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    The Net Worth of Female-Headed Households: A Comparison to Other Types of Households

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2006
    Martha N. Ozawa
    Abstract: This article presents the results of a study that investigated the level of assets and debts that female-headed households have in comparison to those of married-couple households and other types of households. The empirical results revealed that the amounts of net worth of married-couple households and male-headed households were significantly larger than that of female-headed households. We discuss policy implications stemming from the findings of the study and recommend that the United States seriously consider creative policy approaches aimed at empowering low-income households such as employment-related supportive policies, microenterprise programs, and Individual Development Accounts programs. [source]

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the lung initially presenting as a breast mass: A fine-needle aspiration diagnosis

    Wei Liu M.D.
    Abstract The incidence of metastases to the breast from extramammary sites is relatively low compared with the incidence of primary breast carcinoma. Primary sites which have a predilection for metastases to the breast include, in the order of decreasing frequency, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma, followed by gastrointestinal and genitourinary primaries. Most lung primaries metastasizing to breast represent adenocarcinoma. Other types of lung carcinoma, including small cell carcinoma, are relatively rare. We report a case of lung small cell carcinoma metastasizing to the breast and initially presenting with a breast mass in a 50-year-old female. The tumor was first diagnosed on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen (FNAB) from the breast lesion and subsequently supported by core biopsy. A discussion of the differential diagnoses to consider on FNAB follows. Because of the difference in treatment for primary small cell carcinoma of breast versus primary small cell carcinoma of the lung, as well as the difference in prognosis for both malignancies, determining the site of primary malignancy is crucial to adequate patient care. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Greater cuticular melanism is not associated with greater immunogenic response in adults of the polymorphic mountain stone weta, Hemideina maori

    T. Robb
    Abstract., 1.,Greater immune function is associated with the high-density melanic phase of polyphenic insects, appearing to compensate for density-dependent increases in susceptibility to parasites and/or pathogens. Other types of discrete variation in cuticular colour occur in insects (which may or may not be associated with melanin pigmentation), but whether this variation is predictive of immune ability has not been investigated. 2.,In the mountain stone weta Hemideina maori, a black morph and yellow banded morph occur. These morphs are not seasonally polyphenic and have discrete haplotype genetic markers. Black individuals are typically found at lower local densities than yellow individuals, contrary to relations between cuticular melanism and density seen in polyphenic insects. 3.,Yellow males and females had greater melanotic encapsulation responses upon immune challenge than did black males and females, but these differences were not associated with differences in temperature selection between morphs. Morph differences in melanotic encapsulation responses were somewhat related to differences between morphs in haemocyte concentrations. 4.,These results indicate that a common form of immune expression is not heightened with dark coloration in the mountain stone weta. Thus, earlier findings of greater immunity associated with darker cuticles in phase polyphenic insects cannot be extended to insects with other forms of discrete colour variation. These findings will help in elucidating causes and consequences of such colour polymorphism, which is widespread in several insect orders. [source]

    Integrated Multifunctional Nanosystems for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

    *Article first published online: 9 OCT 200, Donglu Shi
    Abstract This article provides an overview on the development of integrated multifunctional nanosystems for medical diagnosis and treatment. In particular, a novel system is developed specifically for achieving simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Critical issues are addressed on the architecture and assembly of nanocomponents based on medical requirements: targeted in vivo imaging, controlled drug release, localized hyperthermia, and toxicity. Nanotube-based carriers are summarized with surface functionalized properties. Other types of nanocarriers are also included such as super paramagnetic composite nanospheres and biodegradable hydroxylapatite nanoparticles. In addition, polymeric-based nanosystems are introduced with several novel features: they can be bio-dissolved due to environmental pH and temperature fluctuations. The nanocarriers are surface tailored with key functionalities: surface antibodies for cell targeting, anti-cancer drug loading, and magnetic nanoparticles for both hyperthermia and MRI. Future requirements, aims, and trends in the development of multifunctional nanosystems, particularly with intelligent functionalities for fundamental studies, are also provided. [source]

    Ignition and oxidation of 1-hexene/toluene mixtures in a shock tube and a jet-stirred reactor: Experimental and kinetic modeling study

    M. Yahyaoui
    The oxidation of several binary mixtures 1-hexene/toluene has been investigated both in a shock tube and in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR). The self-ignition behavior of binary mixtures was compared to that of neat hydrocarbons studied under the same conditions. Furthermore, molecular species concentration profiles were measured by probe-sampling and GC/MS, FID, TCD analyses for the oxidation of the mixtures in a JSR. Experiments were carried out over the temperature range 750,1860 K. Mixtures were examined under two pressures 0.2 and 1 MPa, with 0.1% initial concentration of fuel. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.5 to 1.5. The experiments were modeled using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. The modeling study showed that interactions between hydrocarbons submechanisms were not limited to small reactive radicals. Other types of interactions involving hydrocarbon fragments derived from the oxidation of the fuel components must be considered. These interactions mainly consist of hydrogen abstraction reactions. For example, benzyl radical that is the major radical produced from the oxidation of toluene at high temperature can abstract hydrogen from 1-hexene and their products such as hexenyl radicals. Similarly, propyl, allyl, and hexenyl radicals that are the major radicals produced during 1-hexene oxidation at high temperature can abstract hydrogen from toluene. Improved modeling was achieved when such interaction reactions were included in the model. Good agreement between experimental and calculated data was obtained using the proposed detailed chemical kinetic scheme. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 39: 518,538, 2007 [source]

    BCR/ABL p210, p190 and p230 fusion genes in 250 Mexican patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

    R.M. Arana-Trejo
    There are two major forms of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, involving ABL exon 2, but including different exons of BCR gene. The transcripts b2a2 or b3a2 code for a p210 protein. Another fusion gene leads to the expression of an e1a2 transcript, which codes for a p190 protein. Another, less common fusion gene is c3a2[e19a2], which encodes a p230 protein. The incidence of one or the other rearrangement in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients varies in different reported series. This study was designed to determine the frequency of coexpresion of the p210, p190 and p230 transcripts in 250 Mexican patients with CML. We performed nested and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on bone marrow samples from adult patients and found that all cases were positive for some type of BCR/ABL rearrangement. In 226 (90.4%) patients it was p210, while the remaining 9.6% showed coexpression or one of the transcripts of p190/p210/p230. In 7% of patients with p210 expression there are both isoforms (b3a2/b2a2), presumably the result of alternative splicing. The rate of coexpression of the p190/p210 transcripts was 5%, which is much lower than in other reports. This may be due to the technical factors. These patients had high platelet counts, marked splenomegaly and chromosomal abnormalities in addition to Ph,. Other types of coexpression seen were p210/p230 and p190/p210/p230, in patients with high-risk clinical factors. Our study confirms the occurrence of coexpression of different BCR/ABL transcripts, although the rate (9.6%) was much lower than has been reported in other populations. This may reflect either the sensitivity of the detection techniques used or the possibility of genetic differences between the populations studied. Coexpression may be due to alternative splicing or to phenotypic variation, with clinical courses different from classical CML. [source]

    Substituent effects on conformational preference in , -substituted , -fluorophenylacetic acid methyl ester model systems for chiral derivatizing agents

    Riadh Sahnoun
    Abstract In connection with study of chiral derivatizing agents (CDAs) for NMR determination of absolute configuration of organic compounds, factors controlling the conformational preference between syn - and anti -forms in , -substituted , -fluorophenylacetic acid methyl ester (FC(X)(Ph)COOMe) model systems were theoretically investigated. Substituents X at the stereogenic carbon atom were X,=,H, CCH and CH3, the electronic and steric properties of which were significantly different from each other. The model system with X,=,CCH and that with X,=,CH3 were found to be possible candidates for fluorine-containing CDAs. The syn conformation is stable compared with the anti one by 0.7,kcal,mol,1 for the ester with X,=,CCH. On the other hand, the anti conformation is stable compared with the syn one by 0.5,kcal,mol,1 for the ester with X,=,CH3. Both natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and deletion of selected orbitals based on the donor,acceptor NBO scheme were adopted for semi-quantitative estimation of factors responsible for the conformational preference as well as a qualitative inspection of occupied canonical molecular orbitals (MOs). It was shown that [,,(,*,+,,*)(CO)] and [,,,*(Ph) and ,(Ph),,*] hyperconjugations are the main factors controlling the conformational preferences between the syn and anti conformations. Other types of effects such as electrostatic effects were also investigated. The role of the fluorine atom was also clarified. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Changing Trends in Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Generator Advisories

    MAISEL, W.H., et al.: Changing Trends in Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Generator Advisories. Pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generator recalls and safety alerts (advisories) occur frequently, affect many patients, and are increasing in number and rate. It is unknown if advances in device technology have been accompanied by changing patterns of device advisory type. Weekly FDA Enforcement Reports from January 1991 to December 2000 were analyzed to identify all advisories involving pacemaker and ICD generators. This article represents additional analysis of previously cited advisories and does not contain additional recalls or safety alerts over those that have been previously reported. The 29 advisories (affecting 159,061 devices) from the early 1990s (1991,1995) were compared to the 23 advisories (affecting 364,084 devices) from the late 1990s (1996,2000). While the annual number of device advisories did not change significantly, ICD advisories became more frequent and a three-fold increase in the number of devices affected per advisory was observed. The number of devices affected by hardware advisories increased three-fold, due primarily to a 700-fold increase in electrical/circuitry abnormalities and a 20-fold increase in potential battery/capacitor malfunctions. Other types of hardware abnormalities (defects in the device header, hermetic seal, etc.) became less common. The number of devices recalled due to firmware (computer programming) abnormalities more than doubled. The remarkable technological advances in pacemaker and ICD therapy have been accompanied by changing patterns of device advisory type. Accurate, timely physician and patient notification systems, and routine pacemaker and ICD patient follow-up continue to be of paramount importance. [source]

    Liposomes in investigative dermatology

    Daniel B. Yarosh
    Liposomes are microscopic spheres, usually composed of amphiphilic phospholipids. They may be useful without skin penetration if they simply protect or sequester compounds that would otherwise be unstable in the formulation. Liposomes that remain on the skin surface are useful as light-absorbers, agents to deliver color or sunscreens, or as depots for timed-release. Liposomes that penetrate the stratum corneum have the potential to interact with living tissue. Topically applied liposomes can either mix with the stratum corneum lipid matrix or penetrate the stratum corneum by exploiting the lipid-water interface of the intercellular matrix. There are at least four major routes of entry into the skin: pores, hair follicles, columnular spaces and the lipid:water matrix between squames. A major force driving liposome penetration is the water gradient, and flexible liposomes are best able to exploit these delivery opportunities. Some liposomes release their contents extracellularly. Topical application of photosensitizers may be enhanced by encapsulation in liposomes. Higher and longer-lasting drug concentrations may be produced in localized areas of skin, particularly at disease sites where the stratum corneum and the skin barrier function are disrupted. The liposome membrane should be designed to capture lipophilic drugs in the membrane or hydrophilic drugs in the interior. Other types of liposomes can be engineered to be taken up by cells. Once inside cells, the lysosomal sac and clatherin-coated pit are the dead-end destinations for liposomes unless an escape path has been engineered into the liposome. A novel method has been developed to allow delivery into cells of the skin, by escape from the lysosomal sac. These liposomes have been used to topical deliver active DNA repair enzymes from liposomes into epidermal cells and to enhance DNA repair of UV-irradiated skin. From these studies a tremendous amount has been learned about the relationship of DNA damage and skin cancer. Both mutations and immunosuppression appear to be essential to skin cancer and both are induced by DNA damage. DNA damage produces immediate effects by inducing the expression of cytokines, which means that DNA damage can induce signaling in neighboring, undamaged cells. The repair of only a fraction of the DNA damage has a disproportionate effect on the biological responses, clearly demonstrating that not all DNA damage is equivalent. This technology demonstrates that biologically active proteins can be delivered into the cells of skin, and opens up a new field of correcting or enhancing skin cell metabolism to improve human health. [source]

    Rare Earth Deposits of North America

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Stephen B. Castor
    Abstract Rare earth elements (REE) have been mined in North America since 1885, when placer monazite was produced in the southeast USA. Since the 1960s, however, most North American REE have come from a carbonatite deposit at Mountain Pass, California, and most of the world's REE came from this source between 1965 and 1995. After 1998, Mountain Pass REE sales declined substantially due to competition from China and to environmental constraints. REE are presently not mined at Mountain Pass, and shipments were made from stockpiles in recent years. Chevron Mining, however, restarted extraction of selected REE at Mountain Pass in 2007. In 1987, Mountain Pass reserves were calculated at 29 Mt of ore with 8.9% rare earth oxide based on a 5% cut-off grade. Current reserves are in excess of 20 Mt at similar grade. The ore mineral is bastnasite, and the ore has high light REE/heavy REE (LREE/HREE). The carbonatite is a moderately dipping, tabular 1.4-Ga intrusive body associated with ultrapotassic alkaline plutons of similar age. The chemistry and ultrapotassic alkaline association of the Mountain Pass deposit suggest a different source than that of most other carbonatites. Elsewhere in the western USA, carbonatites have been proposed as possible REE sources. Large but low-grade LREE resources are in carbonatite in Colorado and Wyoming. Carbonatite complexes in Canada contain only minor REE resources. Other types of hard-rock REE deposits in the USA include small iron-REE deposits in Missouri and New York, and vein deposits in Idaho. Phosphorite and fluorite deposits in the USA also contain minor REE resources. The most recently discovered REE deposit in North America is the Hoidas Lake vein deposit, Saskatchewan, a small but incompletely evaluated resource. Neogene North American placer monazite resources, both marine and continental, are small or in environmentally sensitive areas, and thus unlikely to be mined. Paleoplacer deposits also contain minor resources. Possible future uranium mining of Precambrian conglomerates in the Elliott Lake,Blind River district, Canada, could yield by-product HREE and Y. REE deposits occur in peralkaline syenitic and granitic rocks in several places in North America. These deposits are typically enriched in HREE, Y, and Zr. Some also have associated Be, Nb, and Ta. The largest such deposits are at Thor Lake and Strange Lake in Canada. A eudialyte syenite deposit at Pajarito Mountain in New Mexico is also probably large, but of lower grade. Similar deposits occur at Kipawa Lake and Lackner Lake in Canada. Future uses of some REE commodities are expected to increase, and growth is likely for REE in new technologies. World reserves, however, are probably sufficient to meet international demand for most REE commodities well into the 21st century. Recent experience shows that Chinese producers are capable of large amounts of REE production, keeping prices low. Most refined REE prices are now at approximately 50% of the 1980s price levels, but there has been recent upward price movement for some REE compounds following Chinese restriction of exports. Because of its grade, size, and relatively simple metallurgy, the Mountain Pass deposit remains North America's best source of LREE. The future of REE production at Mountain Pass is mostly dependent on REE price levels and on domestic REE marketing potential. The development of new REE deposits in North America is unlikely in the near future. Undeveloped deposits with the most potential are probably large, low-grade deposits in peralkaline igneous rocks. Competition with established Chinese HREE and Y sources and a developing Australian deposit will be a factor. [source]

    An association between chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and lung cancer.

    APMIS, Issue 9 2001
    A prospective 2-year study
    This study assesses a possible relationship between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and lung cancer (LC). A total of 210 consecutive patients (136 M, 74 F) were diagnosed with LC during a 2-year period. Blood was obtained from 128 M and 70 F patients for Cpn serology. Repeat blood specimens were taken after 3 months. Throat specimens for Cpn DNA analysis by PCR were taken from 110/136 M and 63/74 F. Seventy-four cytobrush specimens were taken and also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty (29 M, 21 F) bronchial biopsies and 8 (6 M, 2 F) tumors resected at surgery were analyzed for Cpn by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Males had significantly more often squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) than females. Other types of LC were more equally distributed between males and females. The difference between males and females regarding smoking history was significant, and male LC patients had significantly higher levels of IgG and/or IgA antibodies than female LC patients. Male and female LC patients had significantly higher prevalences of high antibody titers than controls. A high prevalence of unusually high titers of specific Cpn antibodies was found in male LC patients. This could indicate that LC may be induced by chronic Cpn infection, since stable high titers of Cpn antibodies, especially IgA, are a hallmark of chronic infections. [source]

    Histopathologic characterization of radioactive iodine-refractory fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-positive thyroid carcinoma

    CANCER, Issue 1 2008
    Michael Rivera MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. Radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR) 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) positive thyroid carcinomas represent the major cause of deaths from thyroid carcinomas (TC) and are therefore the main focus of novel target therapies. However, to the authors' knowledge, the histology of FDG-PET-positive RAIR metastatic thyroid carcinoma has not been described to date. METHODS. Metastatic tissue from RAIR PET-positive patients identified between 1996 and 2003 at the study institution were selected for histologic examination. The biopsied metastatic site corresponded to a FDG-PET positive lesion sampled within 2 years (87% of which were sampled within 1 year) of the PET scan. Detailed microscopic examination was performed on the metastatic deposit and the available primary tumors. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) were defined on the basis of high mitotic activity (,5 mitoses/10 high-power fields) and/or tumor necrosis. Other types of carcinomas were defined by conventional criteria. The histology of the metastases and primary were analyzed, with disease-specific survival (DSS) as the endpoint. RESULTS. A total of 70 patients satisfied the selection criteria, 43 of whom had primary tumors available for review. Histologic characterization of the metastasis/recurrence in 70 patients revealed that 47.1% (n = 33 patients) had PDTC, 20% (n = 14 patients) had the tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 22.9% (n = 16 patients) had well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (WDPTC), 8.6% (n = 6 patients) had Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC), and 1.4% (n = 1 patient) had anaplastic carcinomas. The histopathologic distribution of the tumor in the primaries was: PDTC, 51%; TCV, 19%; WDPTC, 23%; and widely invasive HCC, 7%. A differing histology between the primary tumor and metastasis was observed in 37% of cases (n = 16 patients). In the majority of instances (63%; 10 of 16 patients) this was noted as transformation to a higher grade. Of the primary tumors classified as PTC, 70% progressed to more aggressive histotypes in the metastasis. Tumor necrosis and extensive extrathyroid extension in the primary tumor were found to be independent predictors of poorer DSS in this group of patients (P = .015). Approximately 68% of the PDTC primary tumors were initially classified by the primary pathologist as better-differentiated tumors on the basis of the presence of papillary and/or follicular architecture or the presence of typical PTC nuclear features. CONCLUSIONS. Several observations can be made based on the results of the current study. The majority of metastases in patients with RAIR PET-positive metastases are of a histologically aggressive subtype. However, well,differentiated RAIR metastatic disease is observable. Poorly differentiated disease is underrecognized in many cases if defined by architectural and nuclear features alone. The presence of tumor necrosis was found to be a strong predictor of aggressive behavior, even within this group of clinically aggressive tumors. Finally, there is a significant amount of histologic plasticity between primary tumors and metastases that may reflect the genetic instability of these tumors. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Rescuer Fatigue: Standard versus Continuous Chest-Compression Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Joseph W. Heidenreich MD
    Abstract Objectives Continuous chest-compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCC-CPR) has been advocated as an alternative to standard CPR (STD-CPR). Studies have shown that CCC-CPR delivers substantially more chest compressions per minute and is easier to remember and perform than STD-CPR. One concern regarding CCC-CPR is that the rescuer may fatigue and be unable to maintain adequate compression rate or depth throughout an average emergency medical services response time. The specific aim of this study was to compare the effects of fatigue on the performance of CCC-CPR and STD-CPR on a manikin model. Methods This was a prospective, randomized crossover study involving 53 medical students performing CCC-CPR and STD-CPR on a manikin model. Students were randomized to their initial CPR group and then performed the other type of CPR after a period of at least two days. Students were evaluated on their performance of 9 minutes of CPR for each method. The primary endpoint was the number of adequate chest compressions (at least 38 mm of compression depth) delivered per minute during each of the 9 minutes. The secondary endpoints were total compressions, compression rate, and the number of breaks taken for rest. The students' performance was evaluated on the basis of Skillreporter Resusci Anne (Laerdal, Wappingers Falls, NY) recordings. Primary and secondary endpoints were analyzed by using the generalized linear mixed model for counting data. Results In the first 2 minutes, participants delivered significantly more adequate compressions per minute with CCC-CPR than STD-CPR, (47 vs. 32, p = 0.004 in the 1st minute and 39 vs. 29, p = 0.04 in the 2nd minute). For minutes 3 through 9, the differences in number of adequate compressions between groups were not significant. Evaluating the 9 minutes of CPR as a whole, there were significantly more adequate compressions in CCC-CPR vs. STD-CPR (p = 0.0003). Although the number of adequate compressions per minute declined over time in both groups, the rate of decline was significantly greater in CCC-CPR compared with STD-CPR (p = 0.0003). The mean number of total compressions delivered in the first minute was significantly greater with CCC-CPR than STD-CPR (105 per minute vs. 58 per minute, p < 0.001) and did not change over 9 minutes in either group. There were no differences in compression rates or number of breaks between groups. Conclusions CCC-CPR resulted in more adequate compressions per minute than STD-CPR for the first 2 minutes of CPR. However, the difference diminished after 3 minutes, presumably as a result of greater rescuer fatigue with CCC-CPR. Overall, CCC-CPR resulted in more total compressions per minute than STD-CPR during the entire 9 minutes of resuscitation. [source]

    Self-help treatments for disorders of recurrent binge eating: a systematic review

    S. C. Stefano
    Objective:, To evaluate self-help interventions for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), tested in randomized controlled trials, and compared with waiting list or any other type of control group. Methods:, A systematic review including quality appraisal was conducted of randomized controlled trials, using self-help techniques in patients with BED and/or BN. Six databases were searched during the period between January 1994 and June 2004. Results:, A total of 2686 articles were identified, 1701 abstracts were evaluated in detail and, nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. All studies indicated that patients treated with active interventions had a reduced number of binge eating episodes at end of treatment. Conclusion:, The results support self-help interventions but shall be interpreted with caution. Because of the small number of studies using self-help techniques for BED and BN, further larger randomized, multi-center controlled studies that apply standardized inclusion criteria, evaluation instruments and self-help materials, are needed. [source]

    Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Interaction Between Arsenic Trioxide and DNA Based on Guanine Signal

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 7 2003
    Mehmet Ozsoz
    Abstract The interaction of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), calf thymus single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and also 17-mer short oligonucleotide (Probe,A) was studied electrochemically by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with carbon paste electrode (CPE) at the surface and also in solution. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) was employed to monitor the interaction of As2O3 with dsDNA in solution phase by using a renewable pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The changes in the experimental parameters such as the concentration of As2O3, and the accumulation time of As2O3 were studied by using DPV; in addition, the reproducibility data for the interaction between DNA and As2O3 was determined by using both electrochemical techniques. After the interaction of As2O3 with dsDNA, the DPV signal of guanine was found to be decreasing when the accumulation time and the concentration of As2O3 were increased. Similar DPV results were also found with ssDNA and oligonucleotide. PSA results observed at a low DNA concentration such as 1,ppm and a different working electrode such as PGE showed that there could be damage to guanine bases. The partition coefficients of As2O3 after interaction with dsDNA and ssDNA in solution by using CPE were calculated. Similarly, the partition coefficients (PC) of As2O3 after interaction with dsDNA in solution was also calculated by PSA at PGE. The features of this proposed method for the detection of DNA damage by As2O3 are discussed and compared with those methods previously reported for the other type of DNA targeted agents in the literature. [source]

    Isomer separation of hyperbranched polyesteramides with gas-phase H/D exchange and a novel MSn approach: DoDIP

    Sander Koster
    Abstract Two approaches are introduced that provide information about the isomeric composition of hyperbranched polyesteramides. The first approach is based on a novel tandem mass spectrometric (MSn) approach that allows the study of different types of isomeric structures by a separation based on their difference in appearance energy. The method is called DoDIP: dissociation of depleted ion populations. A first MS/MS step is used to fragment isomers with relatively low appearance energy. The isomers with higher appearance energy are fragmented in a second MS/MS step of higher energy. The second approach is based on gas-phase H/D exchange experiments that result in a bimodal isotopic distribution for oligomers XnDn+1 of which one distribution corresponds to a type of isomeric structure that exhibits H/D exchange behaviour and the other to an isomeric structure that does not exhibit H/D exchange behaviour. X is a difunctional anhydride of phthalic acid (P), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (C), succinic acid (S) or glutaric acid (G). D in XnDn+1 is a trifunctional diisopropanolamine and n the degree of polymerization. The type of isomeric structure that does not exhibit H/D exchange behaviour has a non-alternating monomer sequence that contains an amine bond with a relatively high proton affinity. The other isomeric structure that does exhibit H/D exchange behaviour has an alternating monomer sequence containing only amide and ester bonds with relatively low proton affinity. Oligomer structures were confirmed with additional MS2 experiments after H/D exchange. H/D exchange experiments on the fragments obtained after MS2 of the parent ion show that next to previously postulated mechanisms for the cleavage of the ester and amide bond another reaction pathway must be operational. A new mechanism is introduced to explain the H/D exchange behaviour of the fragments that requires a cleavage of the amide bonds only. Two types of fragments are formed by this mechanism. One type is protonated due to the cleavage of the amide bond whereas the other type has an oxazolonium ion structure due to the loss of an additional H2O. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    High Mutation Frequency at Ha-ras Exons 1,4 in Squamous Cell Carcinomas from PUVA-treated Psoriasis Patients,

    Heidemarie Kreimer-Erlacher
    ABSTRACT Clinical follow-up studies have revealed that PUVA-treated patients are at increased risk of skin cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, since psoralen and UVA (PUVA) is not only a potent mutagen and carcinogen but also an immunosuppressor, and since other (co)carcinogenic factors often exist in psoriasis patients, the exact causes and mechanisms of PUVA-associated SCC are still not completely understood. In order to fill this gap the tools of molecular epidemiology are being used to study the SCC mutational spectra of p53 and Ha-ras, two of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancers. A previous mutation analysis revealed that SCC in PUVA-treated patients often carried mutated p53 genes and that many of the mutations had the UV fingerprint (i.e. C,T or CC,TT transitions at dipyrimidine sites). In the present study DNA-sequencing analysis revealed a total of 18 Ha-ras missense or nonsense mutations at exons 1,4 in 13 of 17 SCC (76%) from 8 of 11 (73%) PUVA-treated psoriasis patients. Six of the 18 mutations (33%) were of UV-fingerprint type (C,T transitions), five (28%) were at 5,-TpG sites (i.e. potential psoralen-binding sites and thus potentially caused by PUVA) and seven were of other type (39%), including six G:C,T:A transversions at hotspot codon 12. In addition, in the case of 6 of the 11 subjects (55%) both tumor and normal skin samples contained a T:A,C:G base change at codon 27 (a 5,-ATT site), a change previously hypothesized to be a possible silent Ha-ras polymorphism at one allele. When we compared the present Ha-ras mutation spectrum with the p53 mutation spectrum from a previous study of the samples, we found that approximately half of the tumors harbored mutations in both Ha-ras and p53. Together, our results indicate that Ha-ras mutations are present in a large proportion of PUVA-associated SCC and that UVB, PUVA and other agents may induce Ha-ras mutations and act together with p53 in the formation of SCC in psoriasis patients. [source]

    Sterol Composition of Pneumocystis jirovecii with Blocked 14,-Demethylase Activity

    ABSTRACT Several drugs that interact with membrane sterols or inhibit their syntheses are effective in clearing a number of fungal infections. The AIDS-associated lung infection caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii is not cleared by many of these therapies. Pneumocystis normally synthesizes distinct C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols, but ergosterol, the major fungal sterol, is not among them. Two distinct sterol compositional phenotypes were previously observed in P. jirovecii. One was characterized by ,7 C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols with only low proportions of higher molecular mass components. In contrast, the other type was dominated by high C31 and C32 24-alkylsterols, especially pneumocysterol. In the present study, 28 molecular species were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of a human lung specimen containing P. jirovecii representing the latter sterol profile phenotype. Fifteen of the 28 had the methyl group at C-14 of the sterol nucleus and these represented 96% of the total sterol mass in the specimen (excluding cholesterol). These results strongly suggest that sterol 14,-demethylase was blocked in these organisms. Twenty-four of the 28 were 24-alkylsterols, indicating that methylation of the C-24 position of the sterol side chain by S-adenosyl-L-methionine:sterol C-24 methyl transferase was fully functional. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PAIN: Misremembering Pain: Memory Bias for Pain Words in Women Reporting Sexual Pain

    Lea Thaler MA
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The debate over the classification of dyspareunia as a sexual dysfunction or as a pain disorder raises the question of the comparative cognitive salience of sex and/or pain in the experience of women who report pain with intercourse. Refinements in our understanding of cognitive factors in the experience of pain with intercourse may be important in the development of effective treatments. Aim., This study aimed to compare the cognitive salience of sex and pain word stimuli in women reporting pain with intercourse and in a control group of women without sexual dysfunction. Methods., Twenty women reporting pain during sexual intercourse and 20 women reporting no sexual dysfunction (controls) participated in a memory protocol designed to detect differences as a function of group membership and type of stimulus (sex, pain, and two other control stimuli). Main Outcome Measures., Dependent measures were recall, recognition, intrusions, and false positives for sex words, pain words, and two other control word types. Results., Regardless of group membership, women had best recall for sex-related words; however, women reporting sexual pain evidenced more false memories for pain words than did control women, and pain words elicited more false memories than any other type of word for women with sexual pain. Conclusion., Results are interpreted to suggest that repeated activation through experience with persistent sexual pain may have contributed to the: (i) development of stronger semantic networks related to pain in comparison to no sexual dysfunction controls and; (ii) activation of pain networks more easily triggered by pain-related stimuli in women with sexual pain than in no sexual dysfunction controls. Sex, however, had not attained the cognitive salience of pain. Thaler L, Meana M, and Lanti A. Misremembering pain: Memory bias for pain words in women reporting sexual pain. J Sex Med 2009;6:1369,1377. [source]

    Effect of Fabry-Perot resonances in disordered one-dimensional array of alternating dielectric bi-layers

    ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Issue 12 2009
    G.A. Luna-Acosta
    Abstract We study numerically and analytically the role of Fabry-Perot resonances in the transmission through a one-dimensional finite array formed by two alternating dielectric slabs. The disorder consists in varying randomly the width of one type of layers while keeping constant the width of the other type. Our numerical simulations show that localization is strongly inhibited in a wide neighborhood of the Fabry-Perot resonances. Comparison of our numerical results with an analytical expression for the average transmission, derived for weak disorder and finite number of cells, reveals that such expression works well even for medium disorder up to a certain frequency. Our results are valid for photonic and phononic one-dimensional disordered crystals, as well as for semiconductor superlattices. [source]

    Immediate Loading of Brånemark System Implants®: A Comparison Between TiUniteTM and Turned Implants Placed in the Anterior Mandible

    Kjell-Krister Fröberg DDS
    ABSTRACT Purpose:, The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment outcome of TiUniteTM - and turned-surfaced Brånemark System® (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) implants when applying immediate loading of cross-arch designed fixed partial dentures in the anterior mandible. Materials and Methods:, Fifteen patients with edentulous mandibles participated in the study. In one half of the jaw, between the exit of the nerve-vessel bundle and the midline, one type of implant was placed and in the remaining half the other type. The implants were loaded the day of surgery via a fixed, temporary supra-construction. Ten days later, the permanent one was screw retained to the implant pillars. Results:, The present 18-month clinical trial failed to demonstrate any differences regarding healing and cumulative success rate of an an-oxidized implant surface (TiUnite) and a turned (turned) one when implants in the anterior mandible were exposed to functional load within 24 hours after installation. Conclusion:, A high predictability regarding the treatment outcome for immediately loaded Brånemark implants in the anterior mandible was observed. Furthermore, no difference between the traditional turned and the an-oxidized implant surface (TiUnite) could be observed. However, it has to be stressed that all implants (irrespective of surface) were placed in the anterior mandible and also that all the patients demonstrated a high level of oral hygiene. [source]


    Theresa Wilson
    There has been a recent swell of interest in the automatic identification and extraction of opinions and emotions in text. In this paper, we present the first experimental results classifying the intensity of opinions and other types of subjectivity and classifying the subjectivity of deeply nested clauses. We use a wide range of features, including new syntactic features developed for opinion recognition. We vary the learning algorithm and the feature organization to explore the effect this has on the classification task. In 10-fold cross-validation experiments using support vector regression, we achieve improvements in mean-squared error over baseline ranging from 49% to 51%. Using boosting, we achieve improvements in accuracy ranging from 23% to 96%. [source]

    Tour Into the Picture using a Vanishing Line and its Extension to Panoramic Images

    Hyung Woo Kang
    Tour into the picture (TIP) proposed by Horry et al.13 is a method for generating a sequence of walk-through images from a single reference picture (or image). By navigating a 3D scene model constructed from the picture, TIP produces convincing 3D effects. Assuming that the picture has one vanishing point, they proposed the scene modeling scheme called spidery mesh. However, this scheme has to go through major modification when the picture contains multiple vanishing points or does not have any well-defined vanishing point. Moreover, the spidery mesh is hard to generalize for other types of images such as panoramic images. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for TIP which is based on a single vanishing line instead of a vanishing point. Based on projective geometry, our scheme is simple and yet general enough to address the problems faced with the previous method. We also show that our scheme can be naturally extended to a panoramic image. [source]

    P71 Metabolism of delta-3-Carene by human cytochrom 450 enzymes

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Mike Duisken
    Occupational exposure to monoterpenes occurs in saw mills, particle-board plants, carpentry shops and other types of wood-treating industries. The bicyclic monoterpene delta-3-Carene, one of the components of turpentine, may irritate the skin and muceous membranes and prolonged exposure may result in allergic contact dermatitis or chronic lung function impairment. The effects of low concentrations of delta-3-Carene on alveolar macrophages in vitro were examined and a dose-dependent relationship between the cell viability and the delta-3-Carene concentration was found. Little is known about the metabolism of delta-3-Carene in mammalians. In order to determine the toxic potential of this monoterpene we studied the human metabolism of delta-3-Carene in vitro. Therefore we used pooled human liver S9 and human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. By using GC-MS analysis we found one main metabolite produced at high rates. The structure was identified by its mass spectra. The mass fragmentation indicated hydroxylation in allyl position. After synthesis of the assumed product in a four step reaction, it was characterized as delta-3-Carene-10-ol. There was a clear correlation between the concentration of the metabolite production, incubation time and enzyme concentration, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that Km and Vmax values for the oxidation of delta-3-Carene by human liver microsomes were 0.39 ,M and 0.2 nmol/min/nmol P450. It is the first time that delta-3-Carene-10-ol is described as human metabolite of delta-3-Carene. [source]

    The introduction of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles used in road maintenance contracts in Sweden

    Charlotta Faith-Ell
    Abstract This paper examines the development and implementation of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles in Swedish road maintenance contracts. The process in which the road administration involved relevant organizations in the development of a model for emission-based payment for the vehicles was analysed in a participatory study. Intentions behind the requirements were investigated using interviews and questionnaires. The results point to the importance of actively involving, informing and training all relevant parties. Transparency towards sub-contractors and the public is needed to justify the requirements. The payment model, based on environmental performance, is also suggested for use in other types of requirement in road maintenance contracts. To make green procurement an effective policy instrument, the model needs further development, e.g. systematic information, training of clients and contractors, and follow-up of the requirements. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    This research examines the ways in which assaults motivated by bias are similar to and different from other types of assault. Analyses are based on data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), pooled across eleven states. We find evidence suggesting that offenders motivated by racial and ethnic bias are more likely to be versatile offenders than specialists: they are more (not less) likely to be using drugs and alcohol during the crime than conventional offenders. Bias offenders are also more likely to seriously injure the victim. Finally, we find that the risks of bias crime victimization (relative to the risk of assault victimization generally) are similar for blacks and other racial minorities. [source]

    Pathways for Communicating about Objects on Guided Tours

    Jeff Camhi
    Most tour guides rely on rather limited, unidirectional (guide-to-visitor) communication. Instead, this paper outlines six different pathways of communication that are possible among guide, visitors, and object. Each pathway offers several specific types of communicative acts. In addition, 35 guided tours in several different kinds of venue were examined to identify the pathways and types of acts that were used. The professional literature describes other types of acts, and more have been developed at the writer's home museum. All in all, the 58 different types of communicative acts described here present a wide range of opportunities for guides to communicate with visitors. [source]

    Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review

    L. Tondo
    Tondo L, Vázquez G, Baldessarini RJ. Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review. Objective:, To review available data pertaining to risk of mania,hypomania among bipolar (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with vs. without exposure to antidepressant drugs (ADs) and consider effects of mood stabilizers. Method:, Computerized searching yielded 73 reports (109 trials, 114 521 adult patients); 35 were suitable for random effects meta-analysis, and multivariate-regression modeling included all available trials to test for effects of trial design, AD type, and mood-stabilizer use. Results:, The overall risk of mania with/without ADs averaged 12.5%/7.5%. The AD-associated mania was more frequent in BPD than MDD patients, but increased more in MDD cases. Tricyclic antidepressants were riskier than serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SRIs); data for other types of ADs were inconclusive. Mood stabilizers had minor effects probably confounded by their preferential use in mania-prone patients. Conclusion:, Use of ADs in adults with BPD or MDD was highly prevalent and moderately increased the risk of mania overall, with little protection by mood stabilizers. [source]

    Multiple Primary Acral Melanomas in African-Americans: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    BACKGROUND Although melanoma accounts for only 4% to 5% of all skin cancers in the United States, it causes most skin cancer,related deaths. We describe a unique group of African-American patients with multiple primary acral lentiginous melanomas (ALMs). OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to review the case histories and management of a cohort of patients in the Mohs practice of our dermatologic surgeon with multiple primary ALM. METHODS This is a case series of patients with multiple ALM identified by chart review from 2000 to 2005. A thorough review of the literature was performed. RESULTS Four patients, all African-American, were identified with multiple ALM. All patients were managed with excision or Mohs micrographic surgery utilizing permanent sections. None of the patients with ALM had melanomas at nonacral sites or other types of skin cancer. Several had acral melanosis. Information in the literature on patients with multiple primary acral melanomas was insufficient. CONCLUSION Patients with multiple acral melanomas have not, to our knowledge, been reported thus far. It can be extrapolated from current literature, however, that appropriate management of these patients, including staging work and surgical intervention, is to be determined by the individual characteristics of the melanoma and the patient's concomitant risk factors, if any. [source]

    Surgical therapies for vitiligo and other leukodermas, part 1: minigrafting and suction epidermal grafting

    Rafael Falabella
    ABSTRACT: Vitiligo and other disorders of hypopigmentation are common cutaneous dermatoses that can give rise to considerable aesthetic concerns. In some patients these leukodermas are treated successfully with medical therapies such as topical corticosteroids and PUVA therapy. However, not all patients and not all lesions respond and as a result, surgical therapies are often required to restore normal pigmentation. The two most common and simple procedures, minigrafting (implantation of 1.0,1.2 mm grafts) and suction epidermal grafting (transfer of only epidermis harvested via negative pressures), are described in detail. Repigmentation with these two techniques, if carried out properly, yields good to excellent results with minor or no side effects. The most important factors for success are stability of the depigmenting process, an appropriate technique, and careful patient selection. Surgical interventions for stable vitiligo and other types of stable leukoderma are usually not first-line options, but when medical treatments fail, they represent the best available therapies. [source]