressive incidents occurring on inpatient (medical and surgical) wards with those occurring in the accident and emergency department in terms of assailant, employee and other factors. Method:, A prospective interview-based survey design was adopted. Forty-eight assaulted staff were interviewed about 69 incidents within 7 days on average of the incident occurring. The presence or absence of various assailant, employee, situation, interaction and outcome factors derived from the UK Health Services Advisory Committee's model was compared between the two settings. Results:, Inpatient ward incidents were significantly more likely to have the following characteristics: female perpetrator, perpetrator aged over 70 years, daytime occurrence in a restricted area, resolved by support from other health care staff. Conclusion:, Aggression frequently occurs on inpatient (medical and surgical) wards of a general hospital. Aggression management training for staff working in both accident and emergency and inpatient settings should be cognisant of the similarities and differences within general health care specialisms. [source]

    Emotional reactions to harmful intergroup behavior

    Ernestine H. Gordijn
    In this paper, we examined reactions to situations in which, although one is not personally involved, one could see oneself connected to either the perpetrators or the victims of unfair behavior. We manipulated participants' similarity and measured their identification to either one of two groups which participants later learned was the victim or the perpetrator of harmful behavior. As predicted, making salient similarities to the victims lead participants to: 1) appraise the perpetrator's behavior as more unfair; 2) experience more anger; and 3) be more likely to take action against it and less prone to show support for it as a function of their level of identification with their salient ingroup. In sharp contrast, focusing participants' attention on their similarities to the perpetrators reversed this pattern of findings: Compared to high identifiers, low identifiers appraised the behavior as more unfair than high identifiers, which made them feel angry (and guilty) and less likely to show support for the perpetrator's behavior. The data also provide strong support for a mediational model in which appraisal of the situation colors the emotional reaction which in turn orients action tendencies. We discuss the implications of our findings for the issue of group-based emotions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Counterfactuals and roles: mock victims' and perpetrators' accounts of judicial cases

    Patrizia Catellani
    Three studies assessed the influence of differential perspective taking on counterfactual thinking. In Study 1 male and female subjects were asked to play the role of, respectively, perpetrator and victim in a rape case, and to give their own account of the event. Analysis of spontaneous counterfactuals showed a main tendency to focus on actions more than inactions and on controllable more than uncontrollable elements. However, this tendency was moderated by the subject's role and the counterfactual target. While victims focused on perpetrators' controllable actions more than on their own, perpetrators did not focus on victims' controllable actions more than on their own; they focused on victims' controllable inactions instead. In Study 2, where males and females were asked to reverse their roles, and where prompted as well as spontaneous counterfactuals were analysed, the same results were found. Further evidence for generality of these results was found in Study 3, where an assault case instead of a rape case was taken into account. These findings support the view that counterfactual mutability may be influenced by role-based motivations, as well as by role-based expectations regarding how active a party is supposed to have been in an event. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    Simeon StammArticle first published online: 13 MAR 200
    This Note discusses domestic violence in the military. Currently, in cases of domestic violence in the military, the Case Review Committee uses the Incident Severity Index for Spouse Abuse to determine the severity of abuse. The Case Review Committee uses this index when determining treatment options for the perpetrator of domestic violence. However, this index is extremely inconsistent with the current views and emerging research of domestic violence. This Note identifies the problems with the current system and gives recommendations for ways to improve the system. The Note concludes that a new system would enhance the military's ability to combat domestic violence. [source]

    Injuries to the head, face, mouth and neck in physically abused children in a community setting

    A. M. CAIRNS
    Summary. Objectives. The aims of the present study were to identify the incidence of orofacial injuries found within a cohort of physically abused children, and examine demographic data surrounding the alleged perpetrator, the location in which the alleged assault occurred, the mechanism of injury and the actual orofacial injury incurred. Methods. The research took the form of a retrospective study of clinical case records of children with suspected physical abuse from 1 June 1998 to 31 May 2003. Seven hundred and fifty case records were identified and 390 (46·7%) were available for data extraction. Results. Fifty-nine per cent (n = 230) of children had signs of abuse on the head, face or neck. The alleged perpetrator was the mother in 104 cases (26·7%), the father in 100 (25·6%) and mother's partner in 49 other cases (12·6%). More than half (53·3%) of the alleged abuse occurred in the child's home; in 32·3% of cases, the location was not recorded. Other locations included outside in a public place, school and at the home of the alleged abuser. Some 23·4% (n = 54) had been punched or slapped around the head, neck or face, 17·4% (n = 40) had been struck by an object, and 15·2% (n = 35) had allegedly sustained multiple modes of injury. Bruising to the head, neck or face was seen in 95·2% (n = 219) of children, and 32·6% (n = 75) had abrasions; 65·2% (n = 150) of the bruises and 22·9% (n = 53) of the abrasions were on the face. Conclusions. Fifty-nine per cent of physically abused children in the present cohort had orofacial signs of abuse which would be easily visible to a dental practitioner. The commonest injuries were bruises and abrasions. This concurs with previous reports in the literature and highlights the important role of dental practitioners in the recognition of children who have been abused. [source]

    International Intervention and the Severity of Genocides and Politicides

    Matthew Krain
    This study examines the effectiveness of overt military intervention in slowing or stopping the killing during ongoing instances of genocide or politicide. Six alternative hypotheses regarding the potential effects of intervention on genocide/politicide severity are tested in a cross-national longitudinal analysis of all ongoing genodices or politicides from 1995 to 1997. The results suggest that interventions that directly challenge the perpetrator or aid the target of the brutal policy are the only effective type of military responses, increasing the probability that the magnitude of the slaughter can be slowed or stopped. Impartial interventions seem to be ineffective at reducing severity, and interventions to challenge the perpetrator do not make matters worse for the targets of genocide or politicide. The findings are consistent with recent arguments that attempts to prevent or alleviate mass killings should focus on opposing, restraining, or disarming perpetrators and/or removing them from power. [source]

    The Effect of Victims' Social Support on Attributions of Blame in Female and Male Rape

    Irina Anderson
    The effects of perceived social support of the victim, victim gender, and participant gender on attributions of blame in rape were examined. The impact of attitudes toward gender roles was also investigated for their mediational role between participant gender and blame. Participants (N= 121) read a report of an incident of rape and evaluated the victim and the perpetrator. Two ANOVAs showed that social support and participant gender influenced blame attributed to the victim, while victim gender influenced blame attributed to the perpetrator. Socially supported victims were blamed less than were unsupported victims. Men were more blaming of rape victims than were women, but further analyses showed this was mediated by attitudes toward gender roles. Men held significantly more traditional attitudes toward gender roles than did women, and this accounted for the effect of participant gender on victim perceptions. The perpetrator of male rape was blamed less than the perpetrator of female rape. Findings are discussed in terms of the differential attributional mechanisms that may underpin men's and women's reasoning about different types of rape. [source]

    Effects of Interview Style and Witness Age on Perceptions of Children's Credibility in Sexual Abuse Cases

    Paola Castelli
    The present study concerned effects of interview style and victim age on perceptions of child victim/witnesses and defendant guilt. In 2 experiments, participants read written scenarios of child sexual abuse trials. The scenarios included a transcript of the child victim/ witness's forensic interview, in which questioning varied from less leading to highly leading. In Experiment 1, child age (4 years vs. 7 years) did not significantly influence guilt ratings, but mock jurors were less likely to convict the alleged perpetrator and less likely to rate the child as credible and reliable when testimony was elicited through a highly leading vs. an intermediately or less leading interview. The effect of interview style on guilt ratings replicated in Experiment 2 for a 4-year-old victim/witness but not a 7-year-old victim/witness. In both studies, women compared to men were more likely to convict the defendant and to believe the child. Implications for understanding jurors' reactions to child victim/witness testimony are discussed. [source]

    Examining Rape Empathy From the Perspective of the Victim and the Assailant,

    Christine A. Smith
    Two studies using college student samples were conducted to establish reliability and validity for new scales measuring rape victim empathy and rape perpetrator empathy separately. In Experiment 1, two 13-item measures of rape empathy were developed. Variables examined for purposes of construct validity included personal sexual assault experience, general empathy, and perceived rape victim responsibility. In Experiment 2, we added 5 new items to each scale. The final scales were two 18-item measures with high reliability. Variables examined in Experiment 2 included personal sexual assault, general empathy, and acquaintanceship with a victim or a perpetrator. Both studies found gender differences for empathy scores, with women tending to be higher on rape victim empathy, and men tending to be higher on rape perpetrator empathy. Personal sexual experience was related to rape empathy scores. Perceived victim responsibility was negatively correlated with rape victim empathy and positively correlated with rape perpetrator empathy. [source]

    Women's physical aggression in bars: an event-based examination of precipitants and predictors of severity

    R. Lorraine Collins
    Abstract Although women drink in bars and experience aggression in bar settings, much of the research has focused on men's experiences of aggression in bars. We used data from questionnaires and face-to-face interviews to examine the contributors to the occurrence and severity of women's experience of specific incidents of aggression in bars. Young women (n=92) provided event-based descriptions of their most recent experience of physical aggression in a bar during the past 24 months. Most aggression in bars was precipitated by rowdy behavior and involved female opponents who were strangers. The severity and overall aggressiveness of the respondent's behaviors were positively associated with initiating the incident and having a female opponent. The severity and overall aggressiveness of the opponent's behaviors were negatively associated with initiating the incident and positively associated with having a female opponent. This study adds to the paucity of research on women's aggression in bars and expands our understanding of women's roles as perpetrator and victim of such aggression. Aggr. Behav. 33:304,313, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying

    Marina Camodeca
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110 boys) children at the beginning of the study (T1) and 242 children one year later (T2) (mean age: 8 years). To test how children responded when provoked, both spontaneously and after prompting, we used provocation scenarios, and to test their attributional interpretations we used ambiguous scenarios. The results showed that children not involved in bullying responded in an assertive way to provocation more often than bullies and victims, but not more than bully/victims. In general, aggressive answers diminished after prompting and irrelevant answers increased. Appealing for the help of an adult or a peer was the strategy most often chosen. When the intent of the perpetrator was ambiguous, bully/victims attributed more blame, were angrier, and would retaliate more than those not involved. Partly similar results were obtained when stably involved children were compared with those unstably involved. Suggestions for intervention are presented. Aggr. Behav. 29:116,127, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Variability of Bodily Measures of Normally Dressed People Using PhotoModeler® Pro 5,

    Peter K. Larsen M.Sc.
    Abstract:, Photogrammetry is used in forensic science to help identify perpetrators from crime scenes by way of surveillance video, but the reproducibility of manually locating hidden body-points such as the joints remains to be established. In this study, we quantified the inter- and intra-observer variability of bodily measures of clothed individuals in two different poses and examined whether body segment lengths could be used to distinguish between people of similar stature. Stature was reproduced within ±1.5 cm in both the intra- and inter-observer study. Segment lengths were best reproduced when flexion in the joints was present in the intra-observer study, but only the length of the trunk could be used to distinguish between people of similar height. The reproducibility between the two poses was low. Other measures than stature should be used with caution and with the perpetrator and suspect in the same pose. Consistent guidelines for locating body-points should be developed. [source]

    From marine ecology to crime analysis: Improving the detection of serial sexual offences using a taxonomic similarity measure

    Jessica Woodhams
    Abstract Jaccard has been the choice similarity metric in ecology and forensic psychology for comparison of sites or offences, by species or behaviour. This paper applies a more powerful hierarchical measure,taxonomic similarity (,s), recently developed in marine ecology,to the task of behaviourally linking serial crime. Forensic case linkage attempts to identify behaviourally similar offences committed by the same unknown perpetrator (called linked offences). ,s considers progressively higher-level taxa, such that two sites show some similarity even without shared species. We apply this index by analysing 55 specific offence behaviours classified hierarchically. The behaviours are taken from 16 sexual offences by seven juveniles where each offender committed two or more offences. We demonstrate that both Jaccard and ,s show linked offences to be significantly more similar than unlinked offences. With up to 20% of the specific behaviours removed in simulations, ,s is equally or more effective at distinguishing linked offences than where Jaccard uses a full data set. Moreover, ,s retains significant difference between linked and unlinked pairs, with up to 50% of the specific behaviours removed. As police decision-making often depends upon incomplete data, ,s has clear advantages and its application may extend to other crime types. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Motivational sources of confirmation bias in criminal investigations: the need for cognitive closure

    Karl Ask
    Abstract In two experiments, criminal investigators (N = 50) and undergraduate students (N = 68) read a set of facts from the preliminary investigation of a homicide case. Participants' initial hypothesis regarding the crime was manipulated by providing background information implying that the prime suspect had a jealousy motive or that there might be an alternative perpetrator. Students displayed a framing effect, such that guilt was ascribed to the prime suspect only when a potential motive was presented, whereas investigators did so regardless of hypothesis, thus being less sensitive to alternative interpretations. Investigators' need for cognitive closure (NFC) moderated the effect of the hypothesis on perceptions of the strength of the evidence against the prime suspect; high (v low) NFC investigators were less likely to acknowledge inconsistencies in the material when presented with a potential motive, but were more likely to do so when made aware of the possibility of an alternative perpetrator. Interpretations are somewhat clouded by the fact that dispositional NFC did not seem to affect in a consistent manner participants' motivation toward the experimental task. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Therapists' Prototypical Assessment of Domestic Violence Situations

    Kelly A. Blasko
    Prototypical perceptions by therapists have the potential to influence the therapeutic process of assessment. The purpose of this study is to begin to develop an understanding of how prototypes might affect marriage and family therapists' assessments of domestic violence situations. Participants evaluated one of three domestic violence scenarios that were identical in dynamics but different in terms of sexual orientation of the couple (i.e., heterosexual, gay, or lesbian). The most significant finding was that initial assessments of victim and perpetrator identification and power attribution differed depending on the sexual orientation of the couple. The "man as perpetrator, woman as victim" prototypical paradigm for heterosexual domestic violence emerged. In the same-sex scenarios, often "both" partners were perceived to be indicated both as victim and perpetrator. [source]

    Spouse Abuse and Alcohol Problems Among White, African American, and Hispanic U.S. Army Soldiers

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2006
    Nicole S. Bell
    Background: Prior studies suggest racial/ethnic differences in the associations between alcohol misuse and spouse abuse. Some studies indicate that drinking patterns are a stronger predictor of spouse abuse for African Americans but not whites or Hispanics, while others report that drinking patterns are a stronger predictor for whites than African Americans or Hispanics. This study extends prior work by exploring associations between heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and risk for spouse abuse within racial/ethnic groups as well as variations associated with whether the perpetrator is drinking during the spouse abuse incident. Methods: Cases (N=7,996) were all active-duty male, enlisted Army spouse abusers identified in the Army's Central Registry (ACR) who had also completed an Army Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) Survey between 1991 and 1998. Controls (N=17,821) were matched on gender, rank, and marital and HRA status. Results: We found 3 different patterns of association between alcohol use and domestic violence depending upon both the race/ethnicity of the perpetrator and whether or not alcohol was involved in the spouse abuse event. First, after adjusting for demographic and psychosocial factors, weekly heavy drinking (>14 drinks per week) and alcohol-related problems (yes to 2 or more of 6 alcohol-related problem questions, including the CAGE) were significant predictors of domestic violence among whites and Hispanics only. Also for the white soldiers, the presence of family problems mediated the effect of alcohol-related problems on spouse abuse. Second, alcohol-related problems predicted drinking during a spouse abuse incident for all 3 race groups, but this relation was moderated by typical alcohol consumption patterns in Hispanics and whites only. Finally, alcohol-related problems predicted drinking during a spouse abuse incident, but this was a complex association moderated by different psychosocial or behavioral variables within each race/ethnic group. Conclusion: These findings suggest important cultural/social influences that interact with drinking patterns. [source]

    Alcohol Abuse or Dependence Among Mexican American Women Who Report Violence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2001
    E. Anne Lown
    Background: Violence against women has been linked to alcohol disorders in various populations. Few studies have assessed alcohol disorders among assaulted women in a general population of Mexican Americans. This study examined alcohol disorders among Mexican American women who reported physical or sexual assault. Methods: Participants were women (n= 1516, ages 18,59) living in Fresno County, California, who were enrolled in a population-based, randomized household survey of Mexican-origin men and women. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for alcohol dependence/abuse (ADA) and physical or sexual assault by a current partner or someone other than a current partner. Results: Women who reported lifetime physical or sexual assault were significantly more likely to meet criteria for ADA (OR = 8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4,15.4). After we adjusted for birthplace, age, income, and parental problem drinking, assaulted women were still 4.7 times more likely to meet criteria for ADA (CI, 2.1,10.4). Physical or sexual assault by someone other than a partner was more strongly associated with ADA (OR = 8.7; CI, 4.5,16.9) than assault by a current partner (OR = 3.2; CI, 1.3,7.6). Both physical (OR = 9.0; CI, 4.7,17.0) and sexual assault (OR = 4.7; CI, 2.2,10.0) by either type of perpetrator were associated with ADA. Conclusion: There is a strong association between reporting violence and having a lifetime history of ADA. Although temporal order could not be established, these findings highlight the importance of screening for physical and sexual assault in settings that treat alcohol disorders as well as screening for alcohol disorders among women who seek services related to previous or current violence. [source]

    Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history

    Cathy Spatz Widom
    This article describes a new easy-to-administer and understand, interview-based instrument that systematically and comprehensively assesses a person's Lifetime Trauma and Victimization History (LTVH). The LTVH inquires about 30 traumas and victimization experiences (including general traumas, physical assault/abuse, sexual assault/abuse, kidnapping/stalking, family/friend murdered or committed suicide, witnessed trauma to someone else, and crime victimizations) and age of onset, perpetrator, degree of danger and fear experienced, duration, and frequency of each experience. We present evidence of predictive validity of the LTVH as well as convergent and criterion validity for the child abuse items using information from individuals with documented histories of child abuse and neglect and matched comparisons (without documented histories of childhood victimization). The 896 individuals (mean age = 39.5 years) reported 11,850 traumas or victimization experiences. The LTVH demonstrates good predictive, criterion-related, and convergent validity and a high level of agreement between earlier and current reports of certain types of traumas. [source]

    Consequences of childhood abuse among male psychiatric inpatients: Dual roles as victims and perpetrators

    Marylene Cloitre
    Abstract The relationship between retrospective self-reports of childhood abuse and subsequent interpersonal violence was assessed among 354 consecutive male inpatient admissions. Three logistic regressions revealed that, controlling for sociodemo-graphic and diagnostic variables, the association between childhood abuse and three mutually exclusive adult negative outcomes were as follows: (1) being a perpetrator of violence (Odds Ratio [OR] = ns), (2) being a victim of violence (OR = 2.5), and (3) being a perpetrator and victim (OR = 4.9). The results suggest that, among men with significant psychiatric impairments and childhood abuse, rates of adult victimization are high, and the most frequent negative outcome reflects involvement in dual roles of perpetrator and victim. The possible dynamics of this relationship are discussed. [source]

    A Hidden Agenda: Gender in Selected Writings by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer

    ORBIS LITERARUM, Issue 4 2001
    Heidi M. Schlipphacke
    In Dialektik der Aufklärung (1944,47), Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno criticize the "bourgeois subject" as a perpetrator of the exploitation and domination of "nature." Within the parameters of "bourgeois ideology,""woman" functions as a representative of "nature." Although Horkheimer and Adorno reflect critically on the utilization and misuse of "woman," this essay explores the extent to which the concepts "masculine" and "feminine" function as implicit theoretical categories in selected writings by these authors. Indeed, a close reading of selected passages in works by Horkheimer and Adorno reveals that gendered categories in these texts carry with them a value judgment. While Horkheimer and Adorno describe the individual of late capitalism as "emasculated" and feminized ("castrated"), Adorno praises artists such as Arnold Schönberg, who manifests a potent masculinity. In fact, Adorno often writes about individuals and art works in terms which privilege "masculinity" as opposed to an emasculating "femininity." Value judgments which employ gendered categories, then, stand in contradiction to the explicitly critical project of Dialektik der Aufklärung. [source]

    Lies in a Time of Threat: Betrayal Blindness and the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election

    Eileen L. Zurbriggen
    Exit polls from the 2004 U.S. presidential election indicated overwhelming support for President Bush among voters who said they valued honesty, even though the Bush administration had been sharply criticized for deceiving the public, especially concerning the reasons for invading Iraq. A psychological theory recently developed to help explain memory loss in trauma survivors sheds light on this paradox. Betrayal Trauma Theory (Freyd, 1996) states that memory impairment is greatest when a victim is dependent on the perpetrator. The theory also predicts who will be "blind" to signs of deception,those who are emotionally or financially dependent on the person who is lying. Although every American is dependent on the U.S. President to some extent, religious conservatives may be more psychologically dependent than others. Because they believe their core values are under attack, they depend on powerful leaders such as President Bush to defend these values. This psychological dependence may make it difficult for them to notice the administration's deceptions. [source]

    Relationship closeness and trauma narrative detail: A critical analysis of betrayal trauma theory

    Katie M. Lindblom
    Betrayal Trauma Theory (BTT) holds that certain traumas, such as incest, should be uniquely categorized as betrayal trauma: a subcategory of trauma in which the violation of trust, within a close relationship, occurs in the context of a traumatic event. According to BTT, betrayal trauma results in either partial or complete traumatic amnesia because repression is adaptive when a victim depends on a perpetrator for physical or emotional needs. In a test of BTT, undergraduates screened for betrayal and non-betrayal trauma histories provided detailed accounts of these events. In order to account for threats to internal validity that are often overlooked by traumatic amnesia researchers, we also assessed factors known to compromise narrative detail. Consistent with BTT predictions, more betrayal was associated with less detailed trauma narratives. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for survivor age, avoidance symptoms, gender and purposeful omission of detail. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Memory of children's faces by adults: Appearance does matter,

    Vicki Silvers Gier
    Accurately detecting faces of children when their appearance has been altered is especially important in recognizing abducted or missing child. Face recognition studies have focussed on recognizing the adult perpetrator; however, there is lack of research on recognizing a child's face under different appearances. Two studies were conducted to determine what type of photos may increase recognition of missing children. In Experiment 1 participants were shown pictures of children's faces in a study phase in which their faces were either dirtied with negative affect or clean with positive affect, followed by a recognition phase. Accuracy and confidence were higher when the face at recognition was the same type as in the study phase. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1, adding four delay conditions: 10-minute interval (10-MI), 3, 6 or 12 week. Accuracy and confidence decreased over time and we again found a significant interaction between face at study and face at recognition. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]