Other Ways (other + way)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The sexual lives of men with mild learning disability: a qualitative study

Evan Yacoub
Accessible summary ,,We talked to some men with learning disability about sex and relationships. Some people lived in the community, and some people lived in hospital. ,,The men knew quite a lot about sex. Most people said they got good support from their keyworkers. ,,Some people were asked for sex when they did not want it. Some people were made to have sex that was not safe. ,,We have some ideas about how men with learning disabilities can speak up for themselves about sex and relationships. Summary We aimed to explore in detail the sexual lives and behaviour of men with mild learning disabilities living both in community and in secure hospital settings. We wanted to generate hypotheses about them and identify potential unmet needs. We used a narrative interview that focused on areas such as relationships, sex education, contraception and the attitudes of others towards the participants' sexual lives and orientation. We used the constant comparative method to analyse transcribed interviews. Several clients reported engaging in unsafe practices despite being aware of the risks. Participants generally felt that services had shifted from a paternalistic to a more supportive approach towards their sexual lives and orientation. Experiences with other men were commonly reported. Several participants reported being pressurised into sex as adults. In our sample, sexual knowledge did not lead to safe sexual practices. The good rapport with services reported by the participants may be utilised to provide further education and empowerment to improve the safety of sexual practices in this group. Other ways of improved service delivery are suggested. [source]

CGRP blockers in migraine therapy: where do they act?

L Edvinsson
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is expressed throughout the CNS and peripheral nervous system, consistent with control of vasodilatation, nociception, motor function, secretion and olfaction. ,CGRP is prominently localized in primary afferent C and A, fibres of spinal and trigeminal ganglia. Activation of the trigeminal nerve results in antidromic release of CGRP, acting through a CGRP1 receptor. Antagonists of CGRP1 receptors reduce signalling in the trigeminovascular pathway at multiple sites, putatively inside the blood,brain barrier. Other ways of interacting with CGRP mechanisms have appeared limiting the availability of CGRP in the circulation with a specific CGRP antibody or with a CGRP-binding RNA-Spiegelmer. Either way reduces neurogenic inflammation and attenuates signalling within the trigeminovascular pathway. Specific CGRP receptor blockade has been shown to reduce the effect of released CGRP and to abort acute migraine attacks. The novel approach of reducing available CGRP is limited by the blood,brain barrier; its usefulness may be more as prophylaxis rather than as acute treatment of migraine. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 155, 967,969; doi:fn1; published online 8 September 2008 [source]

Statistical optimization of octree searches

Rener Castro
Abstract This work emerged from the following observation: usual search procedures for octrees start from the root to retrieve the data stored at the leaves. But as the leaves are the farthest nodes to the root, why start from the root? With usual octree representations, there is no other way to access a leaf. However, hashed octrees allow direct access to any node, given its position in space and its depth in the octree. Search procedures take the position as an input, but the depth remains unknown. This work proposes to estimate the depth of an arbitrary node through a statistical optimization of the average cost of search procedures. As the highest costs of these algorithms are obtained when starting from the root, this method improves on both the memory footprint by the use of hashed octrees, and execution time through the proposed optimization. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2005
John S. Heywood
Abstract Starting with the Price equation, I show that the total evolutionary change in mean phenotype that occurs in the presence of fitness variation can be partitioned exactly into five components representing logically distinct processes. One component is the linear response to selection, as represented by the breeder's equation of quantitative genetics, but with heritability defined as the linear regression coefficient of mean offspring phenotype on parent phenotype. The other components are identified as constitutive transmission bias, two types of induced transmission bias, and a spurious response to selection caused by a covariance between parental fitness and offspring phenotype that cannot be predicted from parental phenotypes. The partitioning can be accomplished in two ways, one with heritability measured before (in the absence of) selection, and the other with heritability measured after (in the presence of) selection. Measuring heritability after selection, though unconventional, yields a representation for the linear response to selection that is most consistent with Darwinian evolution by natural selection because the response to selection is determined by the reproductive features of the selected group, not of the parent population as a whole. The analysis of an explicitly Mendelian model shows that the relative contributions of the five terms to the total evolutionary change depends on the level of organization (gene, individual, or mated pair) at which the parent population is divided into phenotypes, with each frame of reference providing unique insight. It is shown that all five components of phenotypic evolution will generally have nonzero values as a result of various combinations of the normal features of Mendelian populations, including biparental sex, allelic dominance, inbreeding, epistasis, linkage disequilibrium, and environmental covariances between traits. Additive genetic variance can be a poor predictor of the adaptive response to selection in these models. The narrow-sense heritability s,2A/s,2P should be viewed as an approximation to the offspring-parent linear regression rather than the other way around. [source]

Functional connectivity of default mode network components: Correlation, anticorrelation, and causality

Lucina Q. Uddin
Abstract The default mode network (DMN), based in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), exhibits higher metabolic activity at rest than during performance of externally oriented cognitive tasks. Recent studies have suggested that competitive relationships between the DMN and various task-positive networks involved in task performance are intrinsically represented in the brain in the form of strong negative correlations (anticorrelations) between spontaneous fluctuations in these networks. Most neuroimaging studies characterize the DMN as a homogenous network, thus few have examined the differential contributions of DMN components to such competitive relationships. Here, we examined functional differentiation within the DMN, with an emphasis on understanding competitive relationships between this and other networks. We used a seed correlation approach on resting-state data to assess differences in functional connectivity between these two regions and their anticorrelated networks. While the positively correlated networks for the vmPFC and PCC seeds largely overlapped, the anticorrelated networks for each showed striking differences. Activity in vmPFC negatively predicted activity in parietal visual spatial and temporal attention networks, whereas activity in PCC negatively predicted activity in prefrontal-based motor control circuits. Granger causality analyses suggest that vmPFC and PCC exert greater influence on their anticorrelated networks than the other way around, suggesting that these two default mode nodes may directly modulate activity in task-positive networks. Thus, the two major nodes comprising the DMN are differentiated with respect to the specific brain systems with which they interact, suggesting greater heterogeneity within this network than is commonly appreciated. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The relationship between adsorption energies of methyl on metals and the metallic electronic properties: A first-principles DFT study

Gui-Chang Wang
Abstract A theoretical study of CH3 adsorbed on the (111) surface of some transition and noble metal surfaces M (M = Cu, Ni, Rh, Pt, Pd, Ag, Au) and on the Fe(100) is presented. We find that the hollow site is preferred more than the top one for Fe, Ni, Rh, and Cu, but it is the other way for Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag. In addition, a good linear relationship was observed between the chemisorption energy and d-band center for Group VIII metals or the square of the coupling matrix element for Group IB metals at the hollow site. Interestingly, with a detailed comparison of the adsorption energies at the top and hollow sites, we find that the adsorption energies among each group are very similar on the top site, which supports the theoretical model of Hammer and NÝrskov that the coupling between the HOMO of adsorbate and sp states of the metal is dominant and almost equal, and that the second coupling to the d-band contributes less but reflects the change of the adsorption energy. It confirms that the coupling to the d band comprises two opposite factors, that is, the d-band center was attractive and the square of the coupling matrix element was repulsive, such that the contributions from the two factors can counteract each other at the top site. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 26: 871,878, 2005 [source]

Slotting Allowances and Scarce Shelf Space

Leslie M. Marx
Slotting allowances are payments made by manufacturers to obtain retail shelf space. They are widespread in the grocery industry and a concern to antitrust authorities. A popular view is that slotting allowances arise because there are more products than retailers can profitably carry given their shelf space. We show that the causality can also go the other way: the scarcity of shelf space may in part be due to the feasibility of slotting allowances. It follows that slotting allowances can be anticompetitive even if they have no effect on retail prices. [source]

Notes on the geometry of the space of polynomials

Han Ju Lee
Abstract We show that the symmetric injective tensor product space is not complex strictly convex if E is a complex Banach space of dim E , 2 and if n , 2 holds. It is also reproved that ,, is finitely represented in if E is infinite-dimensional and if n , 2 holds, which was proved in the other way in [3]. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

assessment: Influences of deep learning, need for cognition and preparation time on open- and closed-book test performance

Marjolein Heijne-Penninga
Medical Education 2010: 44: 884,891 Objectives, The ability to master discipline-specific knowledge is one of the competencies medical students must acquire. In this context, ,mastering' means being able to recall and apply knowledge. A way to assess this competency is to use both open- and closed-book tests. Student performance on both tests can be influenced by the way the student processes information. Deep information processing is expected to influence performance positively. The personal preferences of students in relation to how they process information in general (i.e. their level of need for cognition) may also be of importance. In this study, we examined the inter-relatedness of deep learning, need for cognition and preparation time, and scores on open- and closed-book tests. Methods, This study was conducted at the University Medical Centre Groningen. Participants were Year 2 students (n = 423). They were asked to complete a questionnaire on deep information processing, a scale for need for cognition on a questionnaire on intellectualism and, additionally, to write down the time they spent on test preparation. We related these measures to the students' scores on two tests, both consisting of open- and closed-book components and used structural equation modelling to analyse the data. Results, Both questionnaires were completed by 239 students (57%). The results showed that need for cognition positively influenced both open- and closed-book test scores (,-coefficients 0.05 and 0.11, respectively). Furthermore, study outcomes measured by open-book tests predicted closed-book test results better than the other way around (,-coefficients 0.72 and 0.11, respectively). Conclusions, Students with a high need for cognition performed better on open- as well as closed-book tests. Deep learning did not influence their performance. Adding open-book tests to the regularly used closed-book tests seems to improve the recall of knowledge that has to be known by heart. Need for cognition may provide a valuable addition to existing theories on learning. [source]

Derrida's Defence of Paul de Man's Wartime Writings: A Deconstructionist Dilemma

Dieter Freundlieb
Derrida's attempt at a defence of Paul de Man's wartime writings put him in a difficult position. Had he remained loyal to his usual deconstructionist practice of interpretation, he would have been unable to defend de Man in a politically effective way. Derrida therefore chose a hybrid form of interpretation that is neither purely deconstructionist nor easily classifiable in any other way. Faced with a case in which a purely deconstructionist reading would not have achieved his aim of minimising the political damage caused by the discovery of de Man's wartime writings, Derrida opted for an interpretive approach which allowed him to read into de Man's texts what he wanted to get out of them, ignoring what seems obvious to less biased readers. [source]

An Argument Against Reduction in Morality and Epistemology

Jeremy Randel Koons
To avoid Moore's open question objection and similar arguments, reductionist philosophers argue that normative (e.g. moral and epistemic) and natural terms are only coextensive, but not synonymous. These reductionists argue that the normative content of normative terms is not a feature of their extension, but is accounted for in some other way (e.g. as a feature of these terms' meaning). However, reductionist philosophers cannot account for this "normative surplus" while remaining true to their original reductionist motivations. The reductionist's theoretical commitments both require and forbid a reductionist account of the normative content of moral and epistemic concepts. [source]

,The World is the Totality of Things, Not of Facts': A Strawsonian Reply to Searle

RATIO, Issue 2 2002
Julian Dodd
John R. Searle (1995; 1998, Ch. 9) claims that P.F. Strawson's well known objections to correspondence theories of truth (Strawson 1950) can be side-stepped, if we regard the correspondence theorist's facts as ,conditions in the world' (1998, p. 392) rather than as complex objects. In response, I claim both that Searle's notion of a ,condition in the world' is obscure, and that such conditions cannot be the facts of a correspondence theorist on account of their being unsuited for truthmaking. The failure of Searle's attempt to come up with a correspondence theory which evades Strawson's objections does not indicate that we should seek to formulate a correspondence theory in some other way. I argue that that the correspondence theorists's truthmaker axiom is improperly motivated, and, in the light of this, suggest that facts be treated as true propositions rather than as items which make propositions true. The article ends with a defence of this position against two recent objections. [source]

Ethical Individualism and the Natural Law

RATIO, Issue 1 2000
Phillip Goggans
"Generic qualities" are qualities typical of a kind because of the nature of that kind. It is commonly thought that generic qualities are morally irrelevant. For instance, the fact that human beings have a natural tendency to be thus-and-such is not relevant to moral acts involving a particular human being; what matters, rather, are the qualities of that individual. I argue that generic qualities are relevant in certain instances. First, we need to believe that this is so in order to be morally competent. Second, there is no other way to account for the rationality of the universal response to Oedipus the King. [source]

What if it is the other way around?

Early introduction of peanut, fish seems to be better than avoidance
Abstract For many years, the advice to prevent food allergy was to postpone the introduction of allergens like egg, fish and peanut. However, elimination of food allergens during pregnancy and infancy failed to prevent food allergy. Instead, several studies indicate that early introduction of food like fish and peanuts may be beneficial. The most compelling illustration of this has been presented for peanuts. The prevalence of peanut allergy is lower in children in Israel than in the UK, despite introduction of peanut during infancy in Israel. Other studies have reported that early introduction of fish reduced the risk of allergic sensitization and allergic diseases like eczema. Conclusion:, Early introduction rather than avoidance may be a better strategy for the prevention of food allergy. The mechanism may be that early introduction of food allergens during infancy might induce tolerance, thereby preventing the development of allergy. [source]

Children's Thinking About Counterfactuals and Future Hypotheticals as Possibilities

Sarah R. Beck
Two experiments explored whether children's correct answers to counterfactual and future hypothetical questions were based on an understanding of possibilities. Children played a game in which a toy mouse could run down either 1 of 2 slides. Children found it difficult to mark physically both possible outcomes, compared to reporting a single hypothetical future event, "What if next time he goes the other way ," (Experiment 1: 3,4-year-olds and 4,5-year-olds), or a single counterfactual event, "What if he had gone the other way ,?" (Experiment 2: 3,4-year-olds and 5,6-year-olds). An open counterfactual question, "Could he have gone anywhere else?," which required thinking about the counterfactual as an alternative possibility, was also relatively difficult. [source]

Morphological constancy in spelling: a comparison of children with dyslexia and typically developing children

DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2008
Derrick C. Bourassa
Abstract The spellings of many English words follow a principle of morphological constancy. For example, musician includes the c of music, even though the pronunciation of this letter changes. With other words, such as explanation and explain, the spellings of morphemes are not retained when affixes are added. We asked whether children with dyslexia use root morphemes to aid their spelling of morphologically complex words. If so, they should sometimes produce misspellings such as ,explaination' for explanation. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia adhere to the principle of morphological constancy to the same extent as typically developing younger children of the same spelling level. In this and other ways, the spellings of older dyslexic children are remarkably similar to those of typical younger children. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Should we beware of the Precautionary Principle?

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 33 2001
Christian Gollier
How should society deal with risks when there is scientific uncertainty about the size of these risks? There has been much recent discussion of the Precautionary Principle, which states that lack of full scientific knowledge should not be used as a reason to postpone cost,effective preventive measures. We show in this paper that the Precautionary Principle contradicts one important intuition about the right way to act in the face of risk, namely the principle of ,looking before you leap'. When we expect to learn more about the future, the effectiveness of our preventive measures will be greater if we learn before we act. However, a number of other ways of taking uncertainty into account are consistent with a reasonable interpretation of the Precautionary Principle. First, postponing preventive measures may increase our vulnerability to damage, which induces a precautionary motive for risk,prevention, similar to the precautionary savings motive. Secondly, stronger preventive actions often yield more flexibility for the future, so that acting early has an option value. Thirdly, when better information comes from a process of learning,by,doing, the risk associated with early events is amplified by the information they yield about the future. This plays a role analogous to that of an increase in risk aversion, making us more cautious. Fourthly, because imperfect knowledge of the risk makes it difficult to insure, the social cost of risk should include a risk premium. Finally, uncertainty about the economic environment enjoyed by future generations should be taken into account. This raises the benefit of acting early to prevent long,term risks. If the Precautionary Principle sometimes gives good and sometimes gives bad advice, there is no escape from the need to undertake a careful cost,benefit analysis. We show that standard cost,benefit analysis can be refined to take account of scientific uncertainty, in ways that balance the Precautionary Principle against the benefits of waiting to learn before we act. Furthermore, it is important that they be used to do so, for instinct is an unreliable guide in such circumstances. Abandoning cost,benefit analysis in favour of simple maxims can result in some seriously misleading conclusions. [source]

Moving Mountains: will qualifications systems promote lifelong learning?

This article aims at providing a check list of possible mechanisms to trigger more and better lifelong learning from within the national qualifications system. It analyses the existing policy responses to the lifelong learning agenda in the countries under study and identifies possible mechanisms within the qualifications system that could impact on the behaviour of the many stakeholders. There are many other ways to impact on lifelong learning but they are not addressed in this article which focuses on the role of national qualifications systems. Two mechanisms in particular are studied in more detail because they seem to be at the top of the research and policy agenda of many countries: qualifications frameworks and recognition of non-formal and informal learning systems. [source]

Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany mback@uni-leipzig.de Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany p.borkenau@psych.uni-halle.de The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Philip.Corr@btopenworld.com Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA fleesonW@wfu.edu Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA kingla@missouri.edu Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA mehl@email.arizona.edu This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada dsm@psych.mcgill.ca Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada paunonen@uwo.ca Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK lars.penke@ed.ac.uk While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy marco.perugini@unimib.it The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Michael.D.Robinson@ndsu.edu Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany schmittm@uni-landau.de My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA funder@ucr.edu It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Baumeister@psy.fsu.edu Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Political Accommodation and Functional Interaction along the Northern Italian Borderlands

David H. Kaplan
Borderlands are places where large,scale and small,scale politics interact. Relationships between national states at the largescale affect local relations at the smallscale. Likewise, activities at the small,scale redound to the larger scale. While the politics of boundaries and borderland regions is often viewed at the scale of the national states, we argue that politics at the borderland needs to be examined in two other ways: in terms of relations between regions across national boundaries (small,scale) and in the relations between the borderland region itself and the national state (cross,scale). This article examines the nature of ,cross,scale' and "small,scale" political relations in the northern Italian borderlands. This is explored through (1) the degree of autonomy granted by the Italian government towards regions and cultural minorities on the border, and (2) the nature and extent of contacts and shared projects with neighboring regions across the boundary. Two conclusions are drawn. First, that the nature of cross,scale concessions to regional autonomy depends on the strength of the minority groups involved. Second, that the extent of small,scale contact and collaboration across the boundary depends on pre,existing economic interrelationships and cultural ties. [source]

Cultural Meanings and Cultural Structures in Historical Explanation

John R. Hall
One way to recast the problem of cultural explanation in historical inquiry is to distinguish two conceptualizations involving culture: (1) cultural meanings as contents of signification (however theorized) that inform meaningful courses of action in historically unfolding circumstances; and (2) cultural structures as institutionalized patterns of social life that may be elaborated in more than one concrete construction of meaning. This distinction helps to suggest how explanation can operate in accounting for cultural processes of meaning-formation, as well as in other ways that transcend specific meanings, yet are nonetheless cultural. Examples of historical explanation involving each construct are offered, and their potential examined. [source]

Students' travel behaviour: a cross-cultural comparison of UK and China

Feifei Xu
Abstract This paper compares the travel behaviour and attitudes of two different nationalities of undergraduate students from the United Kingdom and China. The survey did find some similarities between the two. Both groups enjoyed beach holidays, and placed importance on having fun and relaxing after their studies. Both were motivated to discover somewhere new and both preferred to eat the local food of the destination. In other ways, the two groups showed significant differences. The Chinese students thought it more important to see the famous sights and learn about other cultures and history, while the British were more concerned to have fun, to socialise and enjoy the challenges of outdoor adventure. These differences were found to exist in both male and female groups. The paper discusses the extent to which these differences could be explained by cultural factors as opposed to market factors or the students' previous experience in their travel career. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Baylor University Roundtable on The Corporate Mission, CEO Pay, and Improving the Dialogue with Investors

John Martin
A small group of academics and practitioners discusses four major controversies in the theory and practice of corporate finance: ,What is the social purpose of the public corporation? Should corporate managements aim to maximize the profitability and value of their companies, or should they instead try to balance the interests of their shareholders against those of "stakeholder" groups, such as employees, customers, and local communities? ,Should corporate executives consider ending the common practice of earnings guidance? Are there other ways of shifting the focus of the public dialogue between management and investors away from near-term earnings and toward longer-run corporate strategies, policies, and goals? And can companies influence the kinds of investors who buy their shares? ,Are U.S. CEOs overpaid? What role have equity ownership and financial incentives played in the past performance of U.S. companies? And are there ways of improving the design of U.S. executive pay? ,Can the principles of corporate governance and financial management at the core of the private equity model,notably, equity incentives, high leverage, and active participation by large investors,be used to increase the values of U.S. public companies? [source]

Nest-to-nest dispersal of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hym., Megachilidae)

Y.-L. Park
Abstract A cleptoparasitic mite, the Krombein's hairy-footed mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker (Acari, Chaetodactylidae) became a key pest that affects the maintenance and propagation of Osmia spp. (Hym., Megachilidae), thus disrupting orchard pollination in the United States. Although hypopi, the dispersal stages of C. krombeini, are known to disperse from nest to nest by hitchhiking on Osmia cornifrons adults, we observed that they might disperse in other ways too in commercial orchards. This study was conducted to elucidate the nest-to-nest dispersal mechanisms of C. krombeini hypopi. We tested three potential dispersal mechanisms of C. krombeini other than phoresy by O. cornifrons: (1) dispersal by walking from nest to entrances of nearby nests, (2) dispersal by walking from nest to nest through emergence holes made by parasitic wasps on nests, and (3) dispersal by being unloaded and uptaken to and from flowers by O. cornifrons. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini hypopi could disperse from a nest to nearby nests by walking through nest entrances and holes made by parasitic wasps of O. cornifrons. Although 0.06% of C. krombeini hypopi on blueberry flowers were picked up by O. cornifrons, they were not able to be unloaded to flowers from O. cornifrons and no hypopi could inhabit or survive on blueberry flowers. This indicated no or very low chance of C. krombeini hypopi dispersal via blueberry flowers. Based on our findings of C. krombeini dispersal ecology, development of C. krombeini control strategies are discussed in this article. [source]

Why Is Elvis on Burkina Faso Postage Stamps?

Cross-Country Evidence on the Commercialization of State Sovereignty
Why would the country of Burkina Faso issue postage stamps featuring Elvis? In part, to make money, one example of what has been called the commercialization of state sovereignty. I could issue stamps, but no one would buy them. But many philatelists (stamp collectors) want countries' stamps, especially those with popular themes like Elvis or Disney characters, in their collection. I examine the commercialization of state sovereignty by first setting out a simple model and then, in the context of the predictions of this model, conduction an empirical examination of what determines whether a country will pursue a set of commercialization opportunities, from the benign to the malign. Three examples are examined: postage stamps, tax havens, and money laundering. The data analysis provides support for the idea that commercialization of state sovereignty is more likely in countries where it is more difficult to raise revenue in alternative ways, and less support for the role of costs of commercialization related to integrity and, for less benign activities, sanctions. The examined examples of commercialization that are more likely to directly raise revenue (stamp pandering and tax havens) are more attractive to poorer countries, and stamp pandering is more attractive to more agricultural countries at a given level of per-capita income. This provides some support to the notion that when revenue is difficult to raise in other ways, revenue-raising commercialization becomes more attractive. Being a tax haven or a stamp panderer is more attractive to small countries, a finding that is consistent with the Slemrod and Wilson (2007) hypothesis about tax havens that the benefits are unrelated to size but the costs are. The results corroborate and extend the Dharmapala and Hines (2007) finding that good governance is associated with tax haven status. Notably, governance has no partial association with the probability of being a money launderer. Thus, there is no evidence that bad governance as measured by the World Bank is associated with international unlawfulness. The fact that governance matters positively for the propensity to be a stamp panderer as well as to be a tax haven expands the Dharmapala-Hines interpretation that governance proxies for a country's credibility, and suggests that governance may also be associated with the capability to undertake domestic-welfare-enhancing activities and may help to explain why more of the most desperately poor nations of the world are not involved in the commercialization of state sovereignty. [source]

Autonomy and intellectual disability: the case of prevention of obesity in Prader,Willi syndrome

R. H. van Hooren
Abstract Background The policy concerning care for people with intellectual disability (ID) has developed from segregation via normalization towards integration and autonomy. Today, people with ID are seen as citizens who need to be supported to achieve a normal role in society. The aim of care is to optimize quality of life and promote self-determination. The promotion of autonomy for people with ID is not easy and gives rise to ethical dilemmas. Caregivers are regularly confronted with situations in which there is a conflict between providing good care and respecting the client's autonomy. This becomes evident in the case of prevention of obesity in people with Prader,Willi syndrome (PWS). Method As part of a study about the ethical aspects of the prevention of obesity, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with the parents and professional caregivers of people with PWS. Results In analysing interviews with parents and formal caregivers, the present authors found that the dichotomy between respecting autonomy and securing freedom of choice on the one hand, and paternalism on the other, is too crude to do justice to the process of care. The stories indicated that caregivers see other options and act in other ways than to intervene without taking into account the wishes of the individual with PWS. The present authors elaborated these options, taking models of the physician,patient relationship as a heuristic starting point. They extended the logic of these models by focusing on the character of the process of interaction between caregiver and care receiver, and on the emotional aspects of the interactions. Conclusion This approach results in more attention to processes of interpretation, deliberation and joint learning. [source]

Lamp light on leadership: clinical leadership and Florence Nightingale

BA Ng, DAVID STANLEY NursD, Dip HE (Nursing)
stanley d. & sherratt a. (2010) Journal of Nursing Management 18, 115,121 Lamp light on leadership: clinical leadership and Florence Nightingale Aims, The purpose of the present study was to use the example of Florence Nightingales' nursing experience to highlight the differences between nursing leadership and clinical leadership with a focus on Miss Nightingales' clinical leadership attributes. Background, 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale. As this significant date approaches this paper reflects on her contribution to nursing in relation to more recent insights into clinical leadership. Evaluation, Literature has been used to explore issues related to nursing leadership, clinical leadership and the life and characteristics of Florence Nightingale. Key issues, There are a few parts of Florence's character which fit the profile of a clinical leader. However, Miss Nightingale was not a clinical leader she was a powerful and successful role model for the academic, political and managerial domains of nursing. Conclusion, There are other ways to lead and other types of leaders and leadership that nursing and the health service needs to foster, discover and recognize. Implications for nursing management, Clinical leaders should be celebrated and recognized in their own right. Both clinical leaders and nursing leaders are important and need to work collaboratively to enhance patient care and to positively enhance the profession of nursing. [source]

Securitization, Insurance, and Reinsurance

J. David Cummins
This article considers strengths and weaknesses of reinsurance and securitization in managing insurable risks. Traditional reinsurance operates efficiently in managing relatively small, uncorrelated risks and in facilitating efficient information sharing between cedants and reinsurers. However, when the magnitude of potential losses and the correlation of risks increase, the efficiency of the reinsurance model breaks down, and the cost of capital may become uneconomical. At this juncture, securitization has a role to play by passing the risks along to broader capital markets. Securitization also serves as a complement for reinsurance in other ways such as facilitating regulatory arbitrage and collateralizing low-frequency risks. [source]

Making sense of ethnography and medical education

Paul Atkinson
Objective, This paper aims to locate the ethnographic tradition in a socio-historical context. Method, In this paper we chart the history of the ethnographic tradition, explaining its roots and highlighting its value in enabling the ethnographic researcher to explore and make sense of the otherwise invisible aspects of cultural norms and practices. We discuss a number of studies that have provided detailed and context-sensitive accounts of the everyday life of medical schools, medical practitioners and medical students. We demonstrate how the methods of ethnographic fieldwork offer ,other ways of knowing' that can have a significant impact on medical education. Conclusions, The ethnographic research tradition in sociological and anthropological studies of educational settings is a significant one. Ethnographic research in higher education institutions is less common, but is itself a growing research strategy. [source]

Program Execution in Connectionist Networks

MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 4 2005
Martin Roth
This paper examines one such model and argues that it does execute a program. The argument proceeds by showing that what is essential to running a program is preserving the functional structure of the program. It has generally been assumed that this can only be done by systems possessing a certain temporal-causal organization. However, counterfactual-preserving functional architecture can be instantiated in other ways, for example geometrically, which are realizable by connectionist networks. [source]