Other Tumor Types (other + tumor_type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Broad tumor spectrum in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Kelly A. Loffler
Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome typified by development of tumors in parathyroid, pituitary and endocrine pancreas, as well as less common sites including both endocrine and nonendocrine organs. Deletion or mutation of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 on chromosome 11 has been identified in many cases of MEN1 as well as in sporadic tumors. The molecular biology of menin, the protein encoded by MEN1, remains poorly understood. Here we describe a mouse model of MEN1 in which tumors were seen in pancreatic islets, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries. The observed tumor spectrum therefore includes types commonly seen in MEN1 patients and additional types. Pancreatic pathology was most common, evident in over 80% of animals, while other tumor types developed with lower frequency and generally later onset. Tumors of multiple endocrine organs were observed frequently, but progression to carcinoma and metastasis were not evident. Tumors in all sites showed loss of heterozygosity at the Men1 locus, though the frequency in testicular tumors was only 36%, indicating that a different molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis occurs in those Leydig tumors that do not show loss of the normal Men1 allele. Menin expression was below the level of detection in ovary, thyroid and testis, but loss of nuclear menin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in all pancreatic islet adenomas and in some hyperplastic islet cells, suggesting that complete loss of Men1 is a critical point in islet tumor progression in this model. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Allelic Gain and Amplification on the Long Arm of Chromosome 17 in Anaplastic Meningiomas

Rainer Büschges
Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) we have previously identified amplification at 17q21-qter as a common aberration in anaplastic meningiomas but not in atypical or benign meningiomas (19). To define the amplified genomic region, we analyzed 44 meningeal tumors, including 7 benign meningiomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, 19 atypical meningiomas (WHO grade II) and 18 anaplastic meningiomas (WHO grade III) at 46 chromosome 17 loci (including 42 17q loci). In line with the CGH data we found evidence of increased numbers of alleles on 17q. The incidence rose with malignancy grade, culminating at 61% (11 of 18 cases) in the anaplastic meningioma group. The majority of cases showing increased allele numbers had, on average, low-level allelic gains (relative increase in allele dosage of 2- to 5-fold). Amplification of alleles (defined here as an average relative increase in allele dosage of more than 5 times) was detected in 2 anaplastic meningiomas. The amplification patterns in these tumors defined a number of common regions of amplification/increased allele copy number, the best defined include one between D17S790 and D17S1607 and one between D17S1160 and PS6K. Real-time PCR analysis of the PS6K candidate gene revealed no high-level amplification despite this affecting adjacent loci. Our findings are fundamental for the identification of the gene(s) in 17q22-q23 that is (are) the target(s) for increased copy number in anaplastic meningiomas and possibly other tumor types. [source]

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 11C-acetate positron emission tomography are useful modalities for diagnosing the histologic type of thymoma,

CANCER, Issue 11 2009
Hidekatsu Shibata MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to clarify the usefulness of positron emission tomography (PET) using18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and carbon 11-labeled acetate (AC) for predicting the histologic types and tumor invasiveness of thymoma in a multicenter study. METHODS: Forty thymomas were examined using both FDG-PET and AC-PET before surgery. The histologic types were type A in 1 thymoma, type AB in 12 thymomas, type B1 in 11 thymomas, type B2 in 7 thymomas, type B3 in 6 thymomas, and type C in 3 thymomas. Tumor invasiveness was assessed by pathologic tumor stage and was identified as stage I in 17 tumors, stage II in 17 tumors, stage III in 4 tumors, and stage IV in 2 tumors. FDG and AC uptake was measured as the maximum standard uptake value (SUV). RESULTS: The FDG-SUV in type C thymomas was significantly higher than that in the other types (A-B3; P = .001 , P = .048). The AC-SUV in type A/AB thymomas was significantly higher than that in the other tumor types (B1-C; P < .001 , P = .002). All 3 type C tumors had an FDG-SUV ,6.3, and all 13 type A/AB tumors had an FDG-SUV <6.3 and an AC-SUV ,5.7. All 17 thymomas that had an FDG-SUV <6.3 and an AC-SUV <5.7 were type B1, B2, or B3. Neither the FDG-SUV nor the AC-SUV differed significantly between the stages I/II tumors and stage III/IV tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Although neither the FDG-SUV nor the AC-SUV can predict the invasiveness of thymomas assessed by tumor stage, they are useful for predicting histologic types of thymoma. Thymomas with an FDG-SUV <6.3 and an AC-SUV ,5.7 almost certainly are types A/AB, which is of considerable prognostic and management significance. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

Body composition and time course changes in regional distribution of fat and lean tissue in unselected cancer patients on palliative care,Correlations with food intake, metabolism, exercise capacity, and hormones

CANCER, Issue 10 2005
Marita Fouladiun M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Several investigations that yielded different results in terms of net changes in body composition of weight-losing cancer patients have been reported that employed a variety of methods based on fundamentally different technology. Most of those reports were cross-sectional, whereas to the authors' knowledge there is sparse information available on longitudinal follow-up measurements in relation to other independent methods for the assessment of metabolism and performance. METHODS For the current report, the authors evaluated time course changes in body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) with measurements of whole body and regional distribution of fat and lean tissue in relation to food and dietary intake, host metabolism (indirect calorimetry), maximum exercise capacity (walking test), and circulating hormones in cancer patients who were receiving palliative care during 4,62 months of follow-up. The entire cohort comprised 311 patients, ages 68 years ± 3 years who were diagnosed with solid gastrointestinal tumors (84 colorectal tumors, 74 pancreatic tumors, 73 upper gastrointestinal tumors, 51 liver-biliary tumors, 3 breast tumors, 5 melanomas, and 21 other tumor types). RESULTS Decreased body weight was explained by loss of body fat, preferentially from the trunk, followed by leg tissue and arm tissue, respectively. Lean tissue (fat-free mass) was lost from arm tissue, whereas trunk and leg tissue compartments increased, all concomitant with declines in serum albumin, increased systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), increased serum insulin, and elevated daily caloric intake; whereas serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), resting energy expenditure, and maximum exercise capacity remained unchanged in the same patients. Serum albumin levels (P < 0.001), whole body fat (P < 0.02), and caloric intake (P < 0.001) predicted survival, whereas lean tissue mass did not. Daily intake of fat and carbohydrate was more important for predicting survival than protein intake. Survival also was predicted by serum IGF-1, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin levels (P < 0.02 , P < 0.001). Serum insulin, leptin, and ghrelin (total) levels predicted body fat (P < 0.001), whereas IGF-1 and thyroid hormone levels (T3, free T3) predicted lean tissue mass (P < 0.01). Systemic inflammation primarily explained variation in lean tissue and secondarily explained loss in body fat. Depletion of lean arm tissue was related most to short survival compared with the depletion of lean leg and trunk tissue. CONCLUSIONS The current results demonstrated that body fat was lost more rapidly than lean tissue in progressive cancer cachexia, a phenomenon that was related highly to alterations in the levels of circulating classic hormones and food intake, including both caloric amount and diet composition. The results showed importance in the planning of efficient palliative treatment for cancer patients. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]

Incidence patterns of invasive and borderline ovarian tumors among white women and black women in the United States,

CANCER, Issue 11 2002
Results from the SEER Program
Abstract BACKGROUND Malignant tumors of the ovary are the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the United States. Population-based incidence data for these neoplasms by histopathologic type and race are limited. Variation in rates may provide clues for future etiologic studies. METHODS The authors performed a detailed, population-based analysis of U.S. incidence rates by histologic type, race, and age for invasive ovarian tumors that were diagnosed during 1978,1998 and for borderline ovarian tumors that were diagnosed during 1992,1998 using data from the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. RESULTS White women had significantly higher rates compared with black women of all types of epithelial tumors, with the white:black rate ratios ranging from 1.23 to 2.56. Black women had higher rates of gonadal stromal tumors. Among both white women and black women, total carcinoma rates did not change greatly from 1978,1982 to 1995,1998. Among white women, the reported incidence rates for invasive serous, endometrioid, and clear cell tumors increased during 1978,1998, whereas the rates of mucinous; papillary, not otherwise specified (NOS); and other epithelial tumors declined. Among black women, the reported rates of papillary, NOS tumors decreased significantly, whereas the rates of other tumor types fluctuated. Incidence rates of borderline ovarian tumors were higher among white women compared with black women and did not change significantly during 1992,1998. Serous and mucinous tumors were the predominant tumors reported for women age < 45 years, whereas serous; papillary, NOS; and other epithelial tumors predominated among older women. CONCLUSIONS Incidence rates for malignant ovarian tumors have remained relatively stable, with higher rates for white women compared with black women. The reported rates for some specific histopathologic tumor types have changed over time, in part reflecting more specific pathologic classification. The possible effect of shifting exposure prevalence on incidence patterns warrants further study. Cancer 2002;95:2380,9. Published 2002 by the American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10935 [source]

Hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin in patients who undergo cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis

CANCER, Issue 2 2002
Phase I study
Abstract BACKGROUND Hyperthermic intraperitoneal intraoperative chemotherapy (HIIC) combined with cytoreductive surgery (CS) has been proposed as a new multimodal treatment mainly for carcinomatosis of gastrointestinal origin. To evaluate whether this regimen could be used for other tumor types, the authors conducted a Phase I study on HIIC with doxorubicin and cisplatin in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis or sarcomatosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Thirty-one patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis or sarcomatosis (PCS) were enrolled for the study. After completion of CS, HIIC was administered with drug doses that were increased for each consecutive cohort following a three-patient cohort scheme. Thereafter, the accrual was stopped when Grade 4 locoregional or systemic toxicity was observed. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was considered the dose in the previous triplet. Drug pharmacokinetics and procedure costs also were analyzed. RESULTS After CS, residual tumors were not present or measured less than or equal to 3 mm (in dimension) in all cases. Maximum tolerated dose was 15.25 and 43.00 mg L,1 for doxorubicin and cisplatin, respectively. The perfusate/plasma area under the curve ratios were favorable for both drugs, at 162 ± 113 and 20.6 ± 6.0, respectively, for doxorubicin and cisplatin. Doxorubicin levels in the peritoneum were higher than in tumor or normal tissue samples. There were no postoperative deaths. Surgery-related complications were observed in 25% of cases. Findings at cost analysis showed that the length of stay in the operation room and intensive care unit were the major cost drivers. CONCLUSIONS Cytoreductive surgery combined with HIIC is an expensive but feasible therapeutic approach for locally advanced abdominal tumors. Because our preliminary findings for local disease control are encouraging, a Phase II study is now advisable to verify the activity of this promising treatment. Cancer 2002;94:492,9. © 2002 American Cancer Society. [source]