Paper Argues (paper + argue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Dynamic strategy for teaching structural analysis

Jamal El-Rimawi
Abstract Improving students' understanding of structural analysis within a limited time represents a challenge for both students and lecturers. As a result, emphasis is usually placed on either the analytical or conceptual aspect of the subject. This paper argues that, within the same time frame, the simultaneous development of both aspects could lead to a better understanding of the subject. The development and implementation of a computer program suitable for this purpose is described, and its application to the compatibility method is illustrated. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 10: 194,203, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10028 [source]

Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility: a comparative analysis of the UK and the US,

Ruth V. Aguilera
This paper argues that key differences between the UK and the US in the importance ascribed to a company's social responsibilities (CSR) reflect differences in the corporate governance arrangements in these two countries. Specifically, we analyse the role of a salient type of owner in the UK and the US, institutional investors, in emphasising firm-level CSR actions. We explore differences between institutional investors in the UK and the US concerning CSR, and draw on a model of instrumental, relational and moral motives to explore why institutional investors in the UK are becoming concerned with firms' social and environmental actions. We conclude with some suggestions for future research in this area. [source]

Global Stakeholders: corporate accountability and investor engagement

Duncan McLaren
In this age of transnational capitalism most victims of corporate malpractice have no means to hold the wrongdoers to account , especially those whose lives are blighted day-in, day-out by the "normal" operations of companies within the letter of the law. This paper argues that corporate social and environmental abuses are rooted in a lack of accountability of corporations to their stakeholders. It explores how governance mechanisms such as corporate engagement by "socially responsible" investors could enhance stakeholder accountability. It identifies and contrasts two paradigms in socially responsible investment engagement, and relates them to voluntary and regulatory responses to corporate abuses. It concludes that the development of standards for stakeholder-oriented engagement and governance could help stimulate effective regulatory measures to protect stakeholder interests. [source]

Corporations on the Front Line

Noreena Hertz
Over the past few years multinational corporations have been coming increasingly under attack from a number of forces, including non governmental organisations, "political shoppers" and grass root activists. While these civil or market based forms of regulation have had some effect in moderating corporate behaviour, this paper argues that the effect is necessarily limited. What is proving to be more effective is instead the threat of litigation. Yet despite the evidence, the trend amongst government policy makers has been to encourage corporations to voluntarily self regulate. This paper warns that policy makers pursue this end at the peril not only of external stakeholders, but also of multinational corporations, and lays out steps that governments could take both to improve civil and market regulation, and also to strengthen the law. This paper will argue that such a course of action is in our collective interest. [source]

Corporate,community relations in Nigeria's oil industry: challenges and imperatives

Uwafiokun Idemudia
Abstract The adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and corporate,community relation (CCR) strategies by oil companies has failed to reduce the incidence of violent conflict between the host communities and oil companies in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. This paper argues that the failure to seek, understand and integrate community perceptions into CSR policies and practices, the over-emphasis of affirmative duties to the detriment of negative injunction duties and the absence of an enabling environment due to government failure are responsible for the observed problem. The paper concludes that unless these gaps are addressed, CSR by the Nigerian oil industry is likely to continue to fail to achieve its full potential. However, CCR in the Nigerian oil industry will be significantly improved if, and when, the needs and aspirations of the major stakeholders are addressed through a tri-sector partnership approach to development and conflict resolution. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

The emptiness of zero: representations of loss, absence, anxiety and desire in the late twentieth century

Kathy Smith
As the new millenium approached, the anxiety which this moment generated found resonance in various cultural representations, and the appearance of spectral imagery seemed to indicate an anxiety about subjectivity, and about its fragmentation or complete loss. Unable to comtemplate a state beyond this loss, there came into being a crisis in subjectivity itself, and the existence of the destabilized millenium subject. This subject approached the moment by both fixating on the threshold and by disavowing what lay beyond. These strategies, and the underlying anxiety which brought them into existence, were resonated through many of the cultural representations of the time. This paper argues that it is through nachträglichkeit - a 'making sense' in retrospect of earlier disparate experiences - that we can begin to examine, contextualise and account for the phenomenon of 'millenium frenzy' which came about at the end of 1999. It constructs a reading of this moment, and of two particular filmic representations which resonate the concerns of the time, examining in the process how - from a psychoanalytic perspective - culture might be understood through its representations, and how these representations can be understood through culture. [source]

Strategies for the Curiosity-Driven Museum Visitor

Jay Rounds
ABSTRACT Tracking studies show that museum visitors typically view only 20 to 40 percent of an exhibition. Current literature states that this partial use sub-optimizes the educational benefit gained by the visitor, and that skilled visitors view an exhibition comprehensively and systematically. Contrary to that viewpoint, this paper argues that partial use of exhibitions is an intelligent and effective strategy for the visitor whose goal is to have curiosity piqued and satisfied. By using analytical approaches derived from "optimal foraging theory" in ecology, this paper demonstrates that the curiosity-driven visitor seeks to maximize the Total Interest Value of his or her museum visit. Such visitors use a set of simple heuristics to find and focus attention only on exhibit elements with high interest value and low search costs. Their selective use of exhibit elements results in greater achievement of their own goals than would be gained by using the exhibition comprehensively. [source]

There is No Puzzle about Change

DIALECTICA, Issue 1 2009
Pablo Rychter
This paper argues against the common practice of presenting perdurantism, endurantism, and other views about persistence and time as solutions to an alleged puzzle about change. Various recent attempts to generate a puzzle about change are examined and found unsuccessful. This does not mean, however, that the relevant views about persistence and time are not well motivated, but rather that their interest and purpose is independent of their suitability for solving the alleged puzzle. [source]

Defending Contingentism in Metaphysics

DIALECTICA, Issue 1 2009
Kristie Miller
Metaphysics is supposed to tell us about the metaphysical nature of our world: under what conditions composition occurs; how objects persist through time; whether properties are universals or tropes. It is near orthodoxy that whichever of these sorts of metaphysical claims is true is necessarily true. This paper looks at the debate between that orthodox view and a recently emerging view that claims like these are contingent, by focusing on the metaphysical debate between monists and pluralists about concrete particulars. This paper argues that we should be contingentists about monism and pluralism, and it defends contingentism against some necessitarian objections by offering an epistemology of contingent metaphysical claims. [source]

The Explainability of Intuitions

DIALECTICA, Issue 1 2004
Nenad Mi
Explaining intuitions in terms of "facts of our natural history" is compatible with rationally trusting them. This compatibilist view is defended in the present paper, focusing upon nomic and essentialist modal intuitions. The opposite, incompatibilist view alleges the following: If basic modal intuitions are due to our cognitive make-up or "imaginative habits" then the epistemologists are left with a mere non-rational feeling of compulsion on the side of the thinker. Intuitions then cannot inform us about modal reality. In contrast, the paper argues that there are several independent sources of justification which make the feeling of compulsion rational: the prima-facie and a priori ones come from the obviousness of our basic modal intuitions and our not being able to imagine things otherwise, others, a posteriori, from the epistemic success of these intuitions. Further, the general scheme of evolutionary learning is reliable, reliability is preserved in the resulting individual's cognitive make-up, and we can come to know this a posteriori. The a posteriori appeal to evolution thus plays a subsidiary role in justification, filling the remaining gap and removing the residual doubt. Explaining modal intuitions is compatible with moderate realism about modality itself. [source]

An Essay on the Role of Language in Collegiate Foreign Language Programmatic Reform,

Hiram Maxim
This position paper argues that collegiate foreign language (FL) education has lost sight of the central role that language plays in the profession. Regardless of one's sub-field within foreign language education (i.e., linguistic, literary, or cultural studies), the profession shares the common focus of exploring how to make and interpret meaning in and through language. The paper therefore recommends that an acknowledgement of and re-commitment to this foundational principle provides common ground to effect the types of change within departments that have long been called: the integration of upper- and lower-level instruction; the reform of graduate student teacher education to foster curricular thinking; the explicit and systematic attention to the development of advanced language abilities; and the establishment of a collaborative departmental culture centered around publicly shared beliefs and concerns. [source]

Still falling short: protection and partnerships in the Lebanon emergency response

DISASTERS, Issue 4 2007
David Shearer
The Israeli,Hezbollah conflict in the summer of 2006, although brief, had a lasting impact on the region and prompted an intense humanitarian response. The conflict raised challenging questions for the United Nations (UN) about how to assist a middle-income yet extremely vulnerable population in a context where global and local relations are highly politicised. This paper focuses on two key questions that emerged from the humanitarian response. First, how can humanitarian agencies, and particularly the UN, improve the protection of civilians, and was what they did in Lebanon enough? Second, how can humanitarian agencies create partnerships with local actors and still remain true to core humanitarian principles when local actors are fiercely divided along confessional lines and influenced by external actors, and when some, such as Hezbollah, are parties to the conflict? This paper argues that despite the importance of protection and partnerships to the humanitarian response, their role in the UN emergency response still falls short. [source]

The Livelihoods Gap: Responding to the Economic Dynamics of Vulnerability in Somalia

DISASTERS, Issue 1 2002
Andre Le Sage
A ,livelihoods gap' has become evident in international aid delivery to Somalia. Existing aid interventions do not address the economic dynamics of vulnerability resulting from Somalia's long history of predatory development and asset stripping. To prevent poor households' regular return to sub-subsistence income levels after a brief period of plenty, this paper argues that aid agencies should reorient and expand existing interventions to assist poor households to capitalise on temporary improvements in environmental and security conditions. As a corollary to emergency relief and efforts to construct state institutions, it is necessary to devise country-wide interventions that will rebuild household asset bases by protecting savings during times of stress and ensuring that markets benefit poor producers. [source]

Rendering the World Unsafe: ,Vulnerability' as Western Discourse

DISASTERS, Issue 1 2001
Gregory Bankoff
Disasters seem destined to be major issues of academic enquiry in the new century if for no other reason than that they are inseparably linked to questions of environmental conservation, resource depletion and migration patterns in an increasingly globalised world. Unfortunately, inadequate attention has been directed at considering the historical roots of the discursive framework within which hazard is generally presented, and how that might reflect particular cultural values to do with the way in which certain regions or zones of the world are usually imagined. This paper argues that tropicality, development and vulnerability form part of one and the same essentialising and generalising cultural discourse that denigrates large regions of world as disease-ridden, poverty-stricken and disaster-prone. [source]

Other people, other drugs: the policy response to petrol sniffing among Indigenous Australians

Abstract This paper examines the policy response of Australian governments to petrol sniffing in Indigenous communities from the 1980s until the present. During this period, despite the formation of numerous inquiries, working parties and intergovernmental committees, there has been little accumulation of knowledge about the nature and causes of sniffing, or about the effectiveness of interventions. Policies are fragmentary; programmes are rarely evaluated, and most rely on short-term funding. The paper sets out to explain why this should be so. It draws upon a conceptual framework known as ,analytics of government' to examine the ways in which petrol sniffing comes to the attention of government agencies and is perceived as an issue; the mechanisms deployed by governments to address petrol sniffing; ways in which knowledge about sniffing is generated; and the underlying assumptions about people that inform policy-making. Drawing upon case studies of policy responses, the paper argues that a number of structural factors combine to marginalize petrol sniffing as an issue, and to encourage reliance on short-term, one-off interventions in place of a sustained policy commitment. Four recommendations are advanced to help overcome these factors: (1) agreements should be reached within and between levels of government on steps to be taken to reduce risk factors before the eruption of petrol-sniffing crises; (2) the evidence base relevant to petrol sniffing (and other inhalants) should be improved by funding and directing one or more existing national drug research centres to collate data on inhalant-caused mortality and morbidity, and to conduct or commission research into prevalence patterns, effectiveness of interventions and other gaps in knowledge; (3) the current pattern of short-term, pilot and project funding should be replaced with longer-term, evidence-based interventions that address the multiple risk and protective factors present in communities; and (4) insistence by governments that communities must take ,ownership' of the problem should be replaced by a commitment to genuine partnerships involving governments, non-government and community sectors. [source]

Partnerships: imperative or illusion in work-force development

Abstract The central theme of the National Drug Strategy is "building partnerships". In the education and training arena, intersectoral partnerships are important to increase the skill and knowledge base of generic professionals. However, partnerships are neither simple nor straightforward endeavours. While this paper argues that they are imperative, they can be time-consuming and problematic. Discussion of the stages of change and how this model applies to partnerships and elements of successful partnerships form the basis of the paper. [source]

Settling the kings' lands: aprisio in Catalonia in perspective

Jonathan Jarrett
Important aspects of social history can sometimes be lost in legalisms. A long debate, recently continued in EME, has studied the right of aprisio claimed by those who took over wasteland on the frontier of the future Catalonia. This paper argues that previous treatments of the term have conflated many separate factors and misunderstood what aprisio actually was in practice. When studied at ground level it seems that, despite the role given to immigrant settlers by historians, landholders by aprisio need not have been newcomers, but locals using new rules for otherwise normal land clearances. [source]

The Peace of God, the ,weakness' of Robert the Pious and the struggle for the German throne, 1023,5

Theo Riches
The author of The Deeds of the Bishops of Cambrai accused Bishops Berold of Soissons and Warin of Beauvais of overstepping the boundaries of episcopal authority and usurping royal rights by promoting the Peace of God and attributed their initiative to the weakness of King Robert the Pious. This paper argues that the author was misrepresenting the situation to hide the vulnerability of the bishop of Cambrai during the succession of Conrad II. Instead, Berold and Warin's peace council was patronized by Robert the Pious and was a symptom of French royal assertiveness in the period 1023,5. The reasons for the Cambrai author's distortions are to be found in the significance of kings in the rallying of support on a local and regional level. [source]

The ,vigorous rule' of Bishop Lull: between Bonifatian mission and Carolingian church control

James Palmer
This paper argues that the reputation of St Boniface, one of the ,founders of Christian Europe', needs to be understood in relation to the career of Lull of Mainz, the saint's pupil and successor. It analyses Lull's literary, pastoral and missionary interests, as well as his political networks, to illustrate how he helped give form to the legends of Boniface and, in particular, Willibald's Vita Bonifatii and the Bonifatian letter collections. Study of the commemoration of Lull, principally in Mainz, Fulda, Hersfeld and Malmesbury, also reveals much about the ways Lull used the cult of Boniface to pursue a ,vigorous rule' over his flock in Mainz and in the process alienate many contemporaries. [source]

Scinditur in partes populus: Pope Damasus and the Martyrs of Rome

Marianne Sághy
Pope Damasus (366,384) was the impresario of the late antique cult of the martyrs at Rome. Damasus celebrated the martyrs with epigrams written in Virgilian hexameters which he had engraved in exquisite lettering on their tombs. This article investigates the specifically Roman context of these activities as a means of shedding new light on Damasus' purposes. The enhancement of the cult of the Roman martyrs was more than a stage in the process of christianisation, creating Christian but still distinctively Roman holy patrons for the urbs. It was also directed against rival Christian traditions, including Nicene splinter groups such as the Ursinians and Luciferians who contested Damasus' election. The epi grams allowed Damasus to inscribe very specific and carefully shaped meanings on strategic and often contested sites within the Christian topography of Rome. By placing the Damasan epigrams in the context of a bloody ecclesiastical factionalism in Rome, this paper argues that these very public celebrations of the martyrs were used to promote concord and consensus within the Catholic community in Rome. [source]

Dating the Gesta martyrum: a manuscript-based approach

Clare Pilsworth
The gesta martyrum are an anonymous and disparate group of texts celebrating saints venerated in early medieval Rome as having been martyred in that city. This paper investigates the problems involved in placing these texts in their early medieval contexts. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, when scholarship moved away from attempts to identify a core of authentic ancient tradition in these early medieval narratives, most work on the corpus has concentrated on dating the composition of the accounts of individual martyrs. Given the sparsity of absolute chronological markers through references or citations in other written sources, this has inevitably rested on circumstantial evidence and the reconstruction of probable contexts for the redaction of specific works. This paper argues that much new light can be shed on the development of the cult of Roman martyrs if we shift the focus of our investigation from the origin and composition of the Urtexts to the surviving manuscript witnesses , all bar one eighth century or later , and the complex process of transmission which they document. The earliest copies of gesta martyrum, in both legendaries and other manuscripts, reveal surprisingly diverse contexts of transmission. Detailed investigation of Vienna National bibliothek 357, which Dufourcq argued contains a copy of a collection of martyr-narratives available to Gregory the Great, shows that in fact this manuscript sheds light on interest in Roman martyrs north of the Alps in the late Carolingian period, and the networks of contact and communication through which information about the Roman martyrs was transmitted across time and space. [source]


Nick Silver
Nigeria is a prime example of a developing country with ill-defined property rights. However, people still manage to save, mostly through traditional and informal means, facilitated by strong family and community institutions. This paper argues that the government should concentrate on strengthening these institutions rather than weakening them by imposing an inappropriate, Western-style, formal pensions system on the country. [source]

Fiscal Policy Coordination and International Trade

ECONOMICA, Issue 294 2007
While assertions are often made that non-cooperative fiscal policies suffer a contractionary bias, general equilibrium models have shown that the bias is unambiguously expansionary. This paper argues that the latter result relies on a particular and critical way of modelling international trade, and that under a more plausible trade structure, it is possible that fiscal policy is insufficiently expansionary in the non-cooperative case. Non-cooperative policy-making thus implies that fiscal policies are used too little if they expand private employment, and too much if they contract private employment. Inefficiencies in non-cooperative fiscal policies worsen when product markets become more integrated. [source]


This paper argues that some governments adopt growth-reducing policies due to the rational self-interest of the political elites. The model takes a rent-seeking government that can block innovation and incorporates it into a Schumpeterian growth model. The quality of a country's institutions is reflected in the cost of innovation blocking. An increase in the level of innovation-blocking activity will reduce the rate of innovation and therefore reduce growth. The government also faces the possibility of losing power whenever an innovation occurs. We examine the conditions under which a government will choose to block innovation and suppress growth. [source]


Michael J. Hiscox
Conventional wisdom holds that increasing international capital mobility reduces incentives for firms to lobby for trade protection. This paper argues that the effects of increased international capital mobility on the lobbying incentives of firms depend critically upon levels of inter-industry mobility. General-equilibrium analysis reveals that if capital is highly industry-specific, greater international mobility among some types of specific capital may increase lobbying incentives for owners of other specific factors and thereby intensify industry-based rent-seeking in trade politics. Evidence on levels of inward and outward investment in US manufacturing industries between 1982 and 1996, and on industry lobbying activities, indicate that these effects may be quite strong. [source]

Wittgenstein as Exile: A philosophical topography1

Michael A. PetersArticle first published online: 22 AUG 200
Abstract This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self-imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity (as much as alienation was for the era of industrial capitalism) and emblematic of literary modernism. The paper employs the notion of ,exhilic thought' as a central trope for understanding Wittgenstein and the topography or geography of his thought and suggests that philosophy might begin to recognize more fully the significance of location and place in order to come to terms internationalization, multiculturalism and globalization, and with postmodern notions of subjectivity that embrace aspects of the condition of being an exile. [source]

Philosophical Arguments, Historical Contexts, and Theory of Education1

Daniel Tröhler
Abstract This paper argues that many philosophical arguments within the education discourse are too little embedded in their own historical contexts. Starting out from the obvious fact that philosophers of education use sources from the past, the paper asks how we can deal with the arguments that these sources contain. The general attitude within philosophy of education, which views arguments as timeless, is being challenged by the insight that arguments always depend upon their own contexts. For this reason, citing past authors, heroes, or enemies without respecting the context says more about our interest at the present time than it does about the times of the authors examined. Conversely, the contextual approach helps us to avoid believing that ,timeless truths' are to be found in different texts of different ages. However, the present contribution in no way advocates a total relativization of statements. Quite the contrary; it claims that the contextual approach helps us to understand the traditions and contexts within which we ourselves, as researchers, are positioned. And this self-awareness is believed to be the proper starting position for theoretical statements about education. [source]

Diversions and diversity: Does the personalisation agenda offer real opportunities for taking children's home literacies seriously?

Marilyn Mottram
Abstract This paper argues that the current commitment to personalised learning opens up real opportunities for changing the language and practice of literacy teaching as it currently operates in England. We argue that there is a need to seize the opportunities currently on offer, to educate teachers differently and to develop classroom practice and pedagogies that acknowledge the complexities of children's lives and literacies. We draw on evidence from a year-long ethnographic research study, conducted between 2006,2007, of fourteen children and their families. The children attended the same inner city primary school in an area of urban regeneration characterised by high levels of economic deprivation, high crime and many social problems. The resulting evidence suggests that personalising learning becomes a reality when teachers are given space and time to develop their understanding of the uses and meaning of literacy in the communities they serve. [source]

Payout Policy Pedagogy: What Matters and Why

Harry DeAngelo
G35; G32; H25 Abstract This paper argues that we should abandonMM (1961)irrelevance as the foundation for teaching payout policy, and instead emphasise the need to distribute the full value generated by investment policy (,full payout'). Because MM's assumptions restrict payouts to an optimum, their irrelevance theorem does not provide the appropriate prescription for managerial behaviour. A simple example clarifies why the correct prescription is ,full payout', and why both payout and investment policy matter even absent agency costs (DeAngelo and DeAngelo, 2006). A simple life-cycle generalisation explains the main stylised facts about the payout policies of US and European firms. [source]

The Politics of a European Civil Code

Martijn W. Hesselink
That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a ,common frame of reference'. This paper argues that drafting a European Civil Code involves making many choices that are essentially political. It further argues that the technocratic approach which the Commission has adopted in the Action Plan effectively excludes most stakeholders from having their say during the stage when the real choices are made. Therefore, before the drafting of the CFR/ECC starts, the Commission should submit a list of policy questions regarding the main issues of European private law to the European Parliament and the other stakeholders. Such an alternative procedure would repoliticise the process. It would increase the democratic basis for a European Civil Code and thus its legitimacy. [source]