Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Peers

  • deviant peer
  • healthy peer

  • Terms modified by Peers

  • peer acceptance
  • peer affiliation
  • peer assessment
  • peer educator
  • peer effects
  • peer evaluation
  • peer experience
  • peer feedback
  • peer group
  • peer groups
  • peer influence
  • peer interaction
  • peer network
  • peer nomination
  • peer norm
  • peer pressure
  • peer problem
  • peer rating
  • peer rejection
  • peer relation
  • peer relationship problem
  • peer relationships
  • peer review
  • peer review process
  • peer reviewer
  • peer smoking
  • peer support
  • peer teaching
  • peer victimization

  • Selected Abstracts

    Flexural deformation capacity of rectangular RC columns determined by the CAE method

    Iztok Peru
    Abstract A non-parametric empirical approach, called the conditional average estimator (CAE) method, has been implemented for the estimation of the flexural deformation capacity of reinforced concrete rectangular columns expressed in terms of the ultimate (,near collapse') drift. Two databases (PEER and Fardis), which represent subsets of the original databases, were used. Four input parameters were employed in the basic model: axial load index, index related to confinement, shear span index, and concrete compressive strength. The results of analyses suggest that, in general, ultimate drift decreases with increasing axial load index, and increases with better confinement. An increase in the shear span-to-depth ratio has a beneficial effect until a turning point is reached. After that the opposite trend can be observed, i.e. a decrease in the ultimate drift with further increasing of the shear span-to-depth ratio. No clear trend is observed in the case of concrete compressive strength. The predictions, obtained by using the Fardis database are in general somewhat larger than the predictions from the PEER database, due to the difference in the definition of ultimate drift. The scatter of results is large. The local coefficient of variation, which is a measure for dispersion, amounts to about 0.2,0.5. The ultimate drifts obtained by using the two databases, were compared with the values predicted by the Eurocode 8 empirical formula. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparing Structural Equation Models That Use Different Measures of the Level of Response to Alcohol

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
    Marc A. Schuckit
    Background:, The two measures of a low level of response (LR) to alcohol, an alcohol challenge and the retrospective Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol questionnaire (SRE), each identify individuals at high risk for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. These measures also perform similarly in identifying subjects with unique functional brain imaging characteristics. However, few data are available regarding whether alcohol challenge-based and SRE-based LRs operate similarly in structural equation models (SEMs) that search for characteristics, which help to mediate how LR impacts alcohol outcomes. Methods:, Two hundred and ninety-four men from the San Diego Prospective Study were evaluated for their LR to alcohol using alcohol challenges at ,age 20. At ,age 35, the same subjects filled out the SRE regarding the number of drinks needed for effects 15 to 20 years earlier. The two different LR scores for these men were used in SEM analyses evaluating how LR relates to future heavy drinking and to drinking in peers (PEER), alcohol expectancies (EXPECT), and drinking to cope (COPE) as potential mediators of the LR to drinking pattern (ALCOUT) relationships. Results:, While the 2 LR measures that were determined 15 years apart related to each other at a modest level (r = 0.17, p < 0.01), the SEM results were similar regardless of the LR source. In both alcohol challenge-based and SRE-based LR models, LR related directly to ALCOUT, with partial mediation from PEER and COPE, but not through EXPECT in these 35-year-old men. Conclusions:, Consistent with the >60% overlap in prediction of outcomes for the 2 LR measures, and with results from functional brain imaging, alcohol challenge- and SRE-based LR values operated similarly in SEM models in these men. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2005
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: the role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies

    Chrisa D. Pornari
    Abstract This study investigated the relationship between cognitive mechanisms, applied by people to rationalize and justify harmful acts, and engagement in traditional peer and cyber aggression among school children. We examined the contribution of moral disengagement (MD), hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies, and we further explored the individual contribution of each MD mechanism. Our aim was to identify shared and unique cognitive factors of the two forms of aggression. Three hundred and thirty-nine secondary school children completed self-report measures that assessed MD, hostile attribution bias, outcome expectancies, and their roles and involvement in traditional and cyber aggression. We found that the MD total score positively related to both forms of peer-directed aggression. Furthermore, traditional peer aggression positively related to children's moral justification, euphemistic language, displacement of responsibility and outcome expectancies, and negatively associated with hostile attribution bias. Moral justification also related positively to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression and cyber victimization were associated with high levels of traditional peer aggression and victimization, respectively. The results suggest that MD is a common feature of both traditional and cyber peer aggression, but it seems that traditional forms of aggression demand a higher level of rationalization or justification. Moreover, the data suggest that the expectation of positive outcomes from harmful behavior facilitates engagement in traditional peer aggression. The differential contribution of specific cognitive mechanisms indicates the need for future research to elaborate on the current findings, in order to advance theory and inform existing and future school interventions tackling aggression and bullying. Aggr. Behav. 36:81,94, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Proactive and reactive aggression among school bullies, victims, and bully-victims

    Christina Salmivalli
    Abstract Bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control children were identified from a sample of 1062 children (530 girls and 532 boys), aged 10 to 12 years, participating in the study. Their reactive and proactive aggression was measured by means of peer and teacher reports. Peer and teacher reports were more concordant with respect to reactive than proactive aggression. Comparing the children in different bullying roles in terms of their reactive and proactive aggression, bully-victims were found to be the most aggressive group of all. For this group, it was typical to be highly aggressive both reactively and proactively. Although bullies were significantly less aggressive than bully-victims, they scored higher than victims and controls on both reactive and proactive aggression. However, observations at the person level, i.e., cross-tabulational analyses, indicated that bullies were not only overrepresented among children who were both reactively and procatively aggressive but also among the only reactively aggressive as well as the only proactively aggressive groups. Victims scored higher than control children on reactive aggression, but they were not proactively aggressive. Furthermore, even their reactive aggression was at a significantly lower level than that of bullies and bully-victims. Aggr. Behav. 28:30,44, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Benefits of Peer Support With Diabetes

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 4 2004
    Sandra L. MacPherson MSN
    TOPIC. Peer coaching for diabetes support. purpose. To see if peer coaching assists a person with diabetes make the correct diet and activity choices. SOURCES OF INFORMATION. Journal articles, Internet. CONCLUSIONS. Peer support is helpful for people who are struggling to cope with diabetes. If peer support is offered, a structured follow-up program needs to be in place. [source]

    Short Submitted Peer Reviewed Abstracts

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 6 2010
    Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Peer- and self-rated correlates of a teacher-rated typology of child adjustment

    William A. Lindstrom
    External correlates of a teacher-rated typology of child adjustment developed using the Behavior Assessment System for Children were examined. Participants included 377 elementary school children recruited from 26 classrooms in the southeastern United States. Multivariate analyses of variance and planned comparisons were used to determine whether the teacher-rated behavior subtypes could be differentiated and, if so, to create more complete descriptions of each cluster. Self-perceptions of academic, social, and emotional adjustment as well as peer perceptions of behavioral attributes and social status were found to provide convergent evidence for the typology. Divergent evidence emerged related to internalizing difficulties. Parallels between the teacher-rated typology and peer-relations research were drawn. Most notably, peers rated Mildly Disruptive (MD) children as bullying and disruptive, consistent with teacher report. However, peers also rated MD children as "cool" and with high levels of social dominance and social control, consistent with recent reports of popular bullies. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Peer and teacher ratings of third- and fourth-grade children's social behavior as a function of early maternal employment

    Lise M. Youngblade
    Background:, One of the more controversial issues related to maternal employment in the United States concerns the timing of entry into the workforce and its effect on children, particularly during the first year of the child's life. Some studies show deleterious effects on children, such as increases in aggression and noncompliance, while others document few negative and even positive effects of early employment. Methods:, This study examined the long-term effects of maternal employment during the child's first year of life on the social behavior of 171 third- and fourth-grade children in two-parent families. The moderating effects of child gender and social class were investigated. The extent to which stability in alternative care arrangements statistically explained links between early maternal employment and child outcomes was tested. Results:, After controlling for child gender, and maternal ethnicity, social class, and current employment status, third- and fourth-grade children whose mothers were employed during their first year of life evinced more acting out and less frustration tolerance and were nominated more often by peers for ,hitting' and ,being mean' than children whose mothers were not employed. There was some evidence that these associations were moderated by child gender and social class: boys, but not girls, whose mothers were employed during the first year were subsequently rated by teachers as acting out more than other children, and were also more likely to be nominated by peers for hitting. Higher nominations for hitting were only found in the working class. Finally, there was partial evidence that the number of alternative child-care arrangements during the first year accounted for the links between early maternal employment and subsequent child outcomes. Conclusions:, These results are congruent with extant research that posits a risk of early employment on socioemotional development, but show that this risk is partially attributable to child-care instability. [source]

    Development and validation of a questionnaire for the assessment of bowel and lower urinary tract symptoms in women

    L. Hiller
    Objective To develop a simple but sensitive instrument to evaluate and document symptoms of both bowel and urinary dysfunction in women. Design A 22-item questionnaire covering a range of bowel and urinary symptoms was developed and underwent rigorous psychometric testing. Setting The gynaecology departments of three hospitals, a urogynaecology clinic, a functional bowel clinic and a general practice. Population Six hundred and thirty women, comprising four groups: 1. women awaiting hysterectomy (n= 379), 2. women following hysterectomy (n= 45), 3. women referred with functional bowel and/or urinary symptoms (n= 65), 4. asymptomatic controls (n= 141). Main outcome measures The content, construct and criterion validity, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness of the questionnaire were measured. Results Peer and patient reports and missing data patterns supported face and content validity. Factor analysis showed a clinically relevant four-factor structure with low content replication able to distinguish between patient groups, indicating good internal structure. Comparison with clinical, anorectal physiological, videoproctographic, transit time and urodynamic test results provide provisional indication of criterion validity. Key domain question analysis and Cronbach's alphas showed internal consistency. Kappa values demonstrated good test,retest reliability and key question correlation over time proved responsiveness. Conclusions Our findings support the suitability, clinical validity, reliability and responsiveness of a simple questionnaire, which is sensitive to the constraints of clinical practice. The authors recommend its use in health care evaluation research assessing the effects of pelvic surgery and as a useful tool in comparing treatment efficacy. [source]

    Peer Led Focus Groups and Young People

    CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
    Cathy Murray
    Peer led focus groups, a qualitative social science research method, and their use with young people are examined. The paper outlines three developments that have contributed to their emergence, namely: traditional focus groups, peer education and participatory research. Drawing on a study in progress, the advantages and challenges associated with peer led focus groups are discussed. A key benefit is that the power differential between the adult researcher and the researched is removed, at least at the point of data collection, rendering peer led focus groups one of few research contexts in which young people can speak collectively with no adult present. [source]

    Justice Before Your Peers

    Jonathan Singer MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Families, Urban Neighborhood Youth Centers, and Peers as Contexts for Development

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2007
    Stephen A. Anderson
    Abstract: Three social contexts,family, neighborhood youth centers, and peer relationships,were examined in relation to several measures of adjustment among 1,406 mostly minority, inner-city adolescents. Family and center involvement were directly related to 3 of the 4 adjustment measures (i.e., achievement orientation, emotion regulation, attitudes toward school). Peer connections interacted with family and center involvement to also predict these variables. Substance use, the fourth adjustment measure, was related only to family involvement. Significant 3-way interactions suggested that within urban settings, favorable attitudes toward school may best be achieved when family, neighborhood youth center, and peer involvement are all strong. The combined effects of these 3 contexts appear to be greater among younger adolescents. Implications for promoting urban youth development programs are discussed. [source]

    EU Justice and Home Affairs Law , By S. Peers

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Differential Effects of Different Peers: Further Evidence of the Peer Proximity Thesis in Perceived Peer Influence on College Students' Smoking

    Hye-Jin Paek
    First page of article [source]

    Future Prospects: Scientific Quality Relies on the Critical Reviews from Our Peers

    Chun-Ming Liu Ph.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    Sara E. Goldstein
    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the 11th grade (mean age=17.1 years). At the first assessment, adolescents were asked about their experiences with sexual harassment, their psychological reactions to sexual harassment, and also about their peer relationships, perceived pubertal timing, problem behavior, and mental health. At the second assessment, adolescents reported on their problem behavior and mental health. In general, youth who associated with peers who were involved in problem behavior were at risk for victimization. Among females, those who perceived themselves to be experiencing early pubertal development were also at risk. Additionally, for some adolescents, sexual harassment predicted later adjustment difficulties. [source]

    Peer assessment of competence

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 6 2003
    John J Norcini
    Objective, This instalment in the series on professional assessment summarises how peers are used in the evaluation process and whether their judgements are reliable and valid. Method, The nature of the judgements peers can make, the aspects of competence they can assess and the factors limiting the quality of the results are described with reference to the literature. The steps in implementation are also provided. Results, Peers are asked to make judgements about structured tasks or to provide their global impressions of colleagues. Judgements are gathered on whether certain actions were performed, the quality of those actions and/or their suitability for a particular purpose. Peers are used to assess virtually all aspects of professional competence, including technical and non-technical aspects of proficiency. Factors influencing the quality of those assessments are reliability, relationships, stakes and equivalence. Conclusion, Given the broad range of ways peer evaluators can be used and the sizeable number of competencies they can be asked to judge, generalisations are difficult to derive and this form of assessment can be good or bad depending on how it is carried out. [source]


    Paul W. B. Atkins
    Although 360-degree feedback programs are rapidly increasing in popularity, few studies have examined how well ratings from these programs predict an independent criterion. This study had 2 main aims: First, to examine the validity of ratings from a 360-degree feedback program using assessment center ratings as an independent criterion and to determine which source (i.e., self, supervisor, peers, or subordinates) provided the most valid predictor of the criterion measure of competency. Second, to better understand the relationship between self-observer discrepancies and an independent criterion. The average of supervisor, peer, and subordinate ratings predicted performance on the assessment center, as did the supervisor ratings alone. The self-ratings were negatively and nonlinearly related to performance with some of those who gave themselves the highest ratings having the lowest performance on the assessment center. Supervisor ratings successfully discriminated between overestimators but were not as successful at discriminating underestimators, suggesting that more modest feedback recipients might be underrated by their supervisors. Peers overestimated performance for poor performers. Explanations of the results and the implications for the use of self-ratings in evaluations, the design of feedback reports, and the use of 360-degree feedback programs for involving and empowering staff are discussed. [source]

    The Long-term Stability of Sociometric Status Classification: A Longitudinal Study of Included Pupils Who Have Moderate Learning Difficulties and Their Mainstream Peers

    Norah L. Frederickson
    This study investigated the longitudinal stability of sociometric classification in two groups of children aged 8 to 10 years over a 2-year period. Two simple, but sensitive and valid forced-choice sociometric measures were completed by 41 children with moderate learning difficulties (MLD) and 375 mainstream children. On both occasions and on both measures (one using a "work with" and one a "play with" sociometric criterion) MLD pupils were significantly less likely to be classified as popular and more likely to be classified as rejected. Over the 2-year period just over half of the children, whether MLD or mainstream, were classified in the same sociometric category. However, the stability coefficients for the rejected and popular sociometric status groups were found to be higher in the included sample than in the mainstream sample. The results of this study are compared with previous longitudinal studies in the area that have focused on mainstream pupils, and implications for the use of sociometric measures in evaluating the outcomes of inclusion are discussed. [source]

    Examining Interactions across Language Modalities: Deaf Children and Hearing Peers at School

    Professor Elizabeth Keating
    Deaf youth easily become communicatively isolated in public schools, where they are in a small minority among a majority of hearing peers and teachers. This article examines communicative strategies of deaf children in an American "mainstream " school setting to discover how they creatively manage their casual communicative interactions with hearing peers across multimodal communicative channels, visual and auditory. We argue that unshared sociolinguistic practices and hearing-oriented participation frameworks are crucial aspects of communicative failure in these settings. We also show that what look like "successful" conversational interactions between deaf and hearing children actually contain little real language and few of the complex communication skills vital to cognitive and social development. This study contributes to understanding the social production of communicative isolation of deaf students and implications of mainstream education for this minority group. [source]

    Health-related quality of life and bullying in adolescence

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2010
    A Frisén
    Abstract Objective:, To investigate if adolescents' HRQL (Health-Related Quality of Life) is associated with experiences of school bullying. Method:, A total of 758 adolescents completed a questionnaire to help examine HRQL and the prevalence of bullying. Results:, Associations were found between being bullied and all of the examined aspects of HRQL. To be involved in bullying , both as a bully and bully/victim (both bully and victim) , is related to experiences of physical and emotional difficulties. Being bullied during the latter school years affects aspects of HRQL to a greater extent than being bullied during earlier school years. Conclusion:, Peers have a pronounced influence on the adolescents' life, which can be seen in the association between experiences of bullying and its association with HRQL. Being bullied is associated with significantly poorer ratings of HRQL for adolescents in nearly every aspect of day-to-day functioning and quality of life. [source]

    The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2005
    Joseph P. Allen
    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed these hypotheses. As hypothesized, popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment, and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a popularity-socialization hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease behaviors unlikely to be well received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). [source]

    The Influence of Neighborhood Disadvantage, Collective Socialization, and Parenting on African American Children's Affiliation with Deviant Peers

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2001
    Gene H. Brody
    This study focused on hypotheses about the contributions of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting to African American children's affiliation with deviant peers. A total of 867 families living in Georgia and Iowa, each with a 10- to 12-year-old child, participated. Unique contributions to deviant peer affiliation were examined using a hierarchical linear model. Community disadvantage derived from census data had a significant positive effect on deviant peer affiliations. Nurturant/involved parenting and collective socialization processes were inversely associated, and harsh/inconsistent parenting was positively associated, with deviant peer affiliations. The effects of nurturant/involved parenting and collective socialization were most pronounced for children residing in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. [source]

    Toddlers' Use of Force against Familiar Peers: A Precursor of Serious Aggression?

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2000
    Dale F. Hay
    Possible precursors of serious aggression were identified in toddlers' use of force against peers. Instances of grabbing objects and hitting peers were recorded in a sample of 66 British 18- to 30-month-olds, observed at home with familiar peers and seen again 6 months later. Mothers rated aggressiveness in the context of other personality traits. Girls and boys did not differ in average levels of aggression, nor were they rated differently by the mothers. However, the observed rate of hitting peers and mothers' ratings of aggressiveness were stable over 6 months for girls, but not for boys. Toddlers who were especially sensitive to peers' possible intentions hit their peers more often. They were also more likely to use force proactively, 6 months later. [source]

    Self-assessment of relationships with peers in children with intellectual disability

    A. Zic
    Abstract Interaction with peers is important for the development of children, but children with special needs may feel rejected by their peers. The present study examines self-assessment of relationships with peers by children with intellectual disability (ID; n = 20) and children from the general population (n = 20). All participants attended a regular primary school and were aged between 7 and 10.5 years; both sexes were represented in the samples. The Behavior Rating Profile was applied. The results of the children with ID on the ,Student Rating Scale: Peers' did not show statistically significant differences from the results of children from general population, with both groups responding similarly to the self-perception scale. However, the sociometric results obtained from their peers clearly show that children with ID are not accepted by their classmates. Peers frequently and more often refuse to study, sit together in class or socialize after classes with children with ID than is the case for children without ID. Despite the high frequency of rejection, it is concluded that children with ID of younger primary school age have average confidence in their own abilities and in the success of their relationships with their peers. Further education among the children who reject them could have a negative impact on their self-esteem. [source]

    Gossip-based search selection in hybrid peer-to-peer networks

    M. Zaharia
    Abstract We present GAB, a search algorithm for hybrid peer-to-peer networks, that is, networks that search using both flooding and a distributed hash table (DHT). GAB uses a gossip-style algorithm to collect global statistics about document popularity to allow each peer to make intelligent decisions about which search style to use for a given query. Moreover, GAB automatically adapts to changes in the operating environment. Synthetic and trace-driven simulations show that compared to a simple hybrid approach that always floods first, trying a DHT if too few results are found, GAB reduces the response time by 25,50% and the average query bandwidth cost by 45%, with no loss in recall. GAB scales well, with only a 7% degradation in performance despite a tripling in system size. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    The present study examines the extent to which neighborhood and social psychological influences predict childhood violence among 867 African-American youth. The results showed that neighborhood affluence was the only neighborhood-level variable to exert a significant influence on childhood violence. Furthermore, childhood violence was significantly related to social psychological influences, such as adopting a street code, associating with violent peers, parental use of violence, and quality parenting. Overall, the findings suggested that simply living in a violent neighborhood does not produce violent children, but that family, peer, and individual characteristics play a large role in predicting violence in childhood. [source]

    Epigenetic influence of social experiences across the lifespan

    Frances A. Champagne
    Abstract The critical role of social interactions in driving phenotypic variation has long been inferred from the association between early social deprivation and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recent evidence has implicated molecular pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression as one possible route through which these long-term outcomes are achieved. These epigenetic effects, though not exclusive to social experiences, may be a mechanism through which the quality of the social environment becomes embedded at a biological level. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the transgenerational impact of these early experiences mediated through changes in social and reproductive behavior exhibited in adulthood. In this review, recent studies which highlight the epigenetic effects of parent,offspring, peer and adult social interactions both with and across generations will be discussed and the implications of this research for understanding the developmental origins of individual differences in brain and behavior will be explored. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 299,311, 2010. [source]

    Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: Tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects

    Angel I. Melo
    Abstract Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared,MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psyshobiol 48: 209,219, 2006. [source]