PTSD Symptoms (ptsd + symptom)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by PTSD Symptoms

  • ptsd symptom severity

  • Selected Abstracts

    Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Lost Confidence as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms Following September 11, 2001

    Chaya S. Piotrkowski PhD
    Six months after September 11, 2001 (9/11), 124 New York City workers participated in a self-report study of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although direct exposure to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 was limited, estimates of the prevalence of current PTSD in this mostly ethnic minority population ranged from 7.8% to 21.2%. as measured by the PTSD Checklist (F. W. Weathers, B. T. Litz, D. S. Herman, J. A. Huska, & T. M. Keane, 1993). Consistent with the study hypotheses, direct exposure to the attacks of 9/11, worries about future terrorist attacks (threat appraisal), and reduced confidence in self after 9/11 each predicted symptoms of PTSD, even after controlling for symptoms of anxiety and depression. These results support the idea that a traumatic event's meaning is associated with PTSD symptoms. Gender was not a significant predictor of symptoms, once other demographic variables were controlled. Most respondents who met the criteria for current PTSD had not sought therapy or counseling. [source]

    Psychological resilience and neurocognitive performance in a traumatized community sample,

    Aliza P. Wingo M.D.
    Abstract Background: Whether psychological resilience correlates with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown. Therefore, we assessed association between neurocognitive performance and resilience in individuals with a history of childhood abuse or trauma exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 226 highly traumatized civilians, we assessed neurocognitive performance, history of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure, and current depressive and PTSD symptoms. Resilience was defined as having ,1 trauma and no current depressive or PTSD symptoms; non-resilience as having ,1 trauma and current moderate/severe depressive or PTSD symptoms. Results: The non-resilient group had a higher percentage of unemployment (P=.006) and previous suicide attempts (P<.0001) than the resilient group. Both groups had comparable education and performance on verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and verbal memory. However, the resilient group performed better on nonverbal memory (P=.016) with an effect size of .35. Additionally, more severe childhood abuse or other trauma exposure was significantly associated with non-resilience. Better nonverbal memory was significantly associated with resilience even after adjusting for severity of childhood abuse, other trauma exposure, sex, and race using multiple logistic regression (adjusted OR=1.2; P=.017). Conclusions: We examined resilience as absence of psychopathology despite trauma exposure in a highly traumatized, low socioeconomic, urban population. Resilience was significantly associated with better nonverbal memory, a measure of ability to code, store, and visually recognize concrete and abstract pictorial stimuli. Nonverbal memory may be a proxy for emotional learning, which is often dysregulated in stress-related psychopathology, and may contribute to our understanding of resilience. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Rumination in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Tanja Michael Ph.D.
    Abstract Recent studies have shown that rumination is a powerful predictor of persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, to date, the mechanisms by which rumination maintains PTSD symptoms are little understood. Two studies of assault survivors, a cross-sectional (N = 81) and a 6-month prospective longitudinal study (N = 73), examined several facets of ruminative thinking to establish which aspects of rumination provide the link to PTSD. The current investigation showed that rumination is not only used as a strategy to cope with intrusive memories but it also triggers such memories. Certain characteristics of rumination, such as compulsion to continue ruminating, occurrence of unproductive thoughts, and "why" and "what if" type questions, as well as negative emotions before and after rumination, were significantly associated with PTSD, concurrently and prospectively. These characteristics explained significantly more variance in PTSD severity than the mere presence of rumination, thereby indicating that not all ways of ruminative thinking are equally maladaptive. Depression and Anxiety 24:307,317, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Initial symptoms and reactions to trauma-related stimuli and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Karin Elsesser Ph.D.
    Abstract We investigated laboratory and experimental variables as predictors of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evoked heart rate response to trauma-related pictures, attentional bias in the dot-probe task, and viewing time were assessed in 35 victims of a traumatic event and again after 3 months. Data was compared to 26 control participants. At first assessment trauma victims showed heart rate (HR) acceleration and controls showed HR deceleration to trauma-related material. The group of trauma victims improved clinically over time. Predictors of the number of PTSD symptoms after 3 months were re-experiencing (33% of the variance) and amplitude of the evoked HR reaction to trauma-related pictures (15%). The two variables were highly correlated. Trauma victims were also more anxious, viewed trauma-related pictures for a longer time, and had a longer reaction time in the dot-probe task (but no distinct attentional bias) than control participants. Results indicate that specific fear responses and re-experiencing contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety 21:61,70, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Default mode network connectivity as a predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity in acutely traumatized subjects

    R. A. Lanius
    Objective:, The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between default mode network connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of eleven acutely traumatized subjects. Method:, Participants underwent a 5.5 min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Brain areas whose activity positively correlated with that of the posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC) were assessed. To assess the relationship between severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, the contrast image representing areas positively correlated with the PCC was correlated with the subjects' Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores. Results:, Results suggest that resting state connectivity of the PCC with the perigenual anterior cingulate and the right amygdala is associated with current PTSD symptoms and that correlation with the right amygdala predicts future PTSD symptoms. Conclusion:, These results may contribute to the development of prognostic tools to distinguish between those who will and those who will not develop PTSD. [source]

    Posttraumatic play in young children exposed to terrorism: An empirical study,

    Esther Cohen Dr.
    The phenomenon of "posttraumatic play" (PTP) has received much clinical recognition and little empirical support. The objective of this study was to examine various aspects of PTP in young children exposed to terror events and their relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individual play sessions, conducted with 29 young Israeli children directly exposed to terrorism (M age = 5.47, SD = 1.34) and 25 matched unexposed children (M age = 5.62, SD = 0.87), were coded using the Children's Play Therapy Instrument,Adaptation for Terror Research (CPTI-ATR; S.E. Chazan & E. Cohen, 2003). Analyses using these ratings showed (a) significant differences between the two groups, (b) significant associations with the caregiver's reports on child's exposure, and (c) significant associations with the caregiver's reports on the child's PTSD symptoms. Play activity ratings of predominant negative affects, frequent acting-out/morbid themes, lowered developmental level, and reduced awareness of the child of him- or herself as a player significantly predicted more PTSD symptoms. PTP which included more coping strategies classified as "overwhelmed reexperiencing" and less "reenactment with soothing" was associated with a higher level of PTSD. Play analysis with the CPTI-ATR may be helpful in identifying PTSD in children and also guide the selection of therapeutic techniques. [source]

    Psychopathology and autobiographical memory in stroke and non-stroke hospitalized patients

    Mark John Sampson
    Abstract Background Psychopathology and autobiographical memory were investigated in a cohort of stroke and non-stroke hospitalized patients. Both these cohorts have been identified as having high levels of psychopathology (Katon and Sullivan 1990; Burvill et al., 1995). Difficulties recalling specific autobiographical memories (overgeneral memory) have been identified as important psychological variables in depression and predictors of outcome (Williams and Scott 1988; Brittlebank et al., 1993). Intrusive autobiographical memories have also been found to be associated with depression and overgeneral memory in depressed women (Kuyken and Brewin, 1995) and depressed cancer patients (Brewin et al., 1998a). This study looked at levels of psychopathology and autobiographical memories in stroke and non-stroke hospital patients. Method 417 patients were screened, of the 176 eligible 103 agreed to participate (54 stroke and 49 non-stroke). Participants were assessed for overgenerality using the Autobiographical Memory Test and intrusiveness of memories using the Impact of Events Scale. Also assessed were PTSD-like symptoms (PCL-S), mood (HADS, GHQ-28) and cognitive ability (MMSE, verbal fluency, digit span and estimated pre-morbid IQ). Results No significant differences were found between stroke and non-stroke patients on severity of depression, anxiety, severity of PTSD-like symptoms or autobiographical memories. Backward multivariate regression analyses for combined data (stroke and non-stroke) indicated that overgeneral memory recall, intrusive memories of past events and intrusive memories of illness were significant independent predictors of depression (HADS). Avoidance of intrusive memories and reported childhood distress were not predictors of overgeneral memory recall. Significant predictors of overgeneral memory recall were; Gender, antidepressant medication, and estimated IQ. Conclusion Significant levels of psychopathology were identified in this cohort. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms and autobiographical memory between stroke and non-stroke hospitalized patients. Of particular interest was the finding that PTSD-like symptoms did not appear to be influenced by the nature of the person's illness. In combined data (stroke and non-stroke) autobiographical memories (intrusive images of their illness, intrusive memories of other events and overgeneral memory recall variables) were significant predictors of depression in this cohort. This suggests that psychological intervention of memory processes may be a worthwhile target in psychological intervention for depression in these cohorts. Gender, cognitive impairment, antidepressant medication, and estimated IQ were significant predictors of overgeneral memory recall and further investigation into the validity of these findings are warranted. Suggestions for further research and limitations of the study are also discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children: can a separate diagnostic entity be justified?

    Edith Montgomery
    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children from the Middle East , more specifically, to assess whether associations between traumatic events and specific PTSD symptoms were more outspoken than (1) the associations of PTSD symptoms with non-traumatic exposures, and (2) the associations of violent exposures with symptoms other than PTSD-symptoms. Parents of 311 refugee children from the Middle East were interviewed concerning their children's traumatic experiences and mental health symptoms. The specific PTSD symptoms did not cluster in a factor analysis. The PTSD symptom complex was significantly predicted not only by violent exposures (mother tortured, OR 8.2, p < 0.005; father disappeared OR 3.2, p < 0.05) but also by indicators of family interaction and parents' occupational situation. The two identified violent exposures had significant independent associations with a series of symptoms including symptoms other than those of PTSD (rs ranging from 0.25 to 0.44, p < 0.001). Thus it does not seem sufficient to focus solely on PTSD symptomatology when assessing the mental health needs of refugee children. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Alexithymia and posttraumatic stress: subscales and symptom clusters,

    Frédéric Declercq
    Abstract This study examined the relationship between the emotion-regulating factor alexithymia and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after critical incidents in a nonclinical sample of 136 nurses and ambulance personnel working in military facilities. The results showed that alexythima accounts for variance in PTSD symptoms. Breaking PTSD into its 4 symptom clusters, alexithymia was found to predict numbing and hyperarousal symptoms but not avoidance or reexperiencing symptoms. Finally, the rarely investigated, but clinically relevant, distinctive subdimensions of alexithymia were examined in relation to the 4 PTSD clusters. The difficulty identifying feelings subscale contributed most to the numbing and hyperarousal PTSD subscales. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 66: 1,14, 2010. [source]

    Disability and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers responding to september 11, 2001 World Trade Center Disaster

    Susan Evans
    Abstract Empirical evidence suggests that social and occupational disability plays a significant role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to assess the role of social/occupational disability and to identify predictors of the development of PTSD in a group of disaster relief workers (DRWs) who had been deployed to the World Trade Center (WTC) following September 11, 2001. Eight hundred forty-two utility workers completed a battery of comprehensive tests measuring PTSD and social occupational functioning. Results indicated a significant association between PTSD symptoms and impaired social/occupational functioning. Symptomatic workers were also more likely to have a history of trauma, panic disorder, and depression. Those with a history of trauma, depression, generalized anxiety disorder or panic reported significantly more disability than those without a psychiatric history. Careful screening of PTSD and social/occupational functioning in DRWs following a disaster is warranted so that early treatment can be undertaken to prevent a chronic and disabling course. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65: 1,11, 2009. [source]

    Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers,

    Greg M. Reger
    Abstract Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist,Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale,24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 64:1,7, 2008. [source]

    Factors associated with antisocial behavior in combat veterans,

    Stephanie Booth-Kewley
    Abstract The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with antisocial behavior in 1,543 Marines who deployed to combat zones in support of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan during 2002,2007. Five factors were associated with antisocial behavior in multivariate analyses: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, deployment-related stressors, combat exposure, younger age, and being divorced. PTSD symptoms had a stronger association with antisocial behavior than any other variable. A unique and important finding of this study was the association between deployment-related stressors and a higher incidence of antisocial behavior. Because deployment-related stressors are potentially modifiable, the military may be able to address them in concrete ways such as by shortening deployments and improving communication with home. Aggr. Behav. 36:330,337, 2010. Published 2010 by Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A preliminary examination of emotional and cognitive mediators in the relations between violence exposure and violent behaviors in youth

    Maureen A. Allwood
    This study examined the possible mediational roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and acceptance of violence cognitions in the association between violence exposure and youth violent behaviors. This study also examined whether the strength of the relations between exposure and behavior varied across context of exposure and across sex. Participants were 123 early adolescents from the Midwest. Findings indicate a strong positive association between violence exposure at home and in the community. Regardless of context, violence exposure was significantly related to PTSD symptoms, acceptance of violence cognitions, and violent behaviors in youth. PTSD symptoms and acceptance of violence cognitions were both significant mediators in the exposure,behavior relationship but the associations differed for girls and boys and varied across context of exposure. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Information Processing of Sexual Abuse in Elders

    Ann W. Burgess
    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and the perceived consequences of seeking therapy among U.S. Army special forces operators exposed to combat

    Jessica M. Espinoza Psy.D.
    The goal of this study was to ascertain the level of PTSD symptoms experienced by Special Forces Operators (SFOs) who have been exposed to combat and compare these rates to the PTSD rates of the general U.S. population and general military population. A secondary goal was to discover whether SFOs were aware that therapy was available to them through the U.S. Army and, if so, whether they would seek this therapy for PTSD. The last goal was to discover whether SFOs who chose not to seek therapy while still serving did so because they feared negative consequences. Data were collected from 68 SFOs who had been exposed to combat. Results indicated that SFOs are experiencing symptoms of PTSD at a rate that is higher than that of the general U.S. population and somewhat lower than that of the general military population. Also, results indicated that a large percentage of the sample would not seek treatment for PTSD due to perceived negative consequences. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and community violence: An update for nurse practitioners

    MSN Staff Nurse, Sarah J. Blizzard RN
    Abstract Purpose: An update on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and community violence for nurse practitioners (NPs) and other healthcare providers is required. Data Sources: A review of current literature on PTSD related to community violence is presented as well as an overview of PTSD disorders. Conclusions: Violence takes place in our communities and in our larger social world every day. In the face of increasing disasters and violent events, there is growing concern over the overall impact of violence on mental health. PTSD, a type of anxiety disorder, may develop as a result of exposure to these events. Implications for Practice: NPs have an important role to play in recognizing and treating PTSD symptoms in persons following exposure to a severe psychological trauma. [source]

    Associations among disaster exposure, intimate relationship adjustment, and PTSD symptoms: Can disaster exposure enhance a relationship?,

    Steffany J. Fredman
    This study examined associations among disaster characteristics, relationship adjustment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology 9 months postdisaster in 205 women exposed to extensive flooding. Bivariately, threat/harm and loss exposure dimensions were related to each other but differentially related to relationship adjustment and PTSD symptoms. Results from structural equation modeling revealed a positive and significant direct association between threat/harm and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, loss was not significantly associated with PTSD symptoms, but was positively and significantly associated with relationship adjustment. Relationship adjustment was negatively and significantly related to PTSD symptoms. These data suggest that some aspects of disaster exposure can have a mobilizing and positive effect on intimate relationships. In turn, positive intimate relationships may buffer individuals against PTSD symptoms. [source]

    Peritraumatic distress, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and posttraumatic growth in victims of violence,

    M. J. J. Kunst
    This study explored whether peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are curvilinearly related to posttraumatic growth in victims of violence several years after victimization (Time 1; n = 678) and 6 months later (Time 2, n = 205). At both time points, curve estimation revealed linear and quadratic associations between peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic growth and quadratic associations between PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic growth. In multivariate regressions controlling for background variables, the linear peritraumatic distress and quadratic PTSD symptom terms remained significant predictors of posttraumatic growth Time 1 scores. For Time 2, the linear peritraumatic distress term remained significant, though only prior to controlling for posttraumatic growth Time 1 scores. The results suggest that peritraumatic distress enables growth after substantial time has elapsed since victimization. [source]

    The efficacy of early propranolol administration at reducing PTSD symptoms in pediatric injury patients: A pilot study,

    Nicole R. Nugent
    Initial research supports the use of propranolol to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); research has not examined pharmacological prevention for children. Twenty-nine injury patients (ages 10,18 years old) at risk for PTSD were randomized to a double-blind 10-day trial of propranolol or placebo initiated within 12 hours postadmission. Six-week PTSD symptoms and heart rate were assessed. Although intent-to-treat analyses revealed no group differences, findings supported a significant interaction between gender and treatment in medication-adherent participants, ,R2 = .21. Whereas girls receiving propranolol reported more PTSD symptoms relative to girls receiving placebo, ,R2 = .44, boys receiving propranolol showed a nonsignificant trend toward fewer PTSD symptoms than boys receiving placebo, ,R2 = .32. Findings inform gender differences regarding pharmacological PTSD prevention in youth. [source]

    Trauma type, gender, and risk of PTSD in a region within an area of conflict,

    Aziz Yasan
    The relation between trauma type, gender, and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) still remains unclear. The authors investigated the association among gender and trauma type and risk of PTSD among people living within an area of conflict. Traumatic experiences and PTSD symptoms among 708 participants were assessed. It was determined that more men (53%) were exposed to traumatic events than women (44%). They also found no difference in PTSD prevalence according to gender. However, the authors found that there was a different risk of PTSD among men and women who experienced similar traumatic events: the risk of PTSD for those who experienced military conflict was higher among men than it was among women. [source]

    Ways of coping and sense of belonging in the face of a continuous threat

    Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
    This study examined the contribution of ways of coping and sense of belonging to stress responses among students in a conflict zone. Students at a college situated in an area exposed to continuous threat were divided according to their place of residence: locations inside and outside of the conflict zone. Rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was similar to rates in previous studies conducted among Israelis who had been exposed to terror. Acceptance as a way of coping and sense of belonging contributed to reducing PTSD symptoms, whereas use of alcohol and seeking support contributed to increasing stress responses. The discussion examines the results in light of the literature on ways of coping and sense of belonging in the face of continuous threat. [source]

    The role of couples' interacting world assumptions and relationship adjustment in women's postdisaster PTSD symptoms,

    Candice M. Monson
    This study examined 58 heterosexual couples' interacting assumptions about the world and relationship adjustment in predicting wives' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after severe flooding. Both partners completed the World Assumptions Scale (Janoff-Bulman, 1989), and wives reported on their intimate relationship adjustment and PTSD symptomatology. Neither husbands' nor wives' assumptions alone predicted wives' PTSD symptoms. However, the interaction of husbands' and wives' benevolent world assumptions significantly predicted wives' PTSD symptoms. When husbands held less benevolent world assumptions, there was a negative association between wives' assumptions and PTSD symptoms. Additionally, wives' relationship adjustment predicted their PTSD symptomatology when taking into account individual and interacting self-worth assumptions. Implications for understanding the role of intimate relationships in postdisaster mental health and interpersonally oriented prevention efforts are discussed. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress in AIDS-orphaned children exposed to high levels of trauma: The protective role of perceived social support,

    Lucie Cluver
    Poor urban children in South Africa are exposed to multiple community traumas, but AIDS-orphaned children are at particular risk for posttraumatic stress. This study examined the hypothesis that social support may moderate the relationship between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress for this group. Four hundred twenty-five AIDS-orphaned children were interviewed using standardized measures of psychopathology. Compared to participants with low perceived social support, those with high perceived social support demonstrated significantly lower levels of PTSD symptoms after both low and high levels of trauma exposure. This suggests that strong perception of social support from carers, school staff, and friends may lessen deleterious effects of exposure to trauma, and could be a focus of intervention efforts to improve psychological outcomes for AIDS-orphaned children. [source]

    The contribution of prior psychological symptoms and combat exposure to post Iraq deployment mental health in the UK military,

    Roberto J. Rona
    This study assessed the contribution of baseline psychological symptoms, combat exposure, and unit support in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological distress. From 2004,2006, 67% of a random sample of 2,820 participants who had been assessed for psychological symptoms in 2002 were reassessed. Baseline psychological symptoms, combat exposure, and unit support factors were associated with the outcomes and the effect sizes for combat exposure were marked for PTSD symptoms. Adjustment for baseline psychological symptoms did not modify the pattern of association of group cohesion and combat exposures. The authors concluded that combat exposure and group cohesion have an effect on mental health outcomes independent of previous mental health status, which explains why screening prior to deployment is ineffective. [source]

    Trauma history characteristics and subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims,

    Leah Irish
    The present study examined the relationship between trauma history characteristics (number and type of traumas, age at first trauma, and subjective responses to prior traumas) and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). One hundred eighty-eight adult MVA victims provided information about prior traumatization and were evaluated for PTSD symptoms 6 weeks and one year following the MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for demographics and depression, prior trauma history characteristics accounted for a small, but significant amount of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Distress from prior trauma and number of types of prior traumas were the most meaningful trauma history predictors. Results encourage further evaluation of trauma history as a multifaceted construct. [source]

    A field test of group based exposure therapy with 102 veterans with war-related posttraumatic stress disorder,

    David J. Ready
    Group-based exposure therapy (GBET) was field-tested with 102 veterans with war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nine to 11 patients attended 3 hours of group therapy per day twice weekly for 16,18 weeks. Stress management and a minimum of 60 hours of exposure was included (3 hours of within-group war-trauma presentations per patient, 30 hours of listening to recordings of patient's own war-trauma presentations and 27 hours of hearing other patients' war-trauma presentations). Analysis of assessments conducted by treating clinicians pre-, post- and 6-month posttreatment suggests that GBET produced clinically significant and lasting reductions in PTSD symptoms for most patients on both clinician symptoms ratings (6-month posttreatment effect size , = 1.22) and self-report measures with only three dropouts. [source]

    Disaster mental health workers responding to ground zero: One year later

    Erin Scott Daly
    The current study examined anniversary reactions in mental health disaster relief workers following traumatic exposure at the site of the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Despite relatively low levels of symptom reporting, workers endorsed an increase in both negative mood symptoms and functional impairment at the one-year anniversary of their traumatic exposure (compared to 6 months postexposure). For those individuals who met at least partial criteria for PTSD immediately following exposure, overall self-reported PTSD symptoms tended to increase from 6 to 12 months. This tendency resulted specifically from an increase in hyperarousal symptoms. Although few endorsed symptoms at clinical levels, our results demonstrate that disaster relief workers may experience an increase in symptomatology at the anniversary of their traumatic exposure. [source]

    Symptom comparison across multiple solicitation methods among Burundians with traumatic event histories,

    Peter D. Yeomans
    Debate continues over whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are more biologically based and therefore relatively universal or are more culturally constructed. This study aimed to describe traumatic stress reactions in a Burundian sample and to investigate the influences of the solicitation method (open-ended questions and standardized measures) and psychoeducation (as a process of acculturation) on symptoms reported. Standardized measures showed that distress was manifested in somatization, anxiety, and depression, and less so in specific PTSD symptoms. Content analysis of open-ended questions revealed frequent material complaints. Prior exposure to Western ideas about trauma was predictive of more severe PTSD symptoms. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of how methodological and cultural factors may influence posttraumatic reactions in nonindustrialized settings. [source]

    An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the traumatic events questionnaire in primary care patients

    Eric F. Crawford
    This study examined the reliability of reports of traumatic experiences across the Traumatic Events Questionnaire (TEQ; S. Vrana & D. Lauterbach, 1994) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI; World Health Organization, 1998), and evaluated other psychometric properties of the TEQ in 154 primary care patients. Agreement rates for various traumatic experiences were moderate to substantial, with sexual abuse showing 87% agreement, and other forms of trauma exhibiting rates from 81,74%. The TEQ yields a trauma intensity score, which produced stronger correlations with self-reported PTSD symptoms and problematic anger than the sum of traumas experienced. Trauma intensity also proved to be a powerful predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status. Results support the TEQ as a measure of traumatic exposure in primary care populations. [source]

    Domains of quality of life and symptoms in male veterans treated for posttraumatic stress disorder,

    Carole A. Lunney
    This study examined the relationship between domains of quality of life and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 319 male veterans in a randomized trial of group psychotherapy. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a 4-factor model of quality of life (achievement, self-expression, relationships, and surroundings) fit better than a unidimensional model. Clinically meaningful symptom change was associated with greater change in all quality of life domains. At pretreatment, numbing symptoms uniquely predicted all quality of life domains. Change in avoidance and hyperarousal uniquely predicted change in achievement. Change in reexperiencing uniquely predicted change in self-expression. Change in numbing uniquely predicted change in relationships. Examining change in PTSD symptoms and quality of life domains may provide important information for treatment planning and evaluation. [source]