Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Peninsula

  • antarctic peninsula
  • arabian peninsula
  • baja california peninsula
  • balkan peninsula
  • bank peninsula
  • boso peninsula
  • california peninsula
  • european peninsula
  • iberian peninsula
  • indochina peninsula
  • italian peninsula
  • kamchatka peninsula
  • kola peninsula
  • korean peninsula
  • malay peninsula
  • southern arabian peninsula
  • yucatan peninsula
  • yucatán peninsula

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2002
    Madalena Branco
    Abstract Nested clade analysis was applied to cytochrome b restriction site data previously obtained on 20 natural populations of the European rabbit across the Iberian Peninsula to test the hypothesis of postglacial dispersal from two main refugia, one in the northeast and the other in the southwest. Apart from historical fragmentation that resulted in geographic discontinuity of two distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades A and B, patterns of haplotype genetic variability have been shaped mostly by restricted gene flow via isolation by distance. The distribution of tip versus interior haplotypes suggests that dispersal occurred from both the southwestern and northeastern groups. Dispersal from the southwest had a north and northwest direction, whereas from the northeast it had mostly a western and southern orientation, with subsequent overlap in a southeastern-northwestern axis across the Iberian Peninsula. The analysis of the pairwise mismatch distribution of a 179,181-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region, for seven of those populations, further supports the idea that major patterns of dispersal were in the direction of central Iberia. Additionally, rabbit populations do not show signs of any significant loss of genetic diversity in the recent past, implying that they maintained large population sizes and structure throughout the ice ages. This is congruent with the fact that the Iberian Peninsula was itself a glacial refugium during Quaternary ice ages. Nonetheless, climatic oscillations of this period, although certainly milder than in northern Europe, were sufficient to affect the range distributions of Iberian organisms. [source]


    Andrew M. Gormley
    Abstract Capture-recapture techniques have been extensively used to estimate survival rates of Hector's dolphins at Banks Peninsula, but not abundance. We analyzed nine seasons of photo-identification data using a model-fitting approach in the computer program MARK, and then used MARK's estimates of capture probabilities to calculate the abundance of distinctive individuals. We extrapolated these estimates to include unmarked individuals using five seasons of data on the proportion of identifiable individuals in this population, obtained from "random photography." This capture-recapture approach suggests a 1996 population of about 1,100 (CV = 0.21). This is very similar to the 1997 line-transect estimate of about 900 (CV = 0.28), especially considering that the two techniques do not necessarily measure the same thing. An important advantage of the capture-recapture approach stems from the inherent versatility of photo-ID data. If the sampling design is appropriate, an unbiased abundance estimate can be achieved as a spin-off from work directed at other questions. However, in our view, line-transect estimates are easier to interpret because the sampling design is explicit. [source]


    Summary A wide-ranging study based on compositional and isotopic analyses of minerals and manufactured objects from the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula and their respective archaeological and cultural contexts demonstrates significant lead mineral exploitation in the El Priorat area (Tarragona province) linked to Phoenician trade (seventh,sixth centuries BC). This exploitation continued, despite losing intensity, until the Romanization of the territory. Our project also aims to determine the nature and origin of the lead and silver supply in the northern Iberian territory surrounding the Phocaean enclave of Emporion, especially with regard to the demands of the colonial mint. The behaviour pattern of the circulation of lead, silver and copper in Catalonia in the period studied indicates a plurality of contemporary supply sources, although, at least from the fifth century BC onward, minerals and metals from the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula take on considerable importance. [source]


    Summary. Archaeological research conducted in the La Mancha region (central area of the Iberian Peninsula) has made it possible to identify motillas. This specific type of archaeological site consists of a central fortification surrounded by an inhabited area. They appear in high densities throughout the plains of this area, distributed at regular intervals and located in places where the phreatic level is closest to the surface and the water has low salinity. The strong relationship between sites and water has subsequently been supported by fieldwork, especially in the Motilla del Azuer settlement, where a complex well that was cut into the natural terrace to reach the phreatic level has been documented. Research has also demonstrated that the large-scale storage of cereals was another significant function. The quantity and capacity of the different storage systems documented in two large enclosures suggest that these sites were engaged in the control and management of cereals. [source]


    Summary. As a result of recent fieldwork undertaken at the archaeological site of Cerro de la Encina, our knowledge of the funerary ritual has increased considerably. The funerary record shows a significant concentration of wealth in burials corresponding to the family groups of the highest social status. Dramatic social differences can also be found in the internal organization of the settlement. The locations of burials within the settlement area, under the floors of dwellings, allow us to establish that the settlement space was closely related to the social identity of the families. The high number of burials with double and triple inhumations, in contrast to other Argaric necropolis, also stands out as an important feature of Cerro de la Encina, suggesting that familial relationships seem to be more marked here than at other Argaric sites. All these data are discussed in relation to the funerary ritual of the Argaric Culture. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2009
    J. G. IÑAÑEZ
    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Europe during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Because of the prestige and importance attributed to this ware, Spanish majolica was imported in vast quantities into the Americas during the Spanish Colonial period. A study of Spanish majolica was conducted on a set of 186 samples from the 10 primary majolica production centres on the Iberian Peninsula and 22 sherds from two early colonial archaeological sites on the Canary Islands. The samples were analysed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical approaches. Our results show a clear discrimination between different production centres, allowing a reliable provenance attribution of the sherds from the Canary Islands. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2009
    Palygorskite is a rare clay mineral used by the ancient Mayas for fabricating the Maya blue pigment and for other purposes. It seems to have been obtained from a restricted area in the Yucatán peninsula where important archaeological sites are found. Geological samples from different localities in this area show a high content in palygorskite, indicating that this clay is widespread in Yucatán. Combining structural, morphological, compositional and geochemical methods, we analysed the common characteristics of Yucatecan palygorskites, and compared them with palygorskites from other origins around the world. These results can be used for defining a fingerprint of Yucatecan palygorskite to be used in provenance studies of archaeological artefacts, in particular the Maya blue pigment. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2007
    M. F. GUERRA
    The treasure of Guarrazar, found in the 19th century in Spain, is the most important illustration of the high level of Visigothic jewellery in the Iberian Peninsula. The votive crowns and crosses of this treasure are an arrangement of pierced gold in a Byzantine,Germanic style, decorated with emeralds, garnets, sapphires and other materials. In order to establish the provenance of the gold, we analysed a group of 46 minute samples from the most important pieces kept in Spain for major and trace elements. The combination of PIXE and PIGE with an external 3 MeV proton µ-beam was used to analyse the samples. Considering the gold sources cited by Pliny the Elder and the composition of contemporary Visigothic coins, we suggest the exploitation of south Iberian mines. Using the same set-up, we complemented these results with the analysis of 11 emeralds inlaid in items from the Guarrazar jewellery that is kept in France. We suggest the use of European sources unknown to the Romans for these gemstones. [source]

    Past and present potential distribution of the Iberian Abies species: a phytogeographic approach using fossil pollen data and species distribution models

    Francisca Alba-Sánchez
    Abstract Aim, Quaternary palaeopalynological records collected throughout the Iberian Peninsula and species distribution models (SDMs) were integrated to gain a better understanding of the historical biogeography of the Iberian Abies species (i.e. Abies pinsapo and Abies alba). We hypothesize that SDMs and Abies palaeorecords are closely correlated, assuming a certain stasis in climatic and topographic ecological niche dimensions. In addition, the modelling results were used to assign the fossil records to A. alba or A. pinsapo, to identify environmental variables affecting their distribution, and to evaluate the ecological segregation between the two taxa. Location, The Iberian Peninsula. Methods, For the estimation of past Abies distributions, a hindcasting process was used. Abies pinsapo and A. alba were modelled individually, first calibrating the model for their current distributions in relation to the present climate, and then projecting it into the past,the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Middle Holocene periods,in relation to palaeoclimate simulations. The resulting models were compared with Iberian-wide fossil pollen records to detect areas of overlap. Results, The overlap observed between past Abies refugia,inferred from fossil pollen records,and the SDMs helped to construct the Quaternary distribution of the Iberian Abies species. SDMs yielded two well-differentiated potential distributions: A. pinsapo throughout the Baetic mountain Range and A. alba along the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Range. These results propose that the two taxa remained isolated throughout the Quaternary, indicating a significant geographical and ecological segregation. In addition, no significant differences were detected comparing the three projections (present-day, Mid-Holocene and LGM), suggesting a relative climate stasis in the refuge areas during the Quaternary. Main conclusions, Our results confirm that SDM projections can provide a useful complement to palaeoecological studies, offering a less subjective and spatially explicit hypothesis concerning past geographic patterns of Iberian Abies species. The integration of ecological-niche characteristics from known occurrences of Abies species in conjunction with palaeoecological studies could constitute a suitable tool to define appropriate areas in which to focus proactive conservation strategies. [source]

    How does the knowledge about the spatial distribution of Iberian dung beetle species accumulate over time?

    Jorge M. Lobo
    ABSTRACT Different distribution maps can be obtained for the same species if localities where species are present are mapped at different times. We analysed the accumulation of information over time for a group of dung beetle species in the Iberian Peninsula. To do this, we used all available information about the distribution of the group as well as data on selected species to examine if the process of discovery of species distribution has occurred in a climatically or spatially structured fashion. Our results show the existence of a well-defined pattern of temporal growth in distributional information; due to this, the date of capture of each specimen can be explained by the environmental and spatial variables associated to the collection sites. We hypothesize that such temporal biases could be the rule rather than the exception in most distributional data. These biases could affect the weighting of environmental factors that influence species distributions, as well as the accuracy of predictive distribution models. Systematic surveys should be a priority for the description of species geographical ranges in order to make robust predictions about the consequences of habitat and climate change for their persistence and conservation. [source]

    Profiling invasive fish species: the importance of phylogeny and human use

    Carles Alcaraz
    ABSTRACT Understanding the ecological differences between native and invasive species is of considerable scientific and practical interest. We examined such differences between native and invasive inland fish species from the Iberian Peninsula in order to analyse the importance of phylogenetic correction and variability (in addition to central tendency). We collected 26 quantitative and qualitative variables on the ecology, life-history traits and human use of the 69 inland fish species of the Iberian Peninsula, including native, invasive and migratory species. The taxonomic distribution of invasive fish species deviated significantly from world freshwater richness and in contrast to native species, invasive fish belongs to only five taxonomic orders but to a wide spectrum of families not native to the Iberian Peninsula. Because the life-history traits were highly dependent on taxonomy, the results, with or without applying phylogenetic methods, differed and after accounting for phylogeny, invasive species displayed higher and wider latitude in general and a different reproductive season mainly among salmonids and cyprinids. Human use was also significantly different between native and invasive fish species and produced more variability in life-history traits of invasive species and uneven taxonomic distribution because of the high diversity of species introduced. We show that accounting for taxonomy and studying variability in addition to central tendency is important in the comparison of life-history traits between native and invasive species. [source]

    Climatic stress, food availability and human activity as determinants of endemism patterns in the Mediterranean region: the case of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) in the Iberian Peninsula

    José R. Verdú
    Abstract. A study to assess the influence of abiotic (climatic conditions) and biotic factors (food resources, habitat preference and human activity) on endemism patterns of dung beetles in the Mediterranean region was conducted in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The Thermicity Index (It), the Mediterraneity Index (Im3) and the Aridity Index (Ia) were used to assess the influence of abiotic factors. Relative rabbit density (DR), the proportion of landscape used historically for grazing by sheep and goats and the nature of the food resource were used to assess the influence of biotic factors. Relative endemism (EN) of dung beetle assemblages was positively and significantly related with all of the factors considered. However, the Aridity and Mediterraneity Indices are the best predictors of EN. The predicted endemism (EN = 0.017 Ia + 0.004 Im3 + 0.422) was highly positively and significantly related with the observed endemism. Dung beetle assemblages with the highest relative endemism were observed in the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. This distribution corresponded to the highest Aridity and Mediterraneity. In contrast, dung beetle assemblages with lower endemism were located in more humid and temperate areas. Assemblages of dung beetles with the highest endemism comprise many species adapted to aridity and the exploitation of dry dung pellets. Conservation of traditional grazing activity by pellet-dropping sheep and goats might benefit the maintenance of dung beetle biodiversity in Mediterranean ecosystems. [source]

    The role of Late Holocene climate variability in the expansion of yellow birch in the western Great Lakes region

    Stephen T. Jackson
    Abstract. Pollen records from the western Great Lakes region of North America show substantial increases in birch pollen percentages during the late Holocene. The vegetational and population dynamics underlying the birch increase have received little attention, in part because of the inability to discriminate among species of birch based on pollen morphology. We used analyses of pollen and plant macrofossils from four lakes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to document that the birch pollen increase represents a regional expansion of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) populations, which was initiated c. 4500 years ago. Whether yellow birch invaded the region at this time or simply expanded from small, previously established populations is not clear, although it probably did not grow near our study sites before the expansion. The initial expansion occurred during an independently documented period of high moisture and high water levels in Lake Michigan. A subsequent expansion in yellow birch abundance and distribution occurred c. 3000 years ago, coinciding with a second period of increased moisture and high lake-levels. The yellow birch expansion may have been modulated by millennial-scale climate variability, with most rapid expansion occurring during relatively wet periods. [source]

    Past distribution and ecology of the cork oak (Quercus suber) in the Iberian Peninsula: a pollen-analytical approach

    J. S. Carrión
    Abstract., This study presents pollen-analytical data from continental and offshore Iberian Peninsula sites that include pollen curves of Quercus suber, to provide information on the past distribution and ecology of the cork oak (Q. suber). Results centre on a new pollen record of Navarrés (Valencia, eastern Spain), which shows that the cork oak survived regionally during the Upper Pleistocene and was important during a mid-Holocene replacement of a local pine forest by Quercus -dominated communities. This phenomenon appears linked to the recurrence of fire and reinforces the value of the cork oak for reforestation programmes in fire-prone areas. In addition to Navarrés, other Late Quaternary pollen sequences (Sobrestany, Casablanca-Almenara, Padul, SU 8103, SU8113, 8057B) suggest last glacial survival of the cork oak in southern and coastal areas of the Peninsula and North Africa. Important developments also occur from the Late Glacial to the middle Holocene, not only in the west but also in the eastern Peninsula. It is suggested that, in the absence of human influence, Q. suber would develop in non-monospecific forests, sharing the arboreal stratum both with other sclerophyllous and deciduous Quercus and Pinus species. [source]

    Geomorphology of the onset area of a paleo-ice stream, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula

    John B. Anderson
    Abstract Geomorphic features indicate that both glacial and melt-water erosion characterize the onset area of the ancestral Marguerite Ice Stream. The large size of these features indicates that they formed over repeated glacial cycles, most recently during the Last Glacial Maximum. Ice drainage within the bay and on the inner continental shelf was strongly influenced by tectonic fabric. Deep, isolated basins surrounded by rugged bedrock bathymetry characterize the innermost part of the bay. Drumlins and other streamlined features occur in the floors of these basins at depths of up to 900 m. The outer bay has three large interconnected basins. Drumlins and megaflutings within these basins indicate ice was grounded at water depths up to 1000 m. The orientations of these features show convergence of drainage from the northeast, east and south into the Marguerite paleo-ice stream. On the inner continental shelf, the ice converged into a single, wide trough dominated by mega-scale glacial lineations. This transition in geomorphic features from drumlins and megaflutings to mega-scale glacial lineations occurs at the location on the continental shelf where sedimentary strata blanket bedrock, and marks a zone of acceleration of the ice stream. The glacially sculptured geomorphic features within Marguerite Bay co-exist with anastomosing, radial and relatively straight channels, which become increasingly focused in a seaward direction. This implies that a well organized subglacial drainage system existed within the bay at some point in the past. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Rainfall thresholds for shallow landsliding derived from pressure-head monitoring: cases with permeable and impermeable bedrocks in Boso Peninsula, Japan

    Yuki Matsushi
    Abstract Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide initiation were determined for hillslopes with two types of bedrock, permeable sandstone and impermeable mudstone, in the Boso Peninsula, Japan. The pressure-head response to rainfall was monitored above a slip scarp due to earlier landslides. Multiple regression analysis estimated the rainfall thresholds for landsliding from the relation between the magnitude of the rainfall event and slope instability caused by the increased pressure heads. The thresholds were expressed as critical combinations of rainfall intensity and duration, incorporating the geotechnical properties of the hillslope materials and also the slope hydrological processes. The permeable sandstone hillslope has a greater critical rainfall and hence a longer recurrence interval than the impermeable mudstone hillslope. This implies a lower potential for landsliding in sandstone hillslopes, corresponding to lower landslide activity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sediment transport in a highly regulated fluvial system during two consecutive floods (lower Ebro River, NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Damia Vericat
    Abstract The transfer of sediment through a highly regulated large fluvial system (lower Ebro River) was analysed during two consecutive floods by means of sediment sampling. Suspended sediment and bedload transport were measured upstream and downstream of large reservoirs. The dams substantially altered flood timing, particularly the peaks, which were advanced downstream from the dams for flood control purposes. The suspended sediment yield upstream from the dams was 1 700 000 tonnes, which represented nearly 99 per cent of the total solid yield. The mean concentrations were close to 0·5 g l,1. The sediment yield downstream from the dams was an order of magnitude lower (173 000 tonnes), showing a mean concentration of 0·05 g l,1. The dams captured up to 95 per cent of the fine sediment carried in suspension in the river channel, preventing it from reaching the lowermost reaches of the river and the delta plain. Total bedload transport upstream from the dams was estimated to be about 25 000 tonnes, only 1·5 per cent of the total load. The median bedload rate was 100 gms,1. Below the dams, the river carried 178 000 tonnes, around 51 per cent of the total load, at a mean rate of 250 g ms,1. The results of sediment transport upstream and downstream from the large dams illustrate the magnitude of the sediment deficit in the lower Ebro River. The river mobilized a total of 350 000 tonnes in the downstream reaches, which were not replaced by sediment from upstream. Therefore, sediment was necessarily entrained from the riverbed and channel banks, causing a mean incision of 33 mm over the 27 km long study reach, altogether a significant step towards the long-term degradation of the lower Ebro River. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Celebrating the diversity of biogeographical research

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010
    4th biennial meeting, Special issue: International Biogeography Society
    Biogeography aims to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of life on Earth. Biogeographical research is aimed not only at describing where organisms live, at what densities, with whom, and how it all relates to the environmental and geographical setting but also why this is so. The International Biogeography Society, IBS, is a young and vibrant international and interdisciplinary society contributing to the advancement of all studies of the geography of nature, including spatial ecology (). In January 2009, the 4th International Conference of the International Biogeography Society took place in Merida on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Ecography provided financial support, acting as the sponsor of the Symposium of Extinction Biogeography and contributing to student travel awards. In addition, Ecography was the officially designated journal for publishing some of the many exciting talks and posters presented at the conference. All of the papers in this special issue of Ecography arose from the IBS conference. They have all been subject to external peer review, subsequent revision, and final editorial decisions of acceptance/rejection. [source]

    Adaptive advantages of myrmecochory: the predator-avoidance hypothesis tested over a wide geographic range

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2005
    Antonio J. Manzaneda
    The predator-avoidance hypothesis states that once released from the parent plant, myrmecochorous seeds are rapidly taken by ants to their nests, where they are protected from predators. Previous studies conducted to test this hypothesis have frequently neglected two major aspects necessary for its verification: 1) the influence of processes acting after the seed release and 2) the spatial evenness of such processes. Thus, large-scale variations in the mechanisms acting beyond seed release, and possibly influencing seed escape from predators, remain poorly documented. Here, we present the results of a post-dispersal seed-removal experiment on the myrmecochorous herb Helleborus foetidus, aimed at verifing the predator-avoidance hypothesis by considering two key post-release aspects of seed fate: seed destination (dispersed or nondispersed) and seed burial (buried or not buried). Experiments were performed in four different regions in the Iberian Peninsula. After three days of exposure of seeds to the main predator (fieldmice Apodemus sylvaticus), ca 30% of the seeds were removed. Seed destination affected the proportion of seeds escaping predation, but the sign, magnitude and statistical significance of the effect varied among the geographical regions. In the southern region (Cazorla), seeds dispersed in ant nests or intermediate destinations suffered scarcely any predation, but seeds under reproductive-age plants experienced losses ca 50%. Conversely, in the northern region (Caurel), seeds in nests suffered significantly greater losses than seeds under plants or intermediate destinations, suggesting that nests were especially unsafe destinations. Seed burial had a strong impact on seed escape from predators, and its effect was highly consistent among geographical regions. In view of the consistency of its effect at different spatial scales, seed burial was a more general mechanism for predation avoidance than seed relocation to ant nests, which was habitat- and/or ant-species-dependent. Our results thus only partially support the predator-avoidance hypothesis for the evolution of myrmecochory. [source]

    Genet age in marginal populations of two clonal Carex species in the Siberian Arctic

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2000
    Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir
    During a Swedish-Russian expedition to northern Siberia 1994, we sampled two marginal populations of two Carex species at two high arctic sites (C, stans Drej. on Faddeyevsky Island and C. ensifolia V. Krecz ssp. arctisibirica Jurtz. at north-eastern Taymyr Peninsula), both north of previously documented localities in that areas for the two species. These populations were composed of a few distinct patches of ramet colonies, some of them shaped like fairy rings with dead centres. We measured the size of all colonies and collected samples for detailed morphometric analyses of rhizome growth. By using RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis we established that the largest colony at each site consisted of a single genet, based on 41 polymorphic bands amplified with three primers. Pooled samples from each of two additional colonies of C. stans on Faddeyevsky Island were analysed and showed that clones of the same species at the same site were relatively dissimilar (Dice's similarity index 0.26 0,43), We then assumed that each ramet colony represented a single genet. Based on the morphometric data, we developed a deterministic growth model that simulates the clonal growth of these species and enabled estimates of the time since establishment of the genets. The estimated age of the five C. Stans clones varied from 17 to 154 yr and the age of the two C. ensifolia ssp, arctisibirica clones was well over 3000 yr. [source]

    Wolves, trophic cascades, and rivers in the Olympic National Park, USA

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Robert L. Beschta
    Abstract Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated in the early 1900s from the Olympic Peninsula of northwestern Washington. Thus, we studied potential cascading effects of wolf removal by undertaking a retrospective study of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus) populations, riparian forests, and river channel morphology. For three riparian sites within the western portion of Olympic National Park, the age structure of black cottonwood and bigleaf maple indicated a pattern of significantly decreased recruitment (growth of seedlings/sprouts into tall saplings and trees) associated with intensive elk browsing in the decades following the loss of wolves. At a riparian site outside the park, which represented a refugium from elk browsing, cottonwood recruitment has been ongoing during the 20th century, indicating that climate and flow regimes, in the absence of intensive herbivory, have not limited the establishment and growth of this deciduous woody species. Using 1994 orthophotos, we also measured channel dimensions and planform morphology of 8-km-long river reaches at each vegetation sampling site and an additional reach outside the park. Channels inside the park versus those outside the park had greater percent braiding (37 vs 2%) and larger ratios of active channel width/wetted width (3·0 vs 1·5 m/m). Results for western Olympic National Park were consistent with a truncated trophic cascade hypothesis whereby ungulate browsing following the extirpation of wolves caused significant long-term impacts to riparian plant communities which, in turn, allowed increased riverbank erosion and channel widening to occur. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 3 2010
    Susan F. Walker
    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 372,382 Abstract Amphibian chytridiomycosis is a disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Whether Bd is a new emerging pathogen (the novel pathogen hypothesis; NPH) or whether environmental changes are exacerbating the host-pathogen dynamic (the endemic pathogen hypothesis; EPH) is debated. To disentangle these hypotheses we map the distribution of Bd and chytridiomycosis across the Iberian Peninsula centred on the first European outbreak site. We find that the infection-free state is the norm across both sample sites and individuals. To analyse this dataset, we use Bayesian zero-inflated binomial models to test whether environmental variables can account for heterogeneity in both the presence and prevalence of Bd, and heterogeneity in the occurrence of the disease, chytridiomycosis. We also search for signatures of Bd -spread within Iberia using genotyping. We show (1) no evidence for any relationship between the presence of Bd and environmental variables, (2) a weak relationship between environmental variables and the conditional prevalence of infection, (3) stage-dependent heterogeneity in the infection risk, (4) a strong association between altitude and chytridiomycosis, (5) multiple Iberian genotypes and (6) recent introduction and spread of a single genotype of Bd in the Pyrenees. We conclude that the NPH is consistent with the emergence of Bd in Iberia. However, epizootic forcing of infection is tied to location and shaped by both biotic and abiotic variables. Therefore, the population-level consequences of disease introduction are explained by EPH-like processes. This study demonstrates the power of combining surveillance and molecular data to ascertain the drivers of new emerging infections diseases. [source]

    Evaluation of the effects of catch-and-release angling on the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Ponoi River, Kola Peninsula, Russian Federation

    F. G. Whoriskey
    Abstract , We studied the effects of catch-and-release fishing upon the Ponoi River's Atlantic salmon populations. The Ponoi River is located on the Kola Peninsula of the Russian Federation, and has recently been developed for sports fishing. Angler exploitation rates are estimated to range from 10.4% to 19% of the river's salmon, thus the possibility of significant levels of post-release mortality is of concern. We radio-tracked fish caught and released by anglers in 1995 and 1996. Despite our simple equipment and the large size of the river, we were able to relocate most fish. These fish had high rates of survival, and anglers recaptured about 11% of them per year a second time. This is very similar to the recapture rates observed for Floy-tagged fish released in an angler-based mark-recapture assessment. We also held 62 angled fish for 24 hours in a live cage to evaluate rates of delayed mortality. Only one of the 62 fish died, and it was heavily scarred with gillnet marks. Most fish that are fatally stressed by angling die within 24 h (e.g., Booth et al. 1995). In 1996, up to 10% of our Floy-tagged fish were angled and released twice, and about 0.5% were angled and released three times. No significant biases were detected in the post-angling movement patterns of these fish. The multiple captures and lack of movement bias suggest that fish behavior was little altered by the angling experience. Nine fish Floy tagged prior to spawning have been recovered as typical emaciated kelts. Three were killed, and a post mortem exam showed all had spawned. Parr numbers at all monitored sites have been steadily increasing since the advent of catch-and-release fishing. By contrast, parr growth rates are generally unchanged or significantly better., [source]

    Distribution patterns of the Q and B biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean Basin based on microsatellite variation

    B. Simón
    Abstract At least five of the biotypes described in the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) complex are known to be present in the Mediterranean Basin area. Only two of them, however, are economically relevant, that is, biotypes B and Q. Biological and genetic differences between the two biotypes have been well studied, but less is known about their patterns of genetic variation and population structure. To address these issues, a study was undertaken based on variation at six microsatellite loci among a subset of nine B. tabaci populations (five belonging to the Q and four to the B biotype). The data obtained show that (i) these loci showed considerable polymorphism in the Q and B biotypes populations although the presence of null alleles can obscure the picture; (ii) the Iberian-Q, Canarian-Q, and Egyptian-B populations exhibit heterozygosity excess as a result of bottleneck events; (iii) the low genetic differentiation between the Israeli, Iberian Peninsula, and Italian populations suggest that these populations share a common gene pool; (iv) the genetic distances between the Canarian-Q population and the geographically close population from Morocco indicates spatial isolation and a limited gene flow; and finally (v) the microsatellite data for the B populations indicate that the whiteflies from Egypt and Israel have a close phylogenetic relationship, but the source of these biotype B invasions into the Mediterranean area remains unknown. [source]

    Taxonomic review of the genus Gonioctena Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae) in the Korean Peninsula

    Hee Wook CHO
    Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Gonioctena in the Korean Peninsula is presented. Ten species belonging to three subgenera are recognized. Gonioctena jacobsoni (Ogloblin et Medvedev) and Gonioctnea kamiyai Kimoto are recorded for the first time in Korea. A key, illustrations of diagnostic characters, and the coloration patterns of Korean Gonioctena are provided. [source]

    Descriptions and biological notes of Ctenoplectra bees from Southeast Asia and Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Ctenoplectrini) with a new species from North Borneo

    I-Hsin SUNG
    Abstract Six Ctenoplectra species are recorded from Southeast Asia and Taiwan. They are C. chalybea Smith, C. cornuta Gribodo, C. davidi Vachal, C. elsei Engel, C. sandakana sp. nov. and C. vagans Cockerell. Females of C. sandakana sp. nov. from North Borneo are similar to the mainland species C. chalybea, but differ mainly in the clypeal keel and the length of the antennal segments. The small blackish species, C. cornuta, is distributed in Myanmar, China and Taiwan and C. davidi is distributed in China, Russia and Taiwan; both species are seen at the flowers of Thladiantha. Ctenoplectra chalybea was collected from the Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Taiwan and Vietnam. Ctenoplectra apicalis Smith and C. kelloggi Cockerell are allied to C. chalybea; however, C. kelloggi is excluded from this study due to insufficient material. A key to the six known Ctenoplectra species is given. The large metallic species, C. chalybea and C. elsei, visit flowers of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. For the first time observations on the nest structures of C. chalybea and C. cornuta are presented. They choose remarkable places, such as artificial structures and buildings, for nest sites. The nest architecture prevents rain and direct sunlight from entering the nest. Bees used pre-existing holes or crevices in wood for nesting shelters and collected soil and appeared to mix it with some other substance to build nests. The cell lining materials and rubbing behaviors against the cell wall suggest that Ctenoplectra bees use floral oil mainly for cell lining materials. [source]

    Environmental factors affecting the levels of legacy pesticides in the airshed of Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, USA

    Anubha Goel
    Abstract Organochlorine insecticides and their degradation products contribute to toxicity in Chesapeake Bay, USA, sediments and affect the reproductive health of avian species in the region; however, little is known of atmospheric sources or temporal trends in concentrations of these chemicals. Weekly air (n,=,265) and daily rain samples (n,=,494) were collected over 2000 to 2003 from three locations in the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Pesticides were consistently present in the gas phase with infrequent detection in the particle phase. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and cis - and trans -chlordane were detected most frequently (95,100%), and cis - and trans -nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, and 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene (4,4,-DDE) were also detected frequently. The highest mean air concentrations were for dieldrin (60,84,pg/m3), ,-HCH (37,83,pg/m3), and 4,4,-DDE (16,80,pg/m3). Multiple regression analyses of air concentrations with temperature and wind conditions using modified Clausius-Clapeyron equations explained only 30 to 60% of the variability in concentration for most chemicals. Comparison of the air concentrations and enthalpy of air,surface exchange values at the three sites indicate sources of chlordanes and ,-HCH sources are primarily from long-range transport. However, examination of chlordane isomer ratios indicates some local and regional contributions, and ,-HCH, 4,4,-DDE, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane also have local or regional sources, possibly from contaminated soils. Median rain sample volumes of 1 to 3 L led to infrequent detections in rain; however, average measured concentrations were 2 to 10 times higher than in the Great Lakes. Dissipation half-lives in air were well below 10 years for all chemicals and below published values for the Great Lakes except dieldrin, which did not decline during the sample period. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1893,1906. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Agricultural pesticides and selected degradation products in five tidal regions and the main stem of Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Laura L. McConnell
    Abstract Nutrients, sediment, and toxics from water sources and the surrounding airshed are major problems contributing to poor water quality in many regions of the Chesapeake Bay, an important estuary located in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. During the early spring of 2000, surface water samples were collected for pesticide analysis from 18 stations spanning the Chesapeake Bay. In a separate effort from July to September of 2004, 61 stations within several tidal regions were characterized with respect to 21 pesticides and 11 of their degradation products. Three regions were located on the agricultural Delmarva Peninsula: The Chester, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke Rivers. Two regions were located on the more urban western shore: The Rhode and South Rivers and the Lower Mobjack Bay, including the Back and Poquoson Rivers. In both studies, herbicides and their degradation products were the most frequently detected chemicals. In 2000, atrazine and metolachlor were found at all 18 stations. In 2004, the highest parent herbicide concentrations were found in the upstream region of Chester River. The highest concentration for any analyte in these studies was for the ethane sulfonic acid of metolachlor (MESA) at 2,900 ng/L in the Nanticoke River. The degradation product MESA also had the greatest concentration of any analyte in the Pocomoke River (2,100 ng/L) and in the Chester River (1,200 ng/L). In the agricultural tributaries, herbicide degradation product concentrations were more strongly correlated with salinity than the parent herbicides. In the two nonagricultural watersheds on the western shore, no gradient in herbicide concentrations was observed, indicating the pesticide source to these areas was water from the Bay main stem. [source]

    Speciation of heavy metals in recent sediments of three coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of Cadiz, Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    Veronica Sáenz
    Abstract A five-step sequential extraction technique was used to determine the partitioning of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb among the operative sedimentary phases (exchangeable ions, carbonates, manganese and iron oxides, sulfides and organic matter, and residual minerals) in coastal sediment from three locations in the southwest Iberian Peninsula. Two sites are located close to industrial areas, the salt marshes of the Odiel River and Bay of Cádiz, and one in a nonindustrial area, the Barbate River salt marshes. The Odiel River salt marshes also receive the drainage from mining activities in the Huelva region. In the sediments from the Bay of Cádiz and Barbate River salt marshes, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn were extracted from the residual fraction at percentages higher than 60%. In the sediments from the Odiel River salt marshes, concentrations of all the metals, except Cu, zn, and cd, exceeded 60% in the residual fraction as well. In the sediments from the Bay of Cádiz and Barbate River salt marshes, the main bioavailable metals were Mn and Cd; in those from the Odiel River salt marshes, the main bioavailable metals were Zn and Cd, respectively. The environmental risk was determined by employing the environmental risk factor (ERF), defined as ERF = (CSQV , Ci/CSQV), where Ci is the heavy metal concentration in the first four fractions and CSQV is concentration sediment quality value (the highest concentration with no associated biological effect). Our results showed that the sediments from the Cádiz Bay and Barbate River salt marshes do not constitute any environmental risk under the current natural conditions. In contrast, in the Odiel River salt marshes, Cu, Zn, and Pb yielded ERFs of less than zero at several sampling stations and, consequently, pose a potential threat for the organisms in the area. This is a consequence of the high levels of metals in the area derived from the mining activity (pyrite) and industrial activities and the association of these heavy metals with more labile fractions of the sediments. [source]

    A Bayesian hierarchical model for local precipitation by downscaling large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 7 2006
    Jorge M. Mendes
    Abstract Precipitation over the Western part of Iberian Peninsula is known to be related to the large-scale sea level pressure field and thus to advection of humidity into this area. The major problem is to downscale this synoptic atmospheric information to local daily precipitation patterns. One way to handle this problem is by weather-state models, where, based on the pressure field, each day is classified into a weather state and precipitation is then modeled within each weather state via multivariate distributions. In this paper, we propose a spatiotemporal Bayesian hierarchical model for precipitation. Basic objective and novelty of the paper is to capture and model the essential spatiotemporal relationships that exist between large-scale sea level pressure field and local daily precipitation. A specific local spatial ordering that mimics the essential large-scale patterns is used in the likelihood. The model is then applied to a network of rain gauge stations in the river Tagus valley. The inference is then carried out using appropriate MCMC methods. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]