Other Women (other + woman)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Unacknowledged Socrates in the Works of Luce Irigaray

HYPATIA, Issue 2 2006
In Luce Irigaray's thought, Socrates is a marginal figure compared to Plato or Hegel. However, she does identify the Socratic dialectical position as that of a ,phallocrat' and she does conflate Socratic and Platonic philosophy in her psychoanalytic reading of Plato in Speculum of the Other Woman. In this essay, I critically interpret both Irigaray's own texts and the Platonic dialogues in order to argue that: (1) the Socratic dialectical position is not ,phallocratic' by Irigaray's own understanding of the term; (2) that Socratic (early Platonic) philosophy should not be conflated with the mature Platonic metaphysics Irigaray criticizes; and (3) that Socratic dialectical method is similar in some respects with the dialectical method of Diotima, Socrates' instructress in love and the subject of Irigaray's "Sorcerer Love" essay in An Ethics of Sexual Difference. [source]

Rousseau's Other Woman: Collette in Le devin du village

HYPATIA, Issue 2 2001
The life and work of Rousseau the musician and aesthetician has been forgely neglected in the debate about Rousseau's views on women. In this paper, I shall introduce a new text and a new female figure into the conversation: Collette, the shepherdess in Le devin du village, an opera written by Rousseau in 1752. We see an ambiguity in Collette-the text often expresses one view while the music expresses another. When we take Collette s music seriously the following picture emerges: the natural desire of women to be free, a fairly active female agency, an incipient rebellion against the social role of women, and a final acceptance of the role of wife. This view of Collette supports the thesis that for Rousseau women are not naturally subordinate to men but are taught to be subordinate because it is required for the maintenance of the patriarchal family, the cornerstone of civil society. We see many glimpses of Collette's true, unsocialized, nature, especially in the melodies she sings, it is in song, the first and hence most natural language of humans, that we see Collette's longing for freedom. But she ends by singing the praises of civil society, albeit a rural society, and thus implicitly accepting the subordination she is destined to suffer at Colins hands. [source]

Architecture as a public voice for women in sixteenth-century Rome

C Valone
Women in Renaissance Rome used architectural patronage to achieve a public voice; they spoke about radical religious reform and the family, and often their discourse differed from that of Renaissance men. Unhampered by the demands of civic humanism, wealthy women such as Caterina Cibo, Vittoria Colonna, and Giovanna d'Aragona were willing to support the radical rhetoric of poverty proposed by the Capuchins, providing chiese povere, small, unadorned churches , for the newly founded order. Other women chose to talk about family as a bilinear construction as opposed to the patrilinear, patriarchal structure recommended by humanists and the Roman Catholic church. In the Gesù, four related women became patrons of the two large chapels surrounding the high altar in order to talk about reform and the affective relationships between women in the family in terms which were not defined by their husbands or fathers, or by the Jesuits. [source]

The Story of Abraham and Models of Human Identity

NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1021 2008
Dr Mary Mills S.H.C.J
Abstract This paper explores the profiles of the women characters Sarah and Hagar as models of human identity. The two characters can only be explored through reading the over-arching narrative of the story of Abraham. Their profiles and narrated personalities have to be extracted from that narrative, but there is a two-sided nature of this necessity. If Sarah and Hagar cannot be separated from the biblical narrator's engagement with father Abraham, neither can Abraham function as father of the nations except through his interaction with these two women. The reader is thus led towards an understanding of how the stories of Genesis 12,24 deal with the issue of parenthood. The body of the paper consists in a close reading of the biblical material following a method of reading which is rooted in the use of imagination as an exegetical tool , a style adopted by Paul in his allegorical approach to Sarah and Hagar in Galatians 4. This approach opens into narrative criticism with a focus on characterisation and on the interactions of Sarah, Hagar and Abraham, caught up in a Domestic Comedy. The women's characters are explored through the themes of parenthood as other, the other woman and woman as other. A final section explores some of the points of narrative ethics to be extracted from the close textual readings of the paper, with reference to the writings of Paul Ricoeur and Emmanuel Levinas. It is suggested that female as well as male characters may offer fruitful models for human identity. [source]

Congenital malformations in infants whose mothers reported the use of folic acid in early pregnancy in Sweden.

A prospective population study
ABSTRACT The use of folic acid prior to conception is generally recommended for the prevention of birth defects, notably neural tube defects. In a previous study from Sweden, based on interviews of women in early pregnancy, no such effect was found on the general malformation rate, but data for neural tube defects were scarce. Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for the years 1995,2004, 20 891 women were identified who reported the use of folic acid in early pregnancy, but not of anticonvulsants. These women were compared to all other women who gave birth during the study period. Malformations in the infants born were identified from multiple sources. No reduction in the general malformation rate was seen among infants born to women who reported the use of folic acid (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02,1.17) and no effect of neural tube defect rate was seen (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.82,2.22), based on 16 infants with neural tube defect whose mother reported the use of folic acid. No effect was seen on the rates of other malformations except for cardiac defects, where a statistically significant increased risk (notably for severe defects) was found (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05,1.35). The effect of various deficiencies in data collection is discussed, but is unlikely to explain the lack of protective effect noticed. So far, it has not been possible to demonstrate a beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation on malformation risk in Sweden. A more complete ascertainment and detailed timing and dosage of folic acid use in a prospective study is recommended. [source]


This article examines the complex relationships between changing forms of commodity production and consumption and changing styles of religiosity in Zabid, the Republic of Yemen. I examine a couple of prominent logics of veiling in Fin-de-Siècle Yemen: Some reformist women add "Islamic socks" and gloves to their already fully modest garb, while other women don chadors that decorate these garments with embroidery, making them into items of fashionable consumption and adornment. Other commodities, like a Chador Barbie that I found in Yemen's suq, are used to think through changing practices of consumption, adornment, and women's sociability in Zabid. [source]

Evidence for distinct effects of GH and IGF-I in the metabolic syndrome

P. Maison
Abstract Aims, The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors which include central obesity, dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance and hypertension. These risk factors are common in patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, suggesting a role for the somatotropic axis in the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods, We used factor analysis to investigate the relationships linking serum levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to metabolic syndrome variables (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, blood pressure and waist circumference). We studied 359 men and 388 women from the Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome (DESIR). Their age range was 30,64 years. Results, Three independent latent factors explained 61% of the total variance in women and four factors explained 73% in men. In both men and women, IGF-I showed a strong positive correlation with the lipid factor and a negative correlation with the obesity/glucose factor. In women, GH showed a strong negative correlation with the obesity/glucose factor but not the lipid factor. In men, GH was unrelated to the lipid and obesity/glucose factors. The blood pressure factor was not related to GH or IGF-I. In contrast with IGF-I, GH was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome (1575 ± 449 pg/ml) than in the other women (2121 ± 520 pg/ml, P = 0.002). No significant difference was observed in men for GH or IGF-I. Conclusion, Our results support a link between the somatotropic axis and several features of the metabolic syndrome, and suggest distinct effects of GH and IGF-I on these parameters. [source]


Article first published online: 21 APR 2010, KATHLEEN SCHROEDER
ABSTRACT. This geography of women's work in the less-developed world is set in Tarija, Bolivia, a small city that has been dramatically changed by economic crisis and structural-adjustment programs. Explored is the spatial component of women's economic activities in a low-income barrio following the imposition of structural-adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s. Women who pursue employment away from home must rely on other women. In particular, households that include more than one woman who is capable of handling important daily chores are more likely to have a woman engaged in income-generating activities away from the home and the neighborhood. Women at home make it possible for other women to extend their economic activity into the broader community. These findings are important because they draw attention to women's reliance on other women, how women use space, and how they are constrained by spatial factors as they negotiate their daily lives. [source]

Invited reaction: Black and white women managers: Access to opportunity

Elizabeth Higginbotham
In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities for White women and men for getting hired, promoted, receiving salary increases, and other workplace challenges. When making comparisons with either men or women of color, White women are far more optimistic about the opportunities for people of color than are Black women. Hite uses this study to explore the lack of attention to race and racial discrimination among White women, whose views are often assumed to represent all women in management. HRD practice and research can look more closely at the perceptions and experiences of Black women to learn how better to promote their careers, since strategies that increase the number of White women might not be helpful in advancing the careers of Black and other women of color. [source]

Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

Naja Hulvej Rod
Abstract Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI , 30 kg/m2, alcohol <1 drink/week, physically active and no current hormone use) and to evaluate their associations with estrogen. The 5,054 postmenopausal women in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about risk factors at baseline in 1981,3 and were followed until 2002 in the Danish Cancer Registry, with <0.1% loss to follow-up. Estradiol was measured in a subset of 1,042 women. During follow-up, 263 women developed breast cancer. Twenty-six percent of the women had a favourable risk factor profile, and their breast cancer rates were markedly lower (154 per 100,000 years) than women with 3+ risk factors (460 per 100,000 years). One, two and three risk factors were associated with hazard ratios of 1.38 (95% CI: 0.99; 1.92), 1.84 (1.26; 2.67) and 2.79 (1.59; 4.88) compared to women with a favourable profile. Each of the risk factors was associated with estrogen. In conclusion, the risk of breast cancer was markedly lower for women with a favourable risk profile than for other women and lower estrogen levels is a possible explanation. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cervical carcinoma in Algiers, Algeria: Human papillomavirus and lifestyle risk factors

Doudja Hammouda
Abstract We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Algiers, Algeria. A total of 198 cervical carcinoma (CC) cases (including 15 adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas) and 202 age-matched control women were included. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical cells was evaluated using a PCR assay. Odds ratios and corresponding confidence intervals were computed by means of unconditional multiple logistic regression models. HPV infection was detected in 97.7% of CC cases and 12.4% of control women (OR = 635). Nineteen different HPV types were found. HPV 16 was the most common type in both CC cases and control women, followed by HPV 18 and 45. Twelve types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 66 and 73) were found as single infections in CC cases. Multiple HPV infections did not show a higher odds ratio for CC than single infections. In addition to HPV infection, husband's extramarital sexual relationships with other women (OR = 4.8) or prostitutes (OR = 3.2), residing in a rural environment for most of one's life (OR = 4.9) and indicators of poor sanitation or poor hygiene were the strongest risk factors for CC. Oral contraceptive use was unrelated to CC risk, while multiparity emerged as a significant risk factor after adjustment for sexual habits. Intrauterine device users showed a lower CC risk than nonusers. The role of major risk factors, except inside toilet, was confirmed in the analysis restricted to HPV-positive women. The distribution of HPV types in CC cases and control women in Algeria is more similar to the one found in Europe than the one in sub-Saharan Africa, where HPV 16 is less prevalent. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 may be effective in more than 3/4 of CCs in Algeria. [source]

Sex Hormones and Sexual Desire

ABSTRACT Some scholars attempt to explain sexual desire biologically by claiming that sex hormones play a necessary causal role in sexual desire. This can be claimed even if sexual desire is seen to be an experience. Yet the evidence for such biological essentialism is inadequate. With males the loss of sexual desire following hormonal changes can easily be explained in terms of social stigmas that are attached to the physiological situation. Concerning females, the relevance of sex hormones here is even more unclear. Although some women seem to have fluctuations in sexual desire during hormonal changes, other women do not. Even where there are such fluctuations these can be explained by responses to other physiological changes or the meanings that are attached to the situation. Research with non-human primates supports this view of the non-essential relation of sex hormones to sexual desire. A phenomenology of sex hormones is given that shows a possible non-essential relation between sex hormones and sexual desire. Here hormone induced excitations in the genitals may or may not lead to sexual desire depending on the meaning they are given within awareness. This suggests that sexual desire has its origin in the meanings we give our biology and not in our biology itself. [source]

Support for teenage mothers: a qualitative study into the views of women about the support they received as teenage mothers

Ank De Jonge MSc HBOV RM RGNArticle first published online: 7 JUL 200
Support for teenage mothers: a qualitative study into the views of women about the support they received as teenage mothers Aim of the study.,To gain insight into the support teenage mothers received during pregnancy, birth and their child's pre-school years and young women's perceptions of the usefulness of a support group for teenage mothers. Background.,Most qualitative studies have focused on teenage mothers around the time of the birth of their first child. For this study, women were recruited several years after the birth (median 8·5 years), so that they would have had time to reflect on the support they had received. Design.,The qualitative method of semi-structured interviews was chosen to obtain in-depth information and to allow teenage mothers' own views to be heard. Ten individual interviews and one paired interview were undertaken. Findings.,Recruitment was difficult because taking part in research was not a priority for many of the women. The study confirmed the strong link between deprivation and teenage pregnancy found in other studies, and suggested that mental health problems in teenage mothers may be more difficult to detect. Teenage women need more information on mental health and on services available to them. The fear, expressed by some of the women in this study, of becoming different from other women in their social network should be considered by health workers when establishing intervention programmes. Conclusions.,Professional bodies of health workers should lobby government to provide a minimum standard of living and sufficient child-care to combat deprivation. Former teenage mothers should be involved in the recruitment, planning and implementation stages of research and interventions. Health professionals should be aware that mental health problems in teenage mothers may be particularly difficult to detect. Key community health workers or a support group may provide information on services, mental health and education facilities available that would benefit teenage mothers. A support group may also give emotional support. [source]

Healing through self-reflection

Karran Thorpe PhD RN
Healing through self-reflection Background.,Today, women have an enlightened view towards their life cycles, which is evidence of their healing potential. Women need to share their insights about their healing potential gained through self-reflective processes. Their voices must be heard so that we can benefit from their collective wisdom. The process of healing through self-reflection has begun as a group of nurses share their insights. Documenting the perspectives of these nurses provides the opportunity for other women to learn from and apply this knowledge to their lives. Method.,Through purposive sampling, eight registered nurses, all women, were selected to participate in in-depth, personal, semi-structured interviews. The purposes in this paper are to describe a three-stage (i.e. awareness, critical analysis, and new perspective) reflective-thinking model and discuss the application of this model to women's expressed inner knowledge and wisdom across personal and professional life cycles. Results.,Three themes, signifying their ability to heal themselves, were labelled: Spirituality, Be-ing Versus Do-ing, and Eustress Versus Distress. Conclusions.,Essentially, self-reflection results from both personal and professional stimuli and signifies the need for change so that healing can begin. Recommendations are offered for nurse educators and researchers. [source]

Making Meaning: Women's Birth Narratives

FAAN professor, Lynn Clark Callister RN
Birth stories are personal narratives grounded in the pivotal life experience of giving birth. Richly descriptive birth narratives from culturally diverse childbearing women document the importance of listening to the voices of women. Benefits of sharing birth stories include the opportunity for integration of a major event into the framework of a mother's life; the opportunity to share a significant life experience; the opportunity to discuss fears, concerns, "missing pieces" or feelings of inadequacy or disappointment; the opportunity for the woman to gain an understanding of her strengths; and the opportunity to connect with other women. Providing women with the opportunity to share their birth stories is an important nursing intervention. [source]

Sexuality and Safer Sex: The Issues for Lesbians and Bisexual Women

FAAN, Patricia E. Stevens RN
Nursing interventions to help women reduce their risk of contracting HIV must be designed from an in-depth understanding of the complex sociocultural patterns of sexuality in particular communities and among specific subgroups. Objective: In this data collection phase of a community-based HIV prevention project, the objective was to understand HIV risk-taking and HIV risk-reduction activities of lesbians and bisexual women. Design: Qualitative field study. Setting: Data were collected in women's bars and dance clubs and at selected lesbian/bisexual community events in San Francisco. Participants: Interviews were conducted with 1,189 racially diverse, socially and sexually active lesbians and bisexual women. Results: Inductive content analysis produced two themes: realities of sexual behavior and sexual expressions and their meanings. Realities of sexual behavior included an assumption that women who have sex with other women cannot get HIV, a lack of familiarity with HIV prevention strategies, inconsistent practice of safer sex with men and/or women, and the negative effect of alcohol or drug use on safer sex efforts. Sexual expressions and their meaning included trust in monogamy, a sense that safer sex practices detracted from intimacy and eroticism, the difficulty of negotiating sexual behaviors with men or women, and dealing with partner resistance to safer sex practices. Conclusions: Specific recommendations for practice are the need for nurses to understand the range and diversity of women's sexual behaviors, to develop skills in conducting inclusive sexual histories, and to develop a comprehensive approach to sexual health. [source]

Marriage patterns among unwed mothers: Before and after PRWORA

Deborah Roempke Graefe
The promotion of marriage and two-parent families became an explicit public policy goal with the passage of the 1996 welfare reform bill. Marriage has the putative effect of reducing welfare dependency among single mothers, but only if they marry men with earnings sufficient to lift them and their children out of poverty. Newly released data from the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), along with data from the 1995 cycle, allow us to compare pre- and post-PRWORA differences in (1) cumulative marriage rates among unwed mothers, and (2) patterns of marital choice (that is, differences in characteristics of the men these mothers marry, such as their education and employment status). Overall, our results show that unwed childbearing is associated with lower marriage rates and marital quality. Difference-in-difference models show that welfare reform was not strongly associated with pre- and post-welfare reform changes in marriage among nonmarital birth mothers, even among the most disadvantaged mothers. Compared with other women, nonmarital birth mothers also were less likely than other women to marry "economically attractive" men in the post-welfare reform period. The success of marriage promotion initiatives may depend heavily on whether women themselves are "marriageable" and whether potential spouses have the ability to support a stable family life. © 2008 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]

Seeing other women breastfeed: how vicarious experience relates to breastfeeding intention and behaviour

Pat Hoddinott
Abstract Vicarious experience gained through seeing women breastfeed may influence infant feeding decisions and self-efficacy. Our aim was to measure the attributes of seeing breastfeeding and to investigate how these relate to feeding intention (primary outcome) and behaviour (secondary outcome). First, we developed a Seeing Breastfeeding Scale (SBS), which consisted of five attitudes (Cronbach's alpha of 0.86) to most recently observed breastfeeding: ,I felt embarrassed'; ,I felt uncomfortable'; ,I did not know where to look'; and ,It was lovely' and ,It didn't bother me'. Test,retest reliability showed agreement (with one exception, kappas ranged from 0.36 to 0.71). Second, we conducted a longitudinal survey of 418 consecutive pregnant women in rural Scotland. We selected the 259 women who had never breastfed before for further analysis. Following multiple adjustments, women who agreed that ,It was lovely to see her breastfeed' were more than six times more likely to intend to breastfeed compared with women who disagreed with the statement [odds ratio (OR) 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.85,15.82]. Women who completed their full-time education aged 17 (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.41,6.77) or aged 19 (OR 7.41 95% CI 2.51,21.94) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Women who reported seeing breastfeeding within the preceding 12 months were significantly more likely to agree with the statement ,It was lovely to see her breastfeed' (P = 0.02). Positive attitudes to recently seen breastfeeding are more important determinants of feeding intention than age of first seeing breastfeeding, the relationship to the person seen and seeing breastfeeding in the media. [source]

DISTINGUISHED SCHOLAR ARTICLE Rethinking women's sexual orientation: An interdisciplinary, relationship-focused approach

What leads some women to form romantic and sexual relationships with men, and other women to form intimate relationships with women? This article presents a new conceptual paradigm for understanding women's sexual orientation that is emerging from research in such diverse fields as social psychology, sex research, evolutionary psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience. This approach acknowledges the potential plasticity of women's sexuality and the emphasis that women place on close relationships as a context for sexuality. Research also raises the possibility that for women the biological determinants of sexual desire, attraction, and attachment are not inherently linked to a partner's gender. This article begins with a brief survey of research on women's same-sex romantic and sexual relationships not only in the United States today but also in other cultures and historical periods. These and other findings are used to critique prevailing conceptual models of women's sexual orientation. Finally, key elements in an alternative paradigm are described. [source]

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy
This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia,Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north,south cultural distinctions. Findings suggest that while women's autonomy,in terms of decision-making, mobility, freedom from threatening relations with husband, and access to and control over economic resources,is constrained in all three settings, women in Tamil Nadu fare considerably better than other women, irrespective of religion. Findings lend little support to the suggestion that women in Pakistan have less autonomy or control over their lives than do Indian women. Nor do Muslim women,be they Indian or Pakistani,exercise less autonomy in their own lives than do Hindu women in the subcontinent. Rather, findings suggest that in the patriarchal and gender-stratified structures governing the northern portion of the subcontinent, women's control over their lives is more constrained than in the southern region. [source]

Does Female Disadvantage Mean Lower Access to Food?

Laurie F. DeRose
The literature on gender differentials in nutrition demonstrates that the calorie intake of females is generally as adequate as that of males at all ages. Female disadvantage in micronutrient intake is, however, frequent. Pregnant and lactating women are disadvantaged relative to both men and other women. In South Asia there is evidence that boys are advantaged over girls in food intake at some ages, but the evidence for male advantage in access to health care is far stronger. The authors argue that nutrition interventions are best targeted when the incidence of female disadvantage is better understood and, similarly, that interventions to improve women's status should be focused on objectives other than calorie intake in most communities. However, standards for measuring adequacy incorporate norms for female body size and physical activity that may uncritically accept the notion that females are more physically passive. Maintaining adequacy by these standards could perpetuate low levels of female functioning. [source]

Identifying predictors of breastfeeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period,

Cindy-Lee E. Dennis
Abstract Researchers have found evidence that breastfeeding self-efficacy is an important variable that significantly influences initiation and duration rates. The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-factorial predictive model of breastfeeding self-efficacy in the first week postpartum. As part of a longitudinal study, a population-based sample of 522 breastfeeding mothers in a health region near Vancouver, British Columbia completed mailed questionnaires at 1-week postpartum. Bivariate correlations were used to select variables for the multiple regression analysis. The best-fit regression model revealed eight variables that explained 54% of the variance in Breastfeeding Self Efficacy Scale (BSES) scores at 1-week postpartum: maternal education, support from other women with children, type of delivery, satisfaction with labor pain relief, satisfaction with postpartum care, perceptions of breastfeeding progress, infant feeding method as planned, and maternal anxiety. The BSES may be used to identify risk factors, enabling health professionals to improve quality of care for new breastfeeding mothers. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 29: 256,268, 2006 [source]

Leading by Example: Female Members of Parliament as Political Role Models

Christina Wolbrecht
One argument advanced in favor of descriptive representation is that female politicians serve as role models, inspiring other women to political activity. While previous research finds female role models affect women's psychological engagement, few studies report an impact on women's active participation, and none have done so in cross-national research. Our work also is the first to consider whether the impact of female role models is, as the term implies, greater among the young. Using three cross-national datasets, we find that where there are more female members of parliament (MPs), adolescent girls are more likely to discuss politics with friends and to intend to participate in politics as adults, and adult women are more likely to discuss and participate in politics. The presence of female MPs registers the same effect on political discussion regardless of age, but the impact on women's political activity is far greater among the young than the old. [source]

The Flagbearers: Israeli Druze Women Challenge Traditional Gender Roles

Naomi Weiner-Levy
This ethnographic study expands educational anthropologists' knowledge of the relationship between higher education and personal and social change in so-called traditional societies. It describes transitions in the status of Druze women in Israel brought about by the first women from the community to obtain higher education, granting new insights into women's struggles for change. The study, conducted between 1998 and 2002, explores unique processes of change compatible with Druze tradition and culture initiated by these "first women," who served as role models and struggled to pave the way for themselves and other women in the community. The findings challenge research literature that expresses disappointment with the activities and influence of educated Arab women after returning to their society, thus enriching working anthropological theories that concern the dynamics of social change brought about by educated women. [source]

Transnational Migration, the Lost Girls of Sudan and Global "Care work": A Photo Essay

Laura DeLuca
Abstract This essay explores the work lives of a group of Sudanese refugees known popularly as the Lost Girls of Sudan. Like other women from the Global South, the Lost Girls often work in the care work sector as maids, babysitters, nannies, preschool attendants, food service workers, nurses, personal care attendants for elderly and disabled people. The article also explores the U.S. refugee policy of self-sufficiency. [source]

Population-Based Study of Cesarean Section After In Vitro Fertilization in Australia

BIRTH, Issue 3 2010
Elizabeth A. Sullivan MBBS, FAFPHM
Abstract:, Background:, Decisions about method of birth should be evidence based. In Australia, the rising rate of cesarean section has not been limited to births after spontaneous conception. This study aimed to investigate cesarean section among women giving birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods:, Retrospective population-based study was conducted using national registry data on IVF treatment. The study included 17,019 women who underwent IVF treatment during 2003 to 2005 and a national comparison population of women who gave birth in Australia. The outcome measure was cesarean section. Results:, Crude rate of cesarean section was 50.1 percent versus 28.9 percent for all other births. Single embryo transfer was associated with the lowest (40.7%) rate of cesarean section. Donor status and twin gestation were associated with significantly higher rates of cesarean section (autologous, 49.0% vs donor, 74.9%; AOR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.80, 2.69) and (singleton, 45.0% vs twin gestations, 75.7%; AOR: 3.81, 95% CI: 3.46, 4.20). The gestation-specific rate (60.1%) of cesarean section peaked at 38 weeks for singleton term pregnancies. Compared with other women, cesarean section rates for assisted reproductive technology term singletons (27.8% vs 43.8%, OR: 2.02 [95% CI: 1.95,2.10]) and twins (62.0% vs 75.7%, OR: 1.92 [95% CI: 1.74,2.11]) were significantly higher. Conclusions:, Rates for cesarean section appear to be disproportionately high in term singleton births after assisted reproductive technology. Vaginal birth should be supported and the indications for cesarean section evidence based. (BIRTH 37:3 September 2010) [source]

Continuous Support for Women During Childbirth

BIRTH, Issue 1 2005
E.D. Hodnett
ABSTRACT Background:, Historically, women have been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in recent decades in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has become the exception rather than the routine. Concerns about the consequent dehumanization of women's birth experiences have led to calls for a return to continuous support by women for women during labour. Objectives:, Primary: to assess the effects, on mothers and their babies, of continuous, one-to-one intrapartum support compared with usual care. Secondary: to determine whether the effects of continuous support are influenced by: (1) routine practices and policies in the birth environment that may affect a woman's autonomy, freedom of movement, and ability to cope with labour; (2) whether the caregiver is a member of the staff of the institution; and (3) whether the continuous support begins early or later in labour. Search strategy:, We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (30 January 2003) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2003). Selection criteria:, All published and unpublished randomized controlled trials comparing continuous support during labour with usual care. Data collection and analysis:, Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration Pregnancy and Childbirth Group were used. All authors participated in evaluation of methodological quality. Data extraction was undertaken independently by one author and a research assistant. Additional information was sought from the trial authors. Results are presented using relative risk for categorical data and weighted mean difference for continuous data. Main results:, Fifteen trials involving 12,791 women are included. Primary comparison: Women who had continuous intrapartum support were less likely to have intrapartum analgesia, operative birth, or to report dissatisfaction with their childbirth experiences. Subgroup analyses: In general, continuous intrapartum support was associated with greater benefits when the provider was not a member of the hospital staff, when it began early in labour, and in settings in which epidural analgesia was not routinely available. Reviewers' conclusions:, All women should have support throughout labour and birth. Citation:, Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr G J, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ,,,The preceding report is an abstract of a regularly updated, systematic review prepared and maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration. The full text of the review is available in The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464-780X). The Cochrane Library is designed and produced by Update Software Ltd, and published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Plasma vitamin values and antiepileptic therapy: Case reports of pregnancy outcomes affected by a neural tube defect

Mirande Candito
Abstract BACKGROUND: Folic acid supplementation reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs); however, it is not clear whether it protects against teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. METHODS: We report the cases of four pregnant women receiving valproic acid therapy, who all had NTD-affected offspring, despite periconceptional 5 mg/day of folic acid supplementation (cases), and investigated homocysteine metabolism, linked with folate metabolism. Their plasma homocysteine, folates, and vitamin B6 and B12 results were compared with values of two other women, who were also receiving valproic acid and folic acid complement, but who had normal pregnancies (valproic acid controls), and values of 40 pregnant women who had normal pregnancies and were not receiving any therapy (controls without therapy). Because of the possible existence of a genetic susceptibility, polymorphisms in homocysteine metabolism were sought. RESULTS: Two cases showed a decreased phosphopyridoxal level, compared with levels in the controls not receiving therapy. The genotype TT (C677T) is an NTD genetic susceptibility, but it was observed in only one valproic acid control. Various polymorphisms were observed in the cases, but were also common in the controls. Several studies have reported that valproic acid therapy lowers vitamin B6 levels. Our case with the greatest decrease in plasma phosphopyridoxal, who was taking periconceptional folic acid plus pyridoxine therapy, had a normal second pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to folates, other vitamins, such as vitamin B6, may have played a role in NTDs in our patients taking an antiepileptic drug. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Self-concept and attributions about other women in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse

Susan J. McAlpine
Abstract Self-concept literature and literature on childhood sexual abuse (CSA) suggests that women with a history of CSA may have particular ways of perceiving themselves, which, as well as impacting upon relationships within their everyday lives, may also have implications for therapy; whether this is on an individual basis or within a group. This research investigated self-concept and attributions about other women using an adapted version of the self-concept sorting task. Three groups of women were compared: women with a history of CSA, women experiencing depressed mood but without a history of CSA and a healthy non-clinical comparison group of hospital staff. To some extent the current findings supported previous studies indicating that women attempting to cope with the consequences of a history of CSA have a negative self-concept. However, there was evidence to suggest that certain self-aspects are protective or protected. Similarly, there is some support for previous evidence of difficult relationships with mothers. Possible explanations for these findings were discussed and areas for future research suggested.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Massage: , Although women with a history of CSA and depression have a negative view of themselves in comparison to a non-clinical group, there is no qualitative difference between these two groups. , Nor do women with a history of CSA have a more negative view of other women in general than women who are depressed. , Therefore, being aware of the likelihood that an individual may preceive herself, but not other women negatively, a therapist may use therapy to actively increase awareness and address this issue. [source]

Economic transition, gender bias, and the distribution of earnings in China*

John A. Bishop
P3; J3; J7 Abstract Market-oriented economic reform, which accelerated after 1992, has brought substantial changes to the Chinese economy. This dramatic economic transition was raised two important questions: ,How are women faring in the transition from a planned economy to a market economy?' and ,Are some women faring relatively better than other women'? We use data from the Chinese Household Income Projects for the years 1988 and 1995, a standard earnings equation, and quantile regressions to estimate and decompose the earnings gap. Our findings suggest that while the earnings gap has increased, the fraction of the gap ,unexplained' by differences in human capital variables such as education and experience has declined over time. This result is particularly pronounced for low earning women. [source]