Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Oversight

  • regulatory oversight

  • Selected Abstracts

    Oversight and Delegation in Corporate Governance: deciding what the board should decide

    Michael Useem
    American boards of directors increasingly treat their delegation of authority to management as a careful and self-conscious decision. Numerically dominated by non-executives, boards recognize that they cannot run the company, and many are now seeking to provide stronger oversight of the company without crossing the line into management. Based on interviews with informants at 31 major companies, we find that annual calendars and written protocols are often used to allocate decision rights between the board and management. Written protocols vary widely, ranging from detailed and comprehensive to skeletal and limited in scope. While useful, such calendars and protocols do not negate the need for executives to make frequent judgement calls on what issues should go to the board and what should remain within management. Executives still set much of the board's decision-making agenda, and despite increasingly asserting their sovereignty in recent years, directors remain substantially dependent upon the executives' judgement on what should come to the board. At the same time, a norm is emerging among directors and executives that the latter must be mindful of what directors want to hear and believe they should decide. [source]

    Stereotypes and Moral Oversight in Conflict Resolution: What Are We Teaching?

    J. Harvey
    I examine some common trends in ,conflict management skills', particularly those focused on practical results, and argue that they involve some moral problems, like the reliance on offensive stereotypes, the censorship of moral language, the promotion of distorted relationships, and sometimes the suppression of basic rights and obligations that constitute non,consequentialist moral constraints on human interactions (including dispute resolution). Since these approaches now appear in educational institutions, they are sending dangerous messages to those least able to critically assess them, messages that denigrate the language, reflection, and interactions on which the moral life depends, thus undermining the possibility of moral education in the most fundamental sense of the phrase. [source]

    Does government funding alter nonprofit governance?

    Evidence from New York City nonprofit contractors
    Government contracting has raised a collection of issues with respect to adequate oversight and accountability. This paper explores one avenue through which contracting agencies may achieve these tasks: through the governance practices of the contractor's board. Oversight and monitoring are a board's key responsibilities, and influencing a board's practices is one way a governmental agency can help to insure quality performance. Agencies could thus use both their selection process and their post-contracting power to influence board practice. Using a new, rich data set on the nonprofit contractors of New York City, a series of hypotheses were tested on the relationship between government funding and board practices. Significant differences were found to exist in board practices as a function of government funding levels, differences that mark a shift of energy away from some activities (i.e., traditional board functions, such as fund-raising) towards others (financial monitoring and advocacy). This suggests that government agencies may indeed use their contracting choices with an eye to particular governance practices. This increased emphasis on such activities appears to crowd out other activities, and is not unambiguously to the benefit of nonprofit board governance. © 2002 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]

    Rail Safety: Targeting Oversight and Assessing Results

    Jeremy F. Plant
    Rail safety has emerged as a significant issue in the past two years as a result of two major factors: a statistical lack of improvement in rail safety in the past decade, and a catalytic event in the form of a major derailment involving loss of life at Graniteville, South Carolina, in January 2005. The convergence of long-term leveling of rail safety indicators and the shock of a major rail accident prompted the Senate Appropriations Committee to ask the Government Accountability Office to assess the oversight role of the Federal Railroad Administration, the modal agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation charged with overseeing rail safety. The report is a reminder of the continuing importance of regulatory activities and the general movement in federal management toward greater use of data and performance measures since the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. [source]

    Outsourcing Oversight: A Comparison of Monitoring for In-House and Contracted Services

    Mary K. Marvel
    The public sector contracting literature has long argued that outsourced services need to be and, in fact, are subject to a more elevated level of scrutiny compared to internally delivered services. Recently, the performance measurement and management literature has suggested that the twin themes of accountability and results have altered the management landscape at all levels of government. By focusing on performance monitoring, the implication is that monitoring levels for internally provided services should more closely approximate those for contracted services. The analysis provided here yields empirical comparisons of how governments monitor the same service provided in-house and contracted out. We find evidence that services provided internally by a government's own employees are indeed monitored intensively by the contracting government, with levels of monitoring nearly as high as those for services contracted out to for-profit providers. In contrast, however, we find strong evidence that performance monitoring by the contracting government does not extend to nonprofit and other governmental service providers, each of which is monitored much less intensively than when comparable services are provided internally. For such service providers, it appears that monitoring is either outsourced along with services, or simply reduced. [source]

    Commentary: Emerging Technologies Oversight: Research, Regulation, and Commercialization

    Robbin Johnson
    This paper reviews the paper by Kuzma, Najmaie, and Larson that looks at what can be learned from the experience with genetically engineered organisms for oversight of emerging technologies more generally. That paper identifies key attributes of a good oversight system: promoting innovation, ensuring safety, identifying benefits, assessing costs, and doing so all while building public confidence. In commenting on that analysis, this paper suggests that looking at "oversight" in three phases , research and development, regulatory review, and market acceptance , can help to determine when certain of these attributes should take precedence over others and how to structure remedies when an error occurs. The result is an approach that is precautionary with respect to research and development, prudent and open to public input in the regulatory review stage, and purposefully persuasive once market acceptability is at stake, with remedies that are risk-containing in the first phase, risk-managing in the second, and risk-assuaging in the third. Combining the key attributes with the idea of three phases can help attune oversight to society's needs. [source]

    Transplantation Oversight,Finding the Right Balance Between the Layperson, the Transplant Professional and the Regulator

    G. B. G. Klintmalm
    Is UNOS the right body to make recommendations for standards for medical evaluation and care? The authors, who were involved in the development of the recent rule, suggest that it would be more appropriately done by the professional societies. See also article by Brown, Jr. et al in this issue on page 31. [source]

    The Evolution and Direction of OPTN Oversight of Live Organ Donation and Transplantation in the United States

    R. S. Brown
    For more than 20 years, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has developed policies and bylaws relating to equitable allocation of deceased donor organs for transplantation. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) operates the OPTN under contract with the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Until recent years, the OPTN had little defined authority regarding living donor organ for transplantation except for the collection of data relating to living donor transplants. Beginning with the implementation of the OPTN Final Rule in 2000, and continuing with more recent announcements, the OPTN's role in living donation has grown. Its responsibilities now include monitoring of living donor outcomes, promoting equity in nondirected living donor transplantation and ensuring that transplant programs have expertise and established protocols to promote the safety of living donors and recipients. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolving mandates for the OPTN in living donation, as well as the network's recent activities and ongoing efforts. [source]

    Ensuring the Safety of Living Kidney Donors and Recipients in China Through Ethics Committee Oversight: An Early Experience

    Z. Lei
    In 2007, the Regulation on Human Organ Transplantation was enacted in China requiring the establishment of ethics committees to oversee living donor organ transplantation and establishing specific requirements that must be met. We established an Ethics Committee on Organ Transplantation at Peking University Third Hospital, and described its composition, its methods and operating procedures in the examination and approval of living-related donor kidney transplantation (LRDKT) and our initial experience. All 60 proposed cases of LRDKT were presented to the Ethics Committee for discussion, among which 53 cases were approved and seven cases were disapproved due to a variety of reasons that are discussed. The Ethics Committee on Organ Transplantation plays an important role in the ethical oversight of living-related donor organ transplantation in order to ensure to the greatest extent possible the safety, rights and interests of donors and recipients. [source]

    Direction of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and United Network for Organ Sharing Regarding the Oversight of Live Donor Transplantation and Solicitation for Organs

    F. L. Delmonico
    The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) operated by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has taken recent steps to address public solicitation for organ donors and its oversight of live donor transplantation. This report provides the direction of the OPTN regarding deceased donor solicitation. The OPTN has authority under federal law to equitably allocate deceased donor organs within a single national network based upon medical criteria, not upon one's social or economic ability to utilize resources not available to all on the waiting list. The OPTN makes a distinction between solicitations for a live donor organ versus solicitations for directed donation of deceased organs. As to live donor solicitation, the OPTN cannot regulate or restrict ways relationships are developed in our society, nor does it seek to do so. OPTN members have a responsibility of helping protect potential recipients from hazards that can arise from public appeals for live donor organs. Oversight and support of the OPTN for live donor transplantation is now detailed by improving the reporting of live donor follow-up, by providing a mechanism for facilitating anonymous live kidney donation, and by providing information for potential live kidney donors via the UNOS Transplant LivingSM website. [source]

    Anomalies in the Oversight of Australian Auditors

    Graeme L. Wines
    This commentary identifies and comments on anomalies in the oversight of Australian auditors and audit firms. Regulatory and professional oversight and inspection of Australian auditors and audit firms arise from a number of sources, highlighting its multi-faceted nature. This makes it impossible to identify a single body with ultimate responsibility for auditor oversight. Three recent Australian reviews commissioned by the Financial Reporting Council, together with an evaluation of the roles of the various regulatory and professional bodies, are used in this commentary as a platform from which to identify a number of significant anomalies in oversight processes. Major anomalies highlighted arise from the overlapping nature of the duties and functions of the various bodies and the variation in oversight across different categories of audit service providers. Policymakers should closely examine the issues raised in the paper if auditor oversight is to be undertaken in an effective and efficient manner. [source]

    Local Variation in Shredder Distribution can Explain their Oversight in Tropical Streams

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2009
    Regina Camacho
    ABSTRACT Stream shredders play an important role in the breakdown of allochthonous leaf litter,a well-known, key process in temperate headwater streams. In contrast, it has been suggested that litter breakdown in tropical streams is driven by microorganisms, shredders being scarce or absent. We propose that shredders have been overlooked in some tropical streams for two reasons: (1) assuming that tropical shredders belong to the same taxa as temperate ones, without determining the diet of tropical litter fauna; and (2) the small spatial scale of most tropical stream studies, which do not account for intra- and inter-site comparisons. We explored shredder abundance and species richness in six streams in each of two tropical regions, the Australian wet tropics (AWT) and Panama (PAN), finding 734 individuals of 12 shredder species in AWT and 391 individuals of 16 species in PAN. Shredder species richness was positively related to altitude in AWT, but not in PAN. Shredder contribution to total leaf breakdown in the field was 24±3 SE percent in AWT and negligible in PAN, but this was probably due to the unsuccessful colonization of experimental cages by PAN shredders. In the laboratory, shredder contribution to total leaf breakdown was higher than in the field (35%±2 SE in AWT and 64%±3 SE in PAN) and varied with leaf decomposability. Our results support earlier indications that shredders are not scarce or functionally unimportant in the tropics, and suggest that their contribution to litter processing should be determined along altitudinal gradients. [source]

    Missing Nikę: On Oversights, Doubled Sights, and Universal Art Understood through Lebanon

    Kirsten ScheidArticle first published online: 3 SEP 200
    Abstract The role copies of "Western" art play in constructing hybrid local/universal ideologies of modernity has not been studied. This essay demonstrates the centrality of the copied Nikę to the co-construction of metropolitan France and marginal Mandate-era Lebanon. It suggests an art-historical and ethnographic methodology for tracking imagination and the cultivation of taste that is not bounded by nation, culture, or geography. Tracing the circuits traveled by the Nikę reveals that origins and claims of universalism in art are the result of transnational, intercultural, historically specific interactions. The ideology of taste enacted in colonial Lebanon informs Lebanese cultural and political discourses today. [source]

    Why bartering biodiversity fails

    Susan Walker
    Abstract Regulatory biodiversity trading (or biodiversity "offsets") is increasingly promoted as a way to enable both conservation and development while achieving "no net loss" or even "net gain" in biodiversity, but to date has facilitated development while perpetuating biodiversity loss. Ecologists seeking improved biodiversity outcomes are developing better assessment tools and recommending more rigorous restrictions and enforcement. We explain why such recommendations overlook and cannot correct key causes of failure to protect biodiversity. Viable trading requires simple, measurable, and interchangeable commodities, but the currencies, restrictions, and oversight needed to protect complex, difficult-to-measure, and noninterchangeable resources like biodiversity are costly and intractable. These safeguards compromise trading viability and benefit neither traders nor regulatory officials. Political theory predicts that (1) biodiversity protection interests will fail to counter motivations for officials to resist and relax safeguards to facilitate exchanges and resource development at cost to biodiversity, and (2) trading is more vulnerable than pure administrative mechanisms to institutional dynamics that undermine environmental protection. Delivery of no net loss or net gain through biodiversity trading is thus administratively improbable and technically unrealistic. Their proliferation without credible solutions suggests biodiversity offset programs are successful "symbolic policies," potentially obscuring biodiversity loss and dissipating impetus for action. [source]


    Tax law revisions of 2004 altered the "roster depreciation allowance" enjoyed by pro sports team owners. Supporters claimed this would practically eliminate costly legal oversight by the IRS and, ultimately, increase owner tax bills. Government officials and leagues remained silent on team value impacts but outside analysts argued they would rise by 5%. We model this policy change and investigate it empirically. Supporters in Congress were absolutely correct that owner tax payments should increase but outside analysts underestimated team value increases by half. No wonder Major League Baseball and the National Football League favored the revision. (JEL D21, G38, H25, L83) [source]

    Business Group Affiliation, Firm Governance, and Firm Performance: Evidence from China and India

    Deeksha A. Singh
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to understand how business group affiliation, within firm governance and external governance environment affect firm performance in emerging economies. We examine two aspects of within firm governance , ownership concentration and board independence. Research Findings/Insights: Using archival data on the top 500 Indian and Chinese firms from multiple data sources for 2007, we found that group affiliated firms performed worse than unaffiliated firms, and the negative relationship was stronger in the case of Indian firms than for Chinese firms. We also found that ownership concentration had a positive effect on firm performance, while board independence had a negative effect on firm performance. Further, we found that group affiliation , firm performance relationship in a given country context was moderated by ownership concentration. Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study utilizes an integration of agency theory with an institutional perspective, providing a more comprehensive framework to analyze the CG problems, particularly in the emerging economy firms. Empirically, our findings support, as well as contradict, some of the conventional wisdom, and suggest useful avenues for future research. Practitioner/Policy Implications: This study shows that reforms in general and CG reforms in particular are effective in emerging economies, which is an encouraging sign for policy makers. However, our research also suggests that it may be time for India and China to stop the encouragement for the empire building through group formation in the corporate world. For practioners, our findings suggest that firms need to balance the need for oversight with the need for advice, while selecting independent directors. [source]

    Comparing Mutual Fund Governance and Corporate Governance

    Robert F. Radin
    Governance of public corporations in the United States has operated under the agency model with regulatory strengthening since the passage of Sarbanes-Oxley legislation. With this foundation in place, boards are empowered to utilise their power and influence and can effectively monitor the actions of management, intervening where necessary. In effect, the rules of engagement embodied in the structure and the law guide interactions and empowerment. The governance model of the mutual funds industry, representing over 8 trillion dollars, is often viewed as a mirror of the corporate world, but upon closer analysis is found to have significant structural differences that dilute the authority of directors. The two models are compared and analysed with recommendations made to strengthen the oversight of mutual funds. [source]

    Oversight and Delegation in Corporate Governance: deciding what the board should decide

    Michael Useem
    American boards of directors increasingly treat their delegation of authority to management as a careful and self-conscious decision. Numerically dominated by non-executives, boards recognize that they cannot run the company, and many are now seeking to provide stronger oversight of the company without crossing the line into management. Based on interviews with informants at 31 major companies, we find that annual calendars and written protocols are often used to allocate decision rights between the board and management. Written protocols vary widely, ranging from detailed and comprehensive to skeletal and limited in scope. While useful, such calendars and protocols do not negate the need for executives to make frequent judgement calls on what issues should go to the board and what should remain within management. Executives still set much of the board's decision-making agenda, and despite increasingly asserting their sovereignty in recent years, directors remain substantially dependent upon the executives' judgement on what should come to the board. At the same time, a norm is emerging among directors and executives that the latter must be mindful of what directors want to hear and believe they should decide. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Much of the research focusing on conventional occupations concludes that mentored individuals are more successful in their careers than those who are not mentored. Early research in criminology made a similar claim. Yet contemporary criminology has all but ignored mentors. We investigate this oversight, drawing on Sutherland's insights on tutelage and criminal maturation and incorporating ideas on human and social capital. We argue that mentors play a key role in their protégés' criminal achievements and examine this hypothesis with data from a recent survey of incarcerated adult male offenders in the Canadian province of Quebec. In this sample, a substantial proportion of respondents reported the presence of an influential individual in their lives who introduced them to a criminal milieu and whom they explicitly regarded as a mentor. After studying the attributes of offenders and their mentors, we develop a causal framework that positions criminal mentor presence within a pathway that leads to greater benefits and lower costs from crime. [source]


    Research Summary: Following reforms of the federal firearms licensing system, nearly 70% of the nation's retail gun dealers active in 1994 dropped out of business by 1998. Dropout dealers supplied one-third of guns recovered and traced by police but were linked to fewer crime guns than were other dealers, most likely because dropouts tended to be lower volume dealers. It is not clear if guns sold by dropouts had a higher probability of being used in crime, but guns supplied by dropouts did not move into criminal channels more quickly. Policy Implications: If federal reforms have reduced the availability of guns to criminals, the effect has probably been more modest than suggested by the overall reduction in dealers. Producing further reductions in the flow of guns to criminals through oversight of gun dealers will require refinement in the identification of problematic gun dealers. [source]


    ABSTRACT A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent ,players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices. [source]


    ABSTRACT Objective:, To identify perceived barriers to capacity building for local research ethics oversight in El Salvador, and to set an agenda for international collaborative capacity building. Methods:, Focus groups were formed in El Salvador which included 17 local clinical investigators and members of newly formed research ethics committees. Information about the proposed research was presented to participants during an international bioethics colloquium sponsored and organized by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in collaboration with the National Ethics Committee of El Salvador and the University of El Salvador. Interviews with the focus group participants were qualitatively analyzed. Results:, Participants expressed the need to tailor the informed consent process and documentation to the local culture; for example, allowing family members to participate in decision-making, and employing shorter consent forms. Participants indicated that economic barriers often impede efforts in local capacity building. Participants valued international collaboration for mutual capacity building in research ethics oversight. Conclusions:, Research ethics committees in El Salvador possess a basic knowledge of locally relevant ethical principles, though they need more training to optimize the application of bioethical principles and models to their particular contexts. Challenges increase the value of collaborative exchanges with ethics committee members in the United States. Further research on facilitating communication between host country and sponsor country ethics committees can maximize local research ethics expertise, and thus raise the standard of protecting human participants involved in international research. [source]

    Inflammatory events as detected in cervical smears and squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Anne M. E. Roeters M.D.
    Abstract The Dutch cytological coding system, KOPAC, enables to code for eight inflammatory events, that is koilocytosis (related to human papillomavirus (HPV)), Trichomonas, dysbacteriosis [related to bacterial vaginosis (BV)], Candida, Gardnerella, Actinomyces, Chlamydia, and non-specific inflammation (leucocytosis). This study presents an analysis of 1,008,879 smears. Of each smear, the age of the woman and the reason for smear taking (screening or indication) was available. The cytoscores (per mille) for these codes were calculated. For the screening smears, the cytoscores were for koilocytosis (HPV) 2.6, for Trichomonas vaginalis 1.9, for dysbacteriosis 31.4, for Candida albicans 9.8, for Gardnerella vaginalis 0.7, for Actinomyces 6.9, for Chlamydia 0.8, and for non-specific inflammatory changes 66.4. For the calculation of the Odds Ratio (OR), normal smears were used as a reference. The cytoscores for Chlamydia and Gardnerella covaried with high grade SIL (HSIL), with an OR of 7 and 12, respectively. In addition, the OR for Trichomonas vaginalis, for dysbacteriosis, and for leucocytosis proved to be significantly high in the indication smears. This study provides an oversight of HSIL and the full range of cervical infections as detected by cytology, proving that this infectious byproduct of screening can be very valuable. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2006
    Edward B. Rackley
    Abstract This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a ,riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament. [source]

    Automation in an addiction treatment research clinic: Computerised contingency management, ecological momentary assessment and a protocol workflow system

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. A challenge in treatment research is the necessity of adhering to protocol and regulatory strictures while maintaining flexibility to meet patients' treatment needs and to accommodate variations among protocols. Another challenge is the acquisition of large amounts of data in an occasionally hectic environment, along with the provision of seamless methods for exporting, mining and querying the data. Design and Methods. We have automated several major functions of our outpatient treatment research clinic for studies in drug abuse and dependence. Here we describe three such specialised applications: the Automated Contingency Management (ACM) system for the delivery of behavioural interventions, the transactional electronic diary (TED) system for the management of behavioural assessments and the Protocol Workflow System (PWS) for computerised workflow automation and guidance of each participant's daily clinic activities. These modules are integrated into our larger information system to enable data sharing in real time among authorised staff. Results. ACM and the TED have each permitted us to conduct research that was not previously possible. In addition, the time to data analysis at the end of each study is substantially shorter. With the implementation of the PWS, we have been able to manage a research clinic with an 80 patient capacity, having an annual average of 18 000 patient visits and 7300 urine collections with a research staff of five. Finally, automated data management has considerably enhanced our ability to monitor and summarise participant safety data for research oversight. Discussion and Conclusions. When developed in consultation with end users, automation in treatment research clinics can enable more efficient operations, better communication among staff and expansions in research methods. [Vahabzadeh M, Lin J-L, Mezghanni M, Epstein DH, Preston KL. Automation in an addiction treatment research clinic: Computerised contingency management, ecological momentary assessment and a protocol workflow system. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:3,11] [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 4 2007
    Jack Martin
    In this essay, Jack Martin aims to remedy such oversight by interpreting Mead's social-psychological and educational theorizing of selfhood and agency through the lenses of the perspectival realism Mead developed in the last decade of his life. This interpretation understands education as concerned with the cultivation and coordination of cultural, societal, interpersonal, and personal perspectives. Within this framework, communal agency is understood as a self-interpreting, self-determining capability of persons. This agentive capability derives from immersion and participation with others within sociocultural practices and perspectives, but also includes reactivity to those same practices and perspectives. The education of communal agents as envisioned here emphasizes the social nature of education, students' experience and development, and the critical role of the teacher as a mediator between student development and social process. Such an education is grounded in the immediate experiences and perspectives of learners, but increasingly assists learners to move beyond their own experiences through engaged interaction with others and with resources for acquiring broader, more organized perspectives on themselves, others, and the world. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Mary Eschelbach Hansen
    Just as the courts must consider the trade-off between the best interest of the child and parental rights in involuntary termination of parental rights, policy on international adoption must consider the trade-offs between the best interest of the child and the long-term interests of the nation. We argue that countries that suspend international adoptions do not maximize social welfare. A consistent national policy to maximize the well-being of the children and society at large would be to devote resources today to the oversight of international adoption in accord with child protections under the Hague Convention, while at the same time developing a domestic system of care that provides for the physical and developmental needs of orphaned children in the context of permanent families. [source]

    The Business of Temporary Staffing: A Developing Research Agenda

    Neil M. Coe
    This paper offers a critical review of the existing literatures on temporary staffing. It argues that while research on both client firm rationales and the experiences and characteristics of temporary agency workers are relatively well advanced, work that explores the temporary staffing industry and its own strategies and expansionary logics is still in its infancy. This is a significant oversight given the increasingly widespread influence of this particular form of labour market intermediary. Grounded in recent work in economic geography, the paper maps a future research agenda. [source]

    Privatization and the Courts: How Judicial Structures Shaped German Privatization

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2001
    Mark Cassell
    This article examines how legal institutional structures shaped the process of East German privatization by the Treuhandanstalt. It argues that the courts, as an important venue for oversight and accountability, were central to achieving the rapid and narrowly defined privatization carried out by the agency. Moreover, the experience of privatization after 1989 suggests the courts played a far more important role in shaping economic policy than one would have expected from traditional scholarship on public agencies, the courts, or the German legal system. [source]

    ,Beyond Left and Right': The New Partisan Politics of Welfare

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2000
    Fiona Ross
    The ,new politics of the welfare state,' the term coined by Pierson (1996) to differentiate between the popular politics of welfare expansion and the unpopular politics of retrenchment, emphasizes a number of factors that distinguish countries' capacities to pursue contentious measures and avoid electoral blame. Policy structures, vested interests, and institutions play a prominent role in accounting for cross-national differences in leaders' abilities to diffuse responsibility for divisive initiatives. One important omission from the ,new politics' literature, however, is a discussion of partisan politics. ,Old' conceptualizations of the political right and left are implicitly taken as constants despite radical changes in the governing agenda of many leftist parties over the last decade. Responding to this oversight, Castles (1998) has recently probed the role of parties with respect to aggregate government expenditures, only to concludethat parties do not matter under ,conditions of constraint.' This article contends that parties are relevant to the ,new politics' and that, under specified institutional conditions, their impact is counterintuitive. In some notable cases the left has had more effect inbruising the welfare state than the right. One explanation for these cross-cutting tendencies is that parties not only provide a principal source of political agency, they also serve as strategies, thereby conditioning opportunities for political leadership. By extension, they need to be situatedwithin the ,new politics' constellation of blame-avoidance instruments. [source]