Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Pain

  • abdominal pain
  • acute abdominal pain
  • acute chest pain
  • acute low back pain
  • acute pain
  • anterior knee pain
  • arm pain
  • average pain
  • back pain
  • bad pain
  • baseline pain
  • bladder pain
  • bodily pain
  • body pain
  • bone pain
  • breakthrough pain
  • burning pain
  • calf pain
  • cancer pain
  • cancer-related pain
  • cell pain
  • central pain
  • cervical spinal pain
  • chest pain
  • child pain
  • chronic back pain
  • chronic low back pain
  • chronic musculoskeletal pain
  • chronic neck pain
  • chronic neuropathic pain
  • chronic non-cancer pain
  • chronic noncancer pain
  • chronic nonmalignant pain
  • chronic pain
  • chronic pelvic pain
  • chronic severe pain
  • clinical pain
  • craniomandibular pain
  • decrease in pain
  • decreased pain
  • dental pain
  • diabetic neuropathic pain
  • difference in pain
  • discogenic pain
  • emotional pain
  • epigastric pain
  • experience pain
  • experimental pain
  • extremity pain
  • facial pain
  • flank pain
  • foot pain
  • frequent pain
  • gastrointestinal pain
  • greater pain
  • head pain
  • headache pain
  • heel pain
  • hip pain
  • improvement in pain
  • in pain
  • inflammatory pain
  • injection pain
  • intense pain
  • intractable pain
  • joint pain
  • knee pain
  • labor pain
  • leg pain
  • limb pain
  • local pain
  • loin pain
  • long-term pain
  • low back pain
  • low-back pain
  • lower abdominal pain
  • lower back pain
  • lower extremity pain
  • lumbar pain
  • maintained pain
  • migraine pain
  • mild abdominal pain
  • mild pain
  • minimal pain
  • moderate pain
  • moderate-to-severe pain
  • muscle pain
  • musculoskeletal pain
  • myofascial pain
  • neck pain
  • neuropathic pain
  • nociceptive pain
  • non-cancer pain
  • non-cardiac chest pain
  • non-malignant pain
  • non-specific low back pain
  • noncancer pain
  • nonmalignant pain
  • nonspecific low back pain
  • ongoing pain
  • oral pain
  • oro-facial pain
  • orofacial pain
  • patient pain
  • pelvic pain
  • perineal pain
  • peripheral neuropathic pain
  • persistent pain
  • phantom limb pain
  • physical pain
  • post-operative pain
  • postoperative pain
  • procedural pain
  • quadrant pain
  • radicular pain
  • recurrent abdominal pain
  • recurrent pain
  • reduction in pain
  • refer pain
  • refractory pain
  • right upper quadrant pain
  • scrotal pain
  • severe abdominal pain
  • severe back pain
  • severe chronic pain
  • severe pain
  • sexual pain
  • shoulder pain
  • sickle cell pain
  • significant difference in pain
  • significant pain
  • somatic pain
  • spinal pain
  • spontaneous pain
  • stomach pain
  • subjective pain
  • testicular pain
  • throat pain
  • unbearable pain
  • unilateral pain
  • upper abdominal pain
  • upper extremity pain
  • upper quadrant pain
  • visceral pain
  • widespread pain
  • wound pain

  • Terms modified by Pain

  • pain alleviation
  • pain assessment
  • pain behavior
  • pain behaviour
  • pain care
  • pain center
  • pain characteristic
  • pain clinic
  • pain complaints
  • pain condition
  • pain control
  • pain crisis
  • pain decreased
  • pain disorder
  • pain disorders
  • pain duration
  • pain episode
  • pain experience
  • pain free
  • pain freedom
  • pain frequency
  • pain group
  • pain history
  • pain intensity
  • pain intensity score
  • pain interference
  • pain inventory
  • pain item
  • pain lasting
  • pain level
  • pain management
  • pain management practice
  • pain management program
  • pain management strategy
  • pain measure
  • pain mechanism
  • pain medication
  • pain medicine
  • pain model
  • pain models
  • pain only
  • pain pathway
  • pain patient
  • pain perception
  • pain physician
  • pain population
  • pain practice
  • pain presenting
  • pain processing
  • pain provocation
  • pain questionnaire
  • pain rating
  • pain rating scale
  • pain reduction
  • pain relief
  • pain report
  • pain research
  • pain response
  • pain scale
  • pain score
  • pain score decreased
  • pain secondary
  • pain sensation
  • pain sensitivity
  • pain service
  • pain services
  • pain severity
  • pain signaling
  • pain society
  • pain specialist
  • pain state
  • pain states
  • pain status
  • pain stimulus
  • pain studies
  • pain sufferer
  • pain survey
  • pain symptom
  • pain syndrome
  • pain syndrome type i
  • pain team
  • pain therapy
  • pain threshold
  • pain tolerance
  • pain tolerance threshold
  • pain transmission
  • pain treatment

  • Selected Abstracts


    HEADACHE, Issue 9 2003
    Article first published online: 3 SEP 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The effect of concurrent pain on the management of patients with depression: an analysis of NHS healthcare resource utilisation using the GPRD database

    L. Watson
    Summary Introduction:, Patients with depression frequently report painful physical symptoms. However, there are scant data from the UK concerning differences in primary and secondary care resource use between depressed patients with and without pain treated in general practice. Methods:, Patients with depression codes were identified from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) excluding those with psychoses. The observation period was 1st January 2000,31st December 2006. Patients were further categorised into three groups: (i) no painful physical symptom codes ever in the observation period (NO PAIN); (ii) patients with no other diagnostic or test codes 30 days either side of a pain code (PAIN MINUS DIAGNOSIS) and (iii) patients with pain codes and other diagnostic codes (PAIN PLUS DIAGNOSIS). Rates of general practitioner (GP) visits, antidepressant and concomitant prescribing and switching, secondary care referrals and diagnostic tests were reported per group with 95% confidence limits (CI). Results:, A total of 145,784 patients with depression aged 18,50 years were selected. Of these, 48,615 (33.3%) were classed as NO PAIN, the remaining 66.6% having pain. PAIN MINUS DIAGNOSIS patients constituted 5654 (5.8%) of those with pain. PAIN MINUS DIAGNOSIS and PAIN PLUS DIAGNOSIS had a significantly higher rate of GP visits than NO PAIN patients, 10.37 (95% CI 10.23, 10.52); 11.15 (11.11,11.20) and 7.04 (7.00, 7.08) respectively. Inter and intraclass drug switching was high with 13% of PAIN MINUS DIAGNOSIS and 14% of PAIN PLUS DIAGNOSIS patients having three or more switches compared with 7% of NO PAIN patients. Referral rates to secondary care were significantly higher in both pain groups compared with patients with no pain. Diagnostic testing was significantly greater in PAIN MINUS DIAGNOSIS and PAIN PLUS DIAGNOSIS groups than NO PAIN patients for all test types, with X-rays being the most common test; 3.85 (3.69,4.00); 2.77 (2.74,2.80); 0.91 (0.89, 0.94) respectively. Conclusion:, Patients in general practice diagnosed with depression and concurrent painful physical symptoms have higher resource use in primary and secondary care. [source]


    Benedetta Boari MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 4 JUL 200
    Patricia Richards, MD, PhD; Pinggao Zhang, PhD; Michael Friedman, PhD; Rahul Dhanda, PhD. (Purdue Pharma L.P.) Introduction: Opioids are frequently prescribed for management of persistent low back pain, however, efficacy has not been well documented, and concerns are that opioids may impair physical functioning. Objective: To compare controlled-release oxycodone (CRO) with placebo in controlling pain and to observe the effect of CRO on quality of life and functionality. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 3 months duration was conducted in 110 subjects (49 males, 61 females), mean age 48 years (19,80 years). Subjects had a 3- to 12-month history of moderate to severe persistent low back pain and were previously unresponsive to therapeutic doses of NSAIDs, and/or low dose combination opioid analgesics. At baseline 4% of subjects were on opioids, 39% on NSAIDs, and 57% both NSAIDs and opioids. Subjects were treated with 10 mg CRO tablet or 10 mg oral placebo q12h, titrated to stable pain control. Existing treatment regimens of acetaminophen, NSAIDs, or oral steroids were allowed to continue. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Roland Morris Functionality Questionnaire, and the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were the measures of pain intensity, functionality, and quality of life. Treatments were compared using repeated measures ANCOVA with baseline value as covariate. Results: CRO treatment was significantly superior to placebo on the BPI average pain intensity and average percent pain relief scores overall (4.6 vs 5.4, P = .03, and 47.2 vs 36.3, P = .05, respectively). Fewer CRO subjects discontinued because of inadequate pain control (P < .001). No significant differences between treatments were observed in either Roland Morris or SF-36 scores. Common adverse events for CRO were nausea, constipation, somnolence, headache, and pruritus, consistent with opioid use. Conclusions: Three-month treatment with CRO provides significant pain relief for subjects with persistent moderate to severe back pain, without significantly impairing functionality and quality of life. The support of Purdue Pharma L.P. for this research project is gratefully acknowledged. [source]


    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 4 JUL 200
    Forest Tennant, MD, Dr PH; Laura Herman RN BSN FNP Veract Intractable Pain Centers, 338 S. Glendora Ave., West Covina, CA 91790 It is recognized that biologic markers of severe, intractable pain (SIP) can help distinguish degrees of pain and assist in monitoring treatment effectiveness. Fifty (50.0%) adult ambulatory SIP patients, at the time of referral described their pain as constant, excruciating, produced a bed or house-bound state, and was uncontrolled by non-opioid medications and low dosages of the weak opioids, hydrocodone or codeine. Patients were treated with a long-acting opioid preparation consisting of methadone, oxycodone, morphine, or transdermal fentanyl in addition to a short-acting opioid for breakthrough pain. These patients were screened before treatment and after three months of opioid treatment by: (1) blood pressure; (2) pulse rate; (3) morning cortisol and pregnenolone serum concentrations; and (4) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The percentage of patients with physiologic abnormalities before and after three months of treatment were as follows: (1) hypertension above 140/90 mm/Hg; 28 (56.0%) vrs 14 (28.0%); (2) tachycardia above 84/minute; 21 (42.0%) vrs 9 (18.0%); (3) elevated serum cortisol concentration; 12 (24.0%) vrs 2 (4.0%); (4) low serum cortisol serum concentration; 7 (14.0% vrs 1 (2.0%); (5) low pregnenolone serum concentration; 18 (36.0%) vrs 3 (6.0%); and (6) elevated ESR; 10 (20.0%) vrs 3 (6.0%) (p<.05). Mean blood pressure, pulse rate, ESR, and serum concentrations of cortisol and pregnenolone in patients who demonstrated a physiologic abnormality all positively and significantly (p<.05) altered these markers toward normal. This study indicates that some physiologic abnormalities, particularly those related to pituitary-adrenal over-stimulation with excess output of catecholamines and glucocorticoids, may serve as biologic markers which can help to identify SIP and monitor treatment effectiveness. [source]


    We conducted qualitative and quantitative reviews of the medical literature to develop an understanding of the linkages between nonspecific lower back pain (LBP) and employee absenteeism, and the efficacy of lower back pain interventions (LBPI) in reducing absenteeism. First, we offered a general time-based framework to clarify the causal flows between LBP and absence. Second, we inspected LBPIs designed to ameliorate LBP, which should, in turn, lead to reduced absence-taking. Third, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 effect sizes involving 12,214 people, to examine the relationships between both LBP and LBPIs and absenteeism. Consistent with a presumption in the medical literature, we found support for the idea that chronic LBP has a positive overall relationship with absence-taking. The relationship was stronger for absence frequency measures than time lost measures. In addition, we found that increasing aggregation time (i.e., increases in the periods over which absence is observed) enhances the size of the chronic LBP-absence connection. Further, evidence showed that LBPIs were effective overall in reducing absenteeism. Finally, when there was a temporal mismatch between the form of LBP (acute vs. chronic) and the absenteeism aggregation period in LBPI studies, effect sizes were significantly smaller. We concluded with a discussion of these results, methodological limitations, and suggestions for future research that blends medical with organizational approaches to the etiology of absence. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PAIN: Vaginismus and Dyspareunia: Automatic vs.

    Deliberate Disgust Responsivity
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The difficulty of penetration experienced in vaginismus and dyspareunia may at least partly be due to a disgust-induced defensive response. Aims., To examine if sex stimuli specifically elicit: (i) automatic disgust-related memory associations; (ii) physiological disgust responsivity; and/or (iii) deliberate expression of disgust/threat. Methods., Two single target Implicit Association Task (st-IAT) and electromyography (EMG) were conducted on three groups: vaginismus (N = 24), dyspareunia (N = 24), and control (N = 31) group. Main Outcome Measures., st-IAT, to index their initial disgust-related associations and facial EMG for the m. levator labii and m. corrugator supercilii regions. Results., Both clinical groups showed enhanced automatic sex-disgust associations. As a unique physiological expression of disgust, the levator activity was specifically enhanced for the vaginismus group, when exposed to a women-friendly SEX video clip. Also at the deliberate level, specifically the vaginismus group showed enhanced subjective disgust toward SEX pictures and the SEX clip, along with higher threat responses. Conclusions., Supporting the view that disgust is involved in vaginismus and dyspareunia, for both, clinical groups' sex stimuli automatically elicited associations with disgust. Particularly for the vaginismus group, these initial disgust associations persisted during subsequent validation processes and were also evident at the level of facial expression and self-report data. Findings are consistent with the notion that uncontrollable activated associations are involved in eliciting defensive reactions at the prospect of penetration seen in both conditions. Whereas deliberate attitudes, usually linked with the desire for having intercourse, possibly generate the distinction (e.g., severity) between these two conditions. Borg C, de Jong PJ, and Schultz WW. Vaginismus and dyspareunia: Automatic vs. deliberate disgust responsivity. J Sex Med 2010;7:2149,2157. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PAIN: Misremembering Pain: Memory Bias for Pain Words in Women Reporting Sexual Pain

    Lea Thaler MA
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The debate over the classification of dyspareunia as a sexual dysfunction or as a pain disorder raises the question of the comparative cognitive salience of sex and/or pain in the experience of women who report pain with intercourse. Refinements in our understanding of cognitive factors in the experience of pain with intercourse may be important in the development of effective treatments. Aim., This study aimed to compare the cognitive salience of sex and pain word stimuli in women reporting pain with intercourse and in a control group of women without sexual dysfunction. Methods., Twenty women reporting pain during sexual intercourse and 20 women reporting no sexual dysfunction (controls) participated in a memory protocol designed to detect differences as a function of group membership and type of stimulus (sex, pain, and two other control stimuli). Main Outcome Measures., Dependent measures were recall, recognition, intrusions, and false positives for sex words, pain words, and two other control word types. Results., Regardless of group membership, women had best recall for sex-related words; however, women reporting sexual pain evidenced more false memories for pain words than did control women, and pain words elicited more false memories than any other type of word for women with sexual pain. Conclusion., Results are interpreted to suggest that repeated activation through experience with persistent sexual pain may have contributed to the: (i) development of stronger semantic networks related to pain in comparison to no sexual dysfunction controls and; (ii) activation of pain networks more easily triggered by pain-related stimuli in women with sexual pain than in no sexual dysfunction controls. Sex, however, had not attained the cognitive salience of pain. Thaler L, Meana M, and Lanti A. Misremembering pain: Memory bias for pain words in women reporting sexual pain. J Sex Med 2009;6:1369,1377. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PAIN: Pain, Psychosocial, Sexual, and Psychophysical Characteristics of Women with Primary vs.

    Secondary Provoked Vestibulodynia
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a common cause of dyspareunia, are typically considered a homogeneous group. However, research suggests that differences on some factors (e.g., medical history, pain characteristics, psychological functioning, treatment response) exist based upon whether the pain was present at first intercourse (primary PVD: PVD1) or developed at some later point (secondary PVD: PVD2). Aims., The purpose of this study was to examine differences in demographic variables, pain characteristics, psychosocial and psychosexual adjustment, and pain sensitivity between women with PVD1 and PVD2. Methods., Twenty-six women suffering from PVD (13 with PVD1 and 13 with PVD2) completed a screening assessment, a standardized gynecological examination, an interview, questionnaires, and a quantitative sensory testing session. Main Outcome Measures., These included pain ratings during the gynecological examination and interview, scores on measures of psychosocial/sexual functioning (e.g., Short Form-36 [SF-36] Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index), and thresholds and pain ratings during thermal sensory testing over the dominant forearm and vulvar vestibule. Results., The women with PVD1 were more likely to be nulliparous, but they were not significantly different from the women with PVD2 on other demographic variables or in their pain ratings during the gynecological examination. The women with PVD1 reported lower levels of social and emotional functioning and heightened anxiety surrounding body exposure during sexual activity, and they also displayed lower heat pain tolerance over the forearm and lower heat detection and pain thresholds at the vulvar vestibule than the women with PVD2. Conclusions., The findings from this study support previous research indicating that women with PVD1 and PVD2 differ in a number of domains. Further research is needed to confirm and elaborate on these findings. Sutton KS, Pukall C, and Chamberlain S. Pain, psychosocial, sexual, and psychophysical characteristics of women with primary vs. secondary provoked vestibulodynia. J Sex Med 2009;6:205,214. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PAIN: Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Hand Eczema in the Turkish Population

    Mahizer Ergün MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Hand eczema can cause considerable psychosocial disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and difficulties at work, and it may also cause sexual dysfunction. Aim., The aim of this study was to investigate sexual function in patients with hand eczema and to find out whether concomitant depression has an additional negative effect on sexual function in these patients. Main Outcome Measures., Sexual functions were evaluated in hand eczema patients. Methods., Ninety-one female (43 patients vs. 48 controls) and 79 male (45 patients vs. 34 controls) subjects were enrolled in the study. Hand eczema severity index was used to determine severity of hand eczema. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were used to assess sexual function. Quality of life was assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Diagnosis of depression was made based on the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, while the Hamilton Depression Rate Scale was used for grading depression. Results., Among 43 female subjects with hand eczema, 26 had depression (60.46%); of the 45 male patients, 11 had depression (24.44%). FSFI total score was found to be significantly decreased in female patients with both eczema and depression compared with controls (20.84 ± 9.19 vs. 24.04 ± 3.40, P < 0.05). FSFI total score was found to be significantly decreased in female patients with both eczema and depression compared with those without depression (20.84 ± 9.19 vs. 22.23 ± 5.82, P < 0.05). IIEF total score was also found to be significantly decreased in male patients with or without depression compared with controls (52.36 ± 14.83 vs. 59.88 ± 5.65 vs. 62.03 ± 11.04, P < 0.05). Conclusions., The results of the study demonstrated that patients with hand eczema had sexual dysfunction, and concomitant depression had an additional negative effect on sexual dysfunction. Patients with hand eczema should be evaluated with regard to sexual function and depression to provide a better quality of life. Ergün M, Türel Ermertcan A, Öztürkcan S, Temelta, G, Deveci A, and Dinç G. Sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic hand eczema in the Turkish population. J Sex Med 2007;4:1684,1690. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 7 2008
    Edward Shipton
    Surgeons and anaesthetists are involved in Pain Medicine, as they have a responsibility to contribute to postoperative pain management and are often consulted about longer-term pain problems as well. A large component of persistent pain after surgery can be defined as neuropathic pain (NP). Nerves are injured during surgery and pain can persist after the surgical wound has healed. NP is because of a primary lesion or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system. Prevalence estimates indicate that 2,3% of the population in the developed world experience NP. Persistent post-surgical NP is a mostly unrecognized clinical problem. The chronicity and persistence of post-surgical NP is often severely debilitating and impinges on the psychosocial, physical, economic and emotional well-being of patients. Options for treatment of any neuropathic factors are based on understanding the pain mechanisms involved. The current understandings of the mechanisms involved are presented. There is reasonable evidence for the efficacy of pharmacological management for NP. The aim of this article was to appraise the prevention, diagnostic work-up, the physical and particularly the pharmacological management of post-surgical NP and to provide a glimpse of advances in the field. It is a practical approach to post-surgical NP for all surgeons and anaesthetists. The take-home message is that prevention is better than waiting for post-surgical NP to become persistent. [source]


    Pat O'Hara
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Gael F Gibbs
    SUMMARY 1In diseases such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), where neuropathic pain is the primary concern, traditional pain classifications and lesion descriptors are of limited value. To obtain better treatment outcomes for patients, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain need to be elucidated and analysed so that therapeutic targets can be identified and specific treatments developed. 2In the present review, we examine the current literature on sympathetically maintained pain (SMP), a subset of neuropathic pain, within the context of CRPS. Evidence from both human and animal studies is presented and discussed in terms of its support for the existence of SMP and the mechanistic information it provides. 3We discuss three current hypotheses that propose both a site and method for sympathetic,sensory coupling: (i) direct coupling between sympathetic and sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion; (ii) chemical coupling between sympathetic and nociceptive neuron terminals in skin; and (iii) the development of a-adrenoceptor-mediated supersensitivity in nociceptive fibres in skin in association with the release of inflammatory mediators. 4Finally, we propose a new hypothesis that integrates the mechanisms of chemical coupling and a-adrenoceptor-mediated supersensitivity. This hypothesis is based on previously unpublished data from our laboratory showing that a histological substrate suitable for sympathetic,sensory coupling exists in normal subjects. In the diseased state, the nociceptive fibres implicated in this substrate may be activated by both endogenous and exogenous noradrenaline. The mediating a-adrenoceptors may be expressed on the nociceptive fibres or on closely associated support cells. [source]

    Elevated Serum Cardiac Markers Predict Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With a History of Heart Failure Who Present With Chest Pain: Insights From the i*trACS Registry

    Jonathan Glauser MD
    The significance of a history of heart failure (HF) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes and elevated cardiac markers is unclear. The authors performed an analysis of patients enrolled in the Internet Tracking Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (i*trACS). Cardiac marker measurement and cardiac catheterization were performed in 1174 patients. Of these, 116 (9.9%) had heart failure (HF). Coronary artery disease (CAD) was found in 61 (52.6%) patients in the HF group and 581 (54.9%) in the group without HF. In the non-HF cohort, positive markers occurred in 306 patients, in whom 217 (70.9%) had CAD at catheterization. In the HF subset, 24 patients had positive biomarkers and 15 (62.5%) had CAD. A history of HF did not lessen the likelihood of CAD as evidenced by angiography and does not diminish the utility of cardiac markers in diagnosing acute coronary syndromes. [source]

    Education and the Dangerous Memories of Historical Trauma: Narratives of Pain, Narratives of Hope

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2008
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to explore the meanings and implications of dangerous memories in two different sites of past traumatic memories: one in Israel and the other in Cyprus. Dangerous memories are defined as those memories that are disruptive to the status quo, that is, the hegemonic culture of strengthening and perpetuating existing group-based identities. Our effort is to outline some insights from this endeavor,insights that may help educators recognize the potential of dangerous memories to ease pain and offer hope. First, a discussion on memory, history and identity sets the ground for discussing the meaning and significance of dangerous memories in the history curriculum. Next, we narrate two stories from our longitudinal ethnographic studies on trauma and memory in Israel and Cyprus; these stories are interpreted through the lens of dangerous memories and their workings in relation to the hegemonic powers that aim to sustain collective memories. The two different stories suggest that collective memories of historical trauma are not simply "transmitted" in any simple way down the generations,although there are powerful workings that support this transmission. Rather, there seems to be much ambivalence in the workings of memories that under some circumstances may create openings for new identities. The final section discusses the possibilities of developing a pedagogy of dangerous memories by highlighting educational implications that focus on the notion of creating new solidarities without forgetting past traumas. This last section employs dangerous memories as a critical category for pedagogy in the context of our general concern about the implications of memory, history and identity in educational contexts. [source]

    Dental emergencies presenting to a dental teaching hospital due to complications from traumatic dental injuries

    Suhad H. Al-JundiArticle first published online: 29 JUL 200
    Abstract ,,,In Jordan, only two surveys of dental trauma have been carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of dental emergencies resulting from traumatic injuries, as well as treatment provided to children presenting with these dental emergencies. Over a 1-year period, 620 children presented to our pediatric dental clinics with dental emergencies; 195 (31%) of these emergencies were a consequence of dental trauma to 287 teeth and were included in the study. The average time between the trauma and the dental emergency was 5 months. Pain or sensitivity was the most frequent presenting symptom (31.3%) followed by swelling or sinus tract (17.4%). The age of these patients ranged from 15 months to 14 years, with an average age of 9.3 years. Males accounted for 75.4% of the children in the samples, whereas females accounted for only 24.6%. The main cause of dental trauma was falling during play (58.5%); the least common cause was motor vehicle accidents, accounting for only 1.5% of all injuries. Most of the dental injuries occurred at home (41.5%), around noon time. The most commonly involved teeth were permanent maxillary central incisors accounting for 79.5% of all teeth involved by dental trauma. The most frequently encountered type of trauma in this sample was crown fracture seen in 76.6% of the teeth . Soft tissue injuries were estimated to occur in 16.9% of the children. The treatment received by the children in the sample ranged from no active treatment (6.2%) to elaborate dental procedures such as pulp therapy (41.3%) and prosthetic replacement of missing teeth (5.1%). [source]

    Pain interference impacts response to treatment for anxiety disorders

    Carrie Farmer Teh PhD
    Abstract Background: Anxiety disorders and pain are commonly comorbid, though little is known about the effect of pain on the course and treatment of anxiety. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial for anxiety treatment in primary care. Participants with panic disorder (PD) and/or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (N=191; 81% female, mean age 44) were randomized to either their primary-care physician's usual care or a 12-month course of telephone-based collaborative care. Anxiety severity, pain interference, health-related quality of life, health services use, and employment status were assessed at baseline, and at 2-, 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up. We defined response to anxiety treatment as a 40% or greater improvement from baseline on anxiety severity scales at 12-month follow-up. Results: The 39% who reported high pain interference at baseline had more severe anxiety (mean SIGH-A score: 21.8 versus 18.0, P<.001), greater limitations in activities of daily living, and more work days missed in the previous month (5.8 versus 4.0 days, P=.01) than those with low pain interference. At 12-month follow-up, high pain interference was associated with a lower likelihood of responding to anxiety treatment (OR=.28; 95% CI=.12,.63) and higher health services use (26.1% with ,1 hospitalization versus 12.0%, P<.001). Conclusions: Pain that interferes with daily activities is prevalent among primary care patients with PD/GAD and associated with more severe anxiety, worse daily functioning, higher health services use, and a lower likelihood of responding to treatment for PD/GAD. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Trichloroacetic Acid Matricectomy in the Treatment of Ingrowing Toenails

    BACKGROUND Ingrowing toenails can be treated with conservative therapy or surgery, but frequent relapse can be a problem in conservative therapy and surgical therapy without matricectomy. Thus, permanent nail ablation by partial matricectomy is now accepted as the treatment of choice. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) matricectomy in the treatment of ingrowing nail. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty ingrowing toenail edges in 25 patients were enrolled. TCA matricectomy with 100% trichloroacetic acid after partial nail avulsion was performed. For a few weeks after surgery, postoperative complications such as pain, discharge, and infection were assessed. After a mean follow-up period of 22.9 months, recurrence rate and cosmetic outcomes were investigated to evaluate the effects of the surgery. RESULTS The wounds almost always healed within 2 weeks without prolonged exudative discharge. Pain was mild and transient. A case of secondary infection occurred. Recurrence was found in only two nails of one patient, and the success rate was 95%, with good cosmetic results. CONCLUSION TCA matricectomy showed a low recurrence rate with minimal side effects and was easy to perform in outpatient clinic. Therefore, it may be a good alternative treatment of ingrowing toenails. [source]

    Warm and Neutral Tumescent Anesthetic Solutions Are Essential Factors for a Less Painful Injection

    BACKGROUND Tumescent local anesthesia is widely used in dermatologic surgery. Minimizing pain associated with injections is crucial to successful surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE This study investigates the pain associated with warm and room temperatures in neutralized or nonneutralized tumescent anesthetic solutions injection. METHODS Thirty-six patients with axilla osmidrosis who underwent local anesthesia for surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A received warm neutral (40°C) and room-temperature neutral (22°C) tumescent injections to each axillary region. Group B received warm neutral (pH 7.35) and warm nonneutral (pH 4.78) tumescent injections on each side of axilla. Group C received warm nonneutral and room-temperature nonneutral tumescent injections on each side of axilla. Pain associated with infiltration of anesthesia was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS A statistically significant decrease (p < .001) in pain sensation was reported on the warm, neutral injection side (mean rating, 32.7 mm) compared with the room-temperature, neutral injection side (mean rating, 53.3 mm). Patient-reported pain intensity was significantly lower on the side that received warm, neutral tumescent anesthesia (mean rating, 26.8 mm) than on the side receiving warm, nonneutral tumescent anesthesia (mean rating, 44.9 mm; p < .001). The difference in VAS scores between warm neutral (mean rating, 23.9 mm) and room-temperature nonneutral (mean rating, 61.2 mm) was statistically significant (p < .001). CONCLUSION The warm, neutral tumescent anesthetic preparation effectively suppressed patient pain during dermatologic surgical procedures. [source]

    Clear Cell Acanthoma Successfully Treated with a Carbon Dioxide Laser

    Ching-Chi Chi MD
    Background. The treatment of choice for clear cell acanthoma (CCA) is excision. Resolution after cryotherapy has also been reported but requires three to four courses of treatment. Objective. To demonstrate three CCA lesions in two patients successfully treated with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Methods. Under local anesthesia, these lesions were vaporized by using a CO2 laser in the Silktouch mode with a spot size of 5 mm and a fluence of 20 J/cm2. Two to six passes, as needed, were delivered until the tumor was completely removed. Results. Pain was minimal or nonexistent during and after the operation. No postoperative edema was noted. The wounds healed satisfactorily without scarring. No sign of recurrence was found following operation. Conclusion. The CO2 laser has the advantages of requiring only one course, precise tumor removal, a relatively bloodless surgical field, a short operation time, and less or no postoperative pain and edema. Postoperative wound care is convenient and easy with hydrocolloid and alginate dressings. The patient's quality of life is less adversely affected. The CO2 laser may be appropriate for multiple CCAs, giant CCA, CCA overlying or near joints, CCA refractory to cryotherapy, patients on anticoagulants, and those who cannot tolerate pain from cryotherapy, especially children and the elderly. [source]

    Concurrent Use of a Handheld Forced Cold Air Device Minimizes Patient Discomfort during Fractional Photothermolysis

    Galen H. Fisher MD
    Objective:. To assess the analgesic effect of a handheld forced cold air device during fractional photothermolysis. Methods. Twenty patients who were being treated with full-face fractional photothermolysis were asked to rate their pain level with and without the handheld air-cooling device. Pain was rated on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the worst. Results. Nineteen of 20 patients noted decreased pain with the addition of handheld cooling. The mean level of pain without air-cooling was 6.95 6 2.0. The mean level of discomfort with air cooling was 4.0 6 1.8. The mean decrease in pain with the addition of air-cooling was 2.9 6 1.8. Conclusion:. The addition of a handheld forced cold air device to cool the skin before and after fractional photothermolysis treatment is an effective adjunctive analgesic modality. [source]

    Improving Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Palmar Hyperhidrosis: Wrist Block and Technical Considerations

    Ada Regina Trindade De Almeida MD
    Botulinum A exotoxin has become an excellent therapeutic option to treat focal hyperhidrosis, but when the problem affects the palmar region the technique has some drawbacks. Pain with injection is difficult to tolerate and the large dose needed to treat both hands are two concerns, as well as muscle weakness secondary to botulinum toxin diffusion and the possibility of antibody production. All these problems limit the number of patients treated. The author's suggestion is to treat only the dominant hand, after performing a wrist block. The use of a device adapted from a cartridge rubber may help to control the injection depth and the risk of muscular weakness. [source]

    Pain during depression and relationship to rejection sensitivity

    A. Ehnvall
    Objective:, Approximately 50% of patients with depression report symptoms of pain, yet the clinical and biological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies, however, support the contention that depression, as well as pain distress and rejection distress, share the same neurobiological circuits. In this study, we aimed to examine the hypothesis that perception of increased pain during depression is related to increased rejection sensitivity. Method:, The present study analysed data from a study of 186 treatment-resistant depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for depression and had completed a self-report questionnaire regarding currently perceived pain and rejection sensitivity. Results:, A major increase in the experience of pain during depression was predicted by a major increase in rejection sensitivity during depression. Conclusion:, The experience of increased pain during depression is related to increased rejection sensitivity. Research to further elucidate this relationship is required. [source]

    Digital versus Local Anesthesia for Finger Lacerations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Stuart Chale MD
    Abstract Objectives To compare the pain of needle insertion, anesthesia, and suturing in finger lacerations after local anesthesia with prior topical anesthesia with that experienced after digital anesthesia. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial in a university-based emergency department (ED), with an annual census of 75,000 patient visits. ED patients aged ,8 years with finger lacerations were enrolled. After standard wound preparation and 15-minute topical application of lidocaine-epinephrine-tetracaine (LET) in all wounds, lacerations were randomized to anesthesia with either local or digital infiltration of 1% lidocaine. Pain of needle insertion, anesthetic infiltration, and suturing were recorded on a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (none) to 100 (worst); also recorded were percentage of wounds requiring rescue anesthesia; time until anesthesia; percentage of wounds with infection or numbness at day 7. Outcomes were compared by using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. A sample of 52 patients had 80% power to detect a 15-mm difference in pain scores. Results Fifty-five patients were randomized to digital (n= 28) or local (n= 27) anesthesia. Mean age (±SD) was 38.1 (±16.8) years, 29% were female. Mean (±SD) laceration length and width were 1.7 (±0.7) cm and 2.0 (±1.0) mm, respectively. Groups were similar in baseline patient and wound characteristics. There were no between-group differences in pain of needle insertion (mean difference, 1.3 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,17.0 to 14.3 mm); anesthetic infiltration (mean difference, 2.3 mm; 95% CI =,19.7 to 4.4 mm), or suturing (mean difference, 7.6 mm; 95% CI =,3.3 to 21.1 mm). Only one patient in the digital anesthesia group required rescue anesthesia. There were no wound infections or persistent numbness in either group. Conclusions Digital and local anesthesia of finger lacerations with prior application of LET to all wounds results in similar pain of needle insertion, anesthetic infiltration, and pain of suturing. [source]

    Health status of children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy

    Gregory S Liptak MD MPH
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a global assessment of quality of life, condition-specific measures, and assessments of health care use. A multicenter population-based cross-sectional survey of 235 children, aged 2 to 18 years, with moderate to severe impairment, was carried out using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III (n= 56), IV (n=55), and V (n=122). This study group scored significantly below the mean on the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) for Pain, General Health, Physical Functioning, and Impact on Parents. These children used more medications than children without CP from a national sample. Fifty-nine children used feeding tubes. Children in GMFCS level V who used a feeding tube had the lowest estimate of mental age, required the most health care resources, used the most medications, had the most respiratory problems, and had the lowest Global Health scores. Children with the most severe motor disability who have feeding tubes are an especially frail group who require numerous health-related resources and treatments. Also, there is a relationship among measures of health status such as the CHQ, functional abilities, use of resources, and mental age, but each appears to measure different aspects of health and well-being and should be used in combination to reflect children's overall health status. [source]

    A Community Intervention by Firefighters to Increase 911 Calls and Aspirin Use for Chest Pain

    Hendrika Meischke PhD
    Abstract Objectives: To test the effectiveness of an intervention, delivered face-to-face by local firefighters, designed to increase utilization of 911 and self-administration of aspirin for seniors experiencing chest pain. Methods: King County, Washington was divided into 126 geographically distinct areas that were randomized to intervention and control areas. A mailing list identified households of seniors within these areas. More than 20,000 homes in the intervention areas were contacted by local firefighters. Data on all 911 calls for chest pain and self-administration of aspirin were collected from the medical incident report form (MIRF). The unit of analysis was the area. Firefighters delivered a heart attack survival kit (that included an aspirin) and counseled participants on the importance of aspirin and 911 use for chest pain. Main outcome measures were 911 calls for chest pain and aspirin ingestion for a chest pain event, obtained from the MIRFs that are collected by emergency medical services personnel for 2 years after the intervention. Results: There were significantly more calls (16%) among seniors on the mailing list in the intervention than control areas in the first year after the intervention. Among the seniors who were not on the mailing list, there was little difference in the intervention and control areas. The results were somewhat sensitive to the analytical model used and to an outlier in the treatment group. Conclusions: A community-based firefighter intervention can be effective in increasing appropriate response to symptoms of a heart attack among elders. [source]

    Heat or Cold Packs for Neck and Back Strain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    Gregory Garra DO
    Abstract Objectives:, Acute back and neck strains are very common. In addition to administering analgesics, these strains are often treated with either heat or cold packs. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of heat and cold in relieving pain from back and neck strains. The authors hypothesized that pain relief would not differ between hot and cold packs. Methods:, This was a randomized, controlled trial conducted at a university-based emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 90,000 visits. ED patients >18 years old with acute back or neck strains were eligible for inclusion. All patients received 400 mg of ibuprofen orally and then were randomized to 30 minutes of heating pad or cold pack applied to the strained area. Outcomes of interest were pain severity before and after pack application on a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (no pain) to 100 (worst pain), percentage of patients requiring rescue analgesia, subjective report of pain relief on a verbal rating scale (VRS), and future desire for similar packs. Outcomes were compared with t-tests and chi-square tests. A sample of 60 patients had 80% power to detect a 15-mm difference in pain scores. Results:, Sixty patients were randomized to heat (n = 31) or cold (n = 29) therapy. Mean (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 37.8 (±14.7) years, 51.6% were female, and 66.7% were white. Groups were similar in baseline patient and pain characteristics. There were no differences between the heat and cold groups in the severity of pain before (75 mm [95% CI = 66 to 83] vs. 72 mm [95% CI = 65 to 78]; p = 0.56) or after (66 mm [95% CI = 57 to 75] vs. 64 mm [95% CI = 56 to 73]; p = 0.75) therapy. Pain was rated better or much better in 16/31 (51.6%) and 18/29 (62.1%) patients in the heat and cold groups, respectively (p = 0.27). There were no between-group differences in the desire for and administration of additional analgesia. Twenty-five of 31 (80.6%) patients in the heat group and 22 of 29 (75.9%) patients in the cold group would use the same therapy if injured in the future (p = 0.65). Conclusions:, The addition of a 30-minute topical application of a heating pad or cold pack to ibuprofen therapy for the treatment of acute neck or back strain results in a mild yet similar improvement in the pain severity. However, it is possible that pain relief is mainly the result of ibuprofen therapy. Choice of heat or cold therapy should be based on patient and practitioner preferences and availability. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:484,489 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Nuclear Cardiology in the Evaluation of Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Department

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2000
    Brian G. Abbott M.D.
    Only a minority of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain will eventually be diagnosed with an acute coronary syndrome. The majority will have an electrocardiogram that is normal or nondiagnostic for acute myocardial ischemia or infarction. Typically, these patients are admitted to exclude myocardial infarction despite a very low incidence of coronary artery disease. However, missed myocardial infarctions in patients who are inadvertently sent home from the ED have significant adverse outcomes and associated legal consequences. This leads to a liberal policy to admit patients with chest pain, presenting a substantial burden in terms of cost and resources. Many centers have developed chest pain centers, using a wide range of diagnostic modalities to deal with this dilemma. We discuss the methods currently available to exclude myocardial ischemia and infarction in the ED, focusing on the use of myocardial perfusion imaging as both an adjunct and an alternative to routine testing. We review the available literature centering on the ED evaluation of acute chest pain and then propose an algorithm for the practical use of nuclear cardiology in this setting. [source]

    Paracetamol versus ibuprofen: A randomized controlled trial of outpatient analgesia efficacy for paediatric acute limb fractures

    Michael Shepherd
    Abstract Paediatric limb fracture is a common injury that presents frequently to the ED. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether ibuprofen provides better analgesia than paracetamol for paediatric patients discharged with acute limb fractures. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted in a children's ED. Children aged 5,14 years with an acute limb fracture were randomized to be prescribed paracetamol 15 mg/kg/dose every 4 h or ibuprofen 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 h. Objective (child-reported) pain scores using the ,Faces' pain scale were measured over a 48 h period. Child-reported pain did not differ significantly between the paracetamol and ibuprofen groups (mean pain score paracetamol 2.8 [95% CI 2.4,3.4]vs 2.7 [95% CI 2.1,3.3], P= 0.73). Parent-reported sleep quality did not differ between the two groups (P= 0.78). Child-reported pain score decreased over the 48 h of measurement (P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in side-effects detected between the two groups. The present study shows that in the outpatient paediatric population, ibuprofen does not provide better analgesia than paracetamol. Pain from an acute fracture can be managed by regular simple oral analgesia and immobilization. [source]

    The Impact of Race on the Acute Management of Chest Pain

    Arvind Venkat MD
    Abstract Objectives: African Americans with acute coronary syndromes receive cardiac catheterization less frequently than whites. The objective was to determine if such disparities extend to acute evaluation and noninterventional treatment. Methods: Data on adults with chest pain (N= 7,935) presenting to eight emergency departments (EDs) were evaluated from the Internet Tracking Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes. Groups were selected from final ED diagnosis: 1) acute myocardial infarction (AMI), n= 400; 2) unstable angina/non,ST-elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI), n= 1,153; and 3) nonacute coronary syndrome chest pain (non-ACS CP), n= 6,382. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for AMI and UA/NSTEMI were used to evaluate racial disparities with logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, gender, guideline publication, and insurance status. Non-ACS CP patients were assessed by comparing electrocardiographic (ECG)/laboratory evaluation, medical treatment, admission rates, and invasive and noninvasive testing for coronary artery disease (CAD). Results: African Americans with UA/NSTEMI received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors less often than whites (OR, 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.91). African Americans with non-ACS CP underwent ECG/laboratory evaluation, medical treatment, and invasive and noninvasive testing for CAD less often than whites (p < 0.05). Other nonwhites with non-ACS CP were admitted and received invasive testing for CAD less often than whites (p < 0.01). African Americans and other nonwhites with AMI underwent catheterization less frequently than whites (OR, 0.45; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.71 and OR, 0.40; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.92, respectively). A similar disparity in catheterization was noted in UA/NSTEMI therapy (OR, 0.53; 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.68 and OR, 0.68; 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.99). Conclusions: Racial disparities in acute chest pain management extend beyond cardiac catheterization. Poor compliance with recommended treatments for ACS may be an explanation. [source]