Other Species (other + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Other Species

  • many other species

  • Selected Abstracts

    When It Comes to Mechanism, Is It Worth Studying Any Other Species Besides Mice?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Gregory F. Ball
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Fireflies with or without prespermatophores: Evolutionary origins and life-history consequences

    Fumio Hayashi
    Abstract During mating, some male North American fireflies produce spermatophores from prespermatophores in their paired reproductive accessory glands. Other species of fireflies have neither prespermatophores nor spermatophores. To establish a pattern of spermatophore occurrence across firefly species, we examined the male internal reproductive system in 20 Japanese species belonging to 10 genera for the presence or absence of prespermatophores. Twelve species from seven genera produced prespermatophores, while eight species from three genera did not. Superimposed on a molecular phylogeny of Japanese fireflies based on mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences, the basal group was prespermatophore producers. Prespermatophores appear to have been lost in two different lineages. Species without prespermatophores are characterized by degeneration of both the forewings and hindwings, and by body gigantism in females. [source]

    New taxonomic concepts for the important forest pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and related fungi

    Marieka Gryzenhout
    Abstract Species of Cryphonectria include some of the world's most important and devastating tree pathogens. Largely through the application of DNA sequence phylogenies, the taxonomy of these fungi has undergone major changes in recent years. Cryphonectria, including the chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica, has been restricted to species that have semi-immersed stromata, orange and pulvinate conidiomata, and one-septate ascospores. Other species of Cryphonectria with different morphological characteristics have been transferred to new genera that are strongly supported by phylogenetic data. This review represents a summary of the taxonomic changes to species of Cryphonectria sensu lato, and we discuss the impact that these changes might have on the understanding of their ecology, pathology and worldwide distribution. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2005
    E.N. AMADI
    ABSTRACT Fresh, different meat types and offal were examined for the occurrence of Aeromonas species by the direct-plating and enrichment methods. The enrichment method (coefficient of variation = 15.1%) enhanced the recovery of Aeromonas species. The major Aeromonas species identified were A. sobria (67.3%) and A. hydrophila (21.2%). Other species occurred in minor proportions and were A. caviae, A. proteolytica and A. salmonicida. Out of the 52 isolates, 50 were motile species except two which were not motile and identified as the species A. proteolytica. Sixteen motile species occurred in cow, 18 in goat and 16 in lamb. The motile species and the two nonmotile species were hemolytic. They were all sensitive to chloramphenicol (30 mg) and resistant to ampicillin (10 mg). The nonmotile A. proteolytica were all resistant to tetracycline. Aeromonas caviae, A. salmonicida, A. hydrophila and A. sobria were killed after exposure to 50C (decimal reduction time, D10 = 30 s). Aeromonads are unlikely to pose a public health problem in Nigeria where meat undergoes prolonged cooking. Meat is a possible factor in the epidemiology of Aeromonas -associated gastroenteritis in man. [source]

    Nutrient requirements of ephemeral plant species from wet, mesotrophic soils

    Emiel; Brouwer
    van der Meijden (1996) Abstract. Nanocyperion plant communities occur on wet, more or less nutrient-poor and sparsely vegetated soils in temperate climates and are characterized by tiny, very shortlived plant species. Most of these have become locally extinct. It is generally assumed that drainage and eutrophication were the most important reasons for this decrease. However, chemical analysis of soil pore water from plots on growth sites of these ephemerals showed that phosphorus availability was relatively high. In a greenhouse experiment, the growth of ephemeral species was strongly limited by the amount of available phosphorus, whereas there was little or no limitation to the growth of other plant species from this habitat. At low phosphorus concentrations, the ephemeral species reached their reproductive phase within the same period, but showed a strong reduction in the amount of flowers that were produced. We concluded that ephemeral species in particular require a minimum amount of phosphorus for reproduction. Other species on nutrient-poor, wet soils have a longer life span and can postpone flowering in nutrient-poor soils. In contrast to other short-lived plant species from the same habitat, the growth of ephemeral species was barely stimulated by enhanced nitrogen availability. Apparently, the ephemerals are adapted to low nitrogen concentrations. The occurrence on nitrogen-poor and relatively phosphorus-rich soils suggests that this community may be very sensitive to nitrogen deposition. Reduced phosphorus availability below the minimum requirements of ephemerals, for example after acidification or the exclusion of human activities, has possibly contributed to the decrease of ephemeral plant species. [source]

    The development of sustainable earthworm populations at Calvert landfill site, UK

    K. R. Butt
    Abstract Earthworms Allolobophora chlorotica and Aporrectodea longa were inoculated into Calvert landfill site in spring 1992, in conjunction with the planting of two tree species Alnus glutinosa and Acer pseudoplatanus. Monitoring has taken place over a period of 11 years. Sampling in 2003 revealed that earthworm distribution no longer equated to the inoculation treatments; the worms had spread extensively. The presence of A. glutinosa had a significant effect (p<0,01) on earthworm number (mean density 198,m,2) and biomass (34,g,m,2) compared to plots where A. pseudoplatanus had been planted and subsequently died (mean density 118,m,2; biomass 21,g,m,2). Results suggest that tree presence may be critical to earthworm community development. In 2002, the spread of A. chlorotica from the original points of inoculation had reached 60,m with the highest recorded population density at 108,m,2 with a mass of 18,6,g,m,2. A. longa was recorded at a distance of 132,m from the nearest point of inoculation with the highest recorded population density at 70,m,2 with a mass of 49,3,g,m,2, 10,m from the original inoculation grid. Other species recorded (and % of total) were Aporrectodea rosea (0,9) Lumbricus castaneus (7,4), Eiseniella tetraedra (21,5) and Lumbricus rubellus (4,5). The two inoculated species, A. chlorotica (40,4) and A. longa (25,3), accounted for two thirds of the earthworms found on site. The highest earthworm community density was 213,m,2 with a mass of 73,9,g,m,2 at 10,m from original point of inoculation. In 1999, treatments of surface organic matter (OM), in the form of composted green waste, and rotavation were applied to non-replicated plots of 50,m2 with the effects on earthworm distribution and abundance recorded in 2002. Addition of OM alone led to an increase in number and mass (331,m,2; 95,g,m,2) compared to the control (233,m,2; 51,g,m,2), while rotavation alone (111,m,2; 36,g,m,2) had a detrimental effect over the given time period. This long-term monitoring programme has demonstrated the development of sustainable earthworm communities on a landfill site. Natural nutrient accumulation and addition of OM on or into the soil-forming material appeared to assist this process. This work may help to inform post-capping treatment at similar landfill sites Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    From the mountains to the sea: assemblage structure and dynamics in Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in the Clyde River estuarine gradient, New South Wales, south-eastern Australia

    Sophia Dimitriadis
    Abstract, Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera: non-biting midges) were surveyed at five shallow riffle stations along the estuarine gradient of the Clyde River, southern New South Wales (35°45,S, 150°15,E). Benthic populations were sampled seasonally between April 2001 and January 2002, between an uppermost fully fresh station and 7 km south of the tidal limit at Shallow Crossing, encompassing a 23 km stretch. Biological structure and integrity of chironomid assemblages, which are essentially unknown in eastern Australia's estuarine environments, were elucidated. Assemblages were diverse: from 5732 chironomid larvae, 45 species belonging to four subfamilies were identified from riffles. All chironomid assemblages were strongly structured and non-random with respect to spatial position along the salinity gradient although relatively random with respect to temporal shifts between the five seasonal samples. Generally, the salinity gradient had strong effects on assemblage composition but no discrete brackish fauna was identifiable, and the abundance of many species declined gradually with distance from the freshest station. Dominant taxa in the brackish zone were Parakiefferiella,variegatus' and two species of Cladotanytarsus. Notably, the little-known Semiocladius crassipennis Skuse (Orthocladiinae) was abundant at the most marine-influenced station. Taxa present exclusively in freshwaters included several Tanypodinae notably absent from sites below Shallow Crossing at salinities normally tolerated in athalassic waters. Other species restricted to freshwaters included Nanocladius sp., Demicryptochironomus (Irmakia) sp., Polypedilum vespertinus (Skuse), Zavrelliella fuscoguttata (Kieffer), Riethia stictoptera (Kieffer) and Podonomopsis sp. [source]

    The evolution of rewards: seed dispersal, seed size and elaiosome size

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Summary 1We examine the relationship between the reward offered to ants to disperse seeds (elaiosome size) and seed size, and the possible mechanisms that may generate this relationship in Australian plant species. 2We used seed and elaiosome sizes from our own data set containing 87 Acacia species, supplemented with 22 species from a previously published data set, and 98 ,Other species' from 51 genera in 25 families, also from published data. 3The relationship between ln(elaiosome size) and ln(seed size) was determined using standard major axis (SMA) regression for both data sets. For the Other data set we also determined the relationship among species independent of the differences between genera, among genera independent of the differences between families, among genera and among families. We used SMA to test for differences in slopes between groups. 4We found a significant common slope amongst all subsets of the larger data set. The estimated common slope and the 95% confidence interval for the relationship between ln(elaiosome size) and ln(seed size) across all data sets fell above one (1.24, 95%CI = 1.17,1.32), suggesting positive allometry. Slopes were also significantly positive and strikingly similar between the Acacia species data set and the Other species data sets. Similar positive allometry was shown in the ,other' species data set among genera and families, and among species independent of genus means (,species effects'). 5Significant and consistent relationships between taxonomic levels, independent of relationships at other levels, along with significant relationships at the species level, and similarity of slopes, suggest independent convergence towards an underlying functional relationship that has persisted over long evolutionary periods. Our results therefore suggest that ants have been agents of selection on seed traits. 6Such a functional relationship might result from a trade-off in ant foraging behaviour between the benefit of the reward (elaiosome) and the cost of the dispersal (determined by seed size). Slopes > 1 would then suggest that ants need more than proportionally larger rewards to remove larger seeds. [source]

    Developmental toxicity of estrogenic chemicals on rodents and other species

    Taisen Iguchi
    ABSTRACT, Antenatal sex-hormone exposure induces lesions in mouse reproductive organs, which are similar to those in humans exposed in utero to a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol. The developing organisms including rodents, fish and amphibians are particularly sensitive to exposure to estrogenic chemicals during a critical window. Exposure to estrogens during the critical period induces long-term changes in reproductive as well as non-reproductive organs, including persistent molecular alterations. The antenatal mouse model can be utilized as an indicator of possible long-term consequences of exposure to exogenous estrogenic compounds including possible environmental endocrine disrupters. Many chemicals released into the environment potentially disrupt the endocrine system in wildlife and humans, some of which exhibit estrogenic activity by binding to the estrogen receptors. Estrogen responsive genes, therefore, need to be identified to understand the molecular basis of estrogenic actions. In order to understand molecular mechanisms of estrogenic chemicals on developing organisms, we are identifying estrogen responsive genes using cDNA microarray, quantitative RT-PCR, and differential display methods, and genes related to the estrogen-independent vaginal changes in mice induced by estrogens during the critical window. In this review, discussion of our own findings related to endocrine distuptor issue will be provided. [source]

    The Ecological Future of the North American Bison: Conceiving Long-Term, Large-Scale Conservation of Wildlife

    Bison bison; conservación de especies; Declaración de Vermejo; metas de conservación; representación ecológica Abstract:,Many wide-ranging mammal species have experienced significant declines over the last 200 years; restoring these species will require long-term, large-scale recovery efforts. We highlight 5 attributes of a recent range-wide vision-setting exercise for ecological recovery of the North American bison (Bison bison) that are broadly applicable to other species and restoration targets. The result of the exercise, the "Vermejo Statement" on bison restoration, is explicitly (1) large scale, (2) long term, (3) inclusive, (4) fulfilling of different values, and (5) ambitious. It reads, in part, "Over the next century, the ecological recovery of the North American bison will occur when multiple large herds move freely across extensive landscapes within all major habitats of their historic range, interacting in ecologically significant ways with the fullest possible set of other native species, and inspiring, sustaining and connecting human cultures." We refined the vision into a scorecard that illustrates how individual bison herds can contribute to the vision. We also developed a set of maps and analyzed the current and potential future distributions of bison on the basis of expert assessment. Although more than 500,000 bison exist in North America today, we estimated they occupy <1% of their historical range and in no place express the full range of ecological and social values of previous times. By formulating an inclusive, affirmative, and specific vision through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, we hope to provide a foundation for conservation of bison, and other wide-ranging species, over the next 100 years. Resumen:,Muchas especies de mamíferos de distribución amplia han experimentado declinaciones significativas durante los últimos 200 años; la restauración de estas especies requerirá esfuerzos de recuperación a largo plazo y a gran escala. Resaltamos 5 atributos de un reciente ejercicio de gran visión para la recuperación ecológica del bisonte de Norte América (Bison bison) que son aplicables en lo general a otras especies y objetivos de restauración. El resultado del ejercicio, la "Declaración de Vermejo", explícitamente es (1) de gran escala, (2) de largo plazo, (3) incluyente, (4) satisfactor de valores diferentes y (5) ambicioso. En parte, establece que "En el próximo siglo, la recuperación ecológica del Bisonte de Norte América ocurrirá cuando múltiples manadas se desplacen libremente en los extensos paisajes de todos los hábitats importantes en su rango de distribución histórica, interactúen de manera significativa ecológicamente con el conjunto más completo de otras especies nativas e inspiren, sostengan y conecten culturas humanas." Refinamos esta visión en una tarjeta de puntuación que ilustra cómo las manadas de bisonte individuales pueden contribuir a la visión. También desarrollamos un conjunto de mapas y analizamos las distribuciones actuales y potencialmente futuras del bisonte con base en la evaluación de expertos. Aunque actualmente existen más de 500,000 bisontes en Norte América, estimamos que ocupan <1% de su distribución histórica y no expresan el rango completo de valores ecológicos y culturales de otros tiempos. Mediante la formulación de una visión incluyente, afirmativa y específica basada en la consulta a una amplia gama de interesados, esperamos proporcionar un fundamento para la conservación del bisonte, y otras especies de distribución amplia, para los próximos 100 años. [source]

    Pacific Salmon Extinctions: Quantifying Lost and Remaining Diversity

    biodiversidad; diversidad de salmones; extinción de poblaciones; historia de vida de salmones Abstract:,Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend on the ability of Pacific salmon to adapt to anthropogenically altered habitats. Resumen:,Las extirpaciones generalizadas de poblaciones y la consecuente pérdida de diversidad ecológica, genética y de historia natural puede llevar a la extinción de unidades evolutivamente significativas (UES) y especies. Intentamos enumerar sistemáticamente a las poblaciones extintas de salmón del Pacífico y caracterizar a los tipos de diversidad ecológica, de historia natural y genética de seis especies de salmón del Pacífico Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. nerka, O. kisutch, O. keta, y O. gorbuscha; y trucha O. mykiss en el occidente de Estados Unidos. Estimamos que, colectivamente, se ha perdido a 29% de casi 1400 poblaciones históricas de estas seis especies en el Pacífico Noroeste y California desde la colonización europea. En todas las especies hubo una diferencia altamente significativa en la proporción de extinción de poblaciones entre regiones costeras (0.14 extintas) e interiores (0.55 extintas). O. nerka (que típicamente cría en hábitats lacustres) y O. tshawytscha (que permanece en agua dulce por muchos meses antes del desove) tuvieron pérdidas poblacionales significativamente mayores que las otras especies y tipos de maduración. Se estimó que las pérdidas agregadas de componentes mayores de la biodiversidad ecológica, de historia natural y genética en todas las especies fueron de 33%, 15% y 27%, respectivamente. Colectivamente, consideramos que estas extirpaciones de poblaciones representan una pérdida entre 16% y 30% de todas las UES históricas en el área de estudio. Por otro lado, más de dos tercios de las poblaciones históricas de salmón del Pacífico persisten en esta área, y aun hay considerable diversidad en todas las escalas. Debido a que más de un tercio de las poblaciones restantes pertenecen a especies enlistadas como amenazadas o en peligro en el Acta de Especies en Peligro de E. U. A., es evidente que se ha llegado a una disyuntiva crítica en los esfuerzos para preservar lo que queda de la diversidad de salmón del Pacífico. También es evidente que la persistencia de la diversidad existente, y su futura evolución, dependerá de la habilidad del salmón del Pacífico para adaptarse a hábitats alterados antropogénicamente. [source]

    Rare Species and the Use of Indicator Groups for Conservation Planning

    Joshua J. Lawler
    Although tests of the concept have produced varied results, sites selected to address indicator groups can include a high proportion of other species. We tested the hypothesis that species at risk of extinction are not likely to be included in sites selected to protect indicator groups. Using a reserve-selection approach, we compared the ability of seven indicator groups,freshwater fish, birds, mammals, freshwater mussels, reptiles, amphibians, and at-risk species of those six taxa,to provide protection for other species in general and at-risk species in particular in the Middle Atlantic region of the United States. Although sites selected with single taxonomic indicator groups provided protection for between 61% and 82% of all other species, no taxonomic group provided protection for more than 58% of all other at-risk species. The failure to cover at-risk species is likely linked to their rarity. By examining the relationship between a species' probability of coverage by each indicator group and the extent of its geographic range within the study area, we found that species with more restricted ranges were less likely to be protected than more widespread species. Furthermore, we found that although sites selected with indicator groups composed primarily of terrestrial species ( birds and mammals ) included relatively high percentages of those species ( 82,85% ) they included smaller percentages of strictly aquatic species (27,55%). Finally, of both importance and possible utility, we found that at-risk species themselves performed well as an indicator group, covering an average of 84% of all other species. Resumen: Los indicadores de la biodiversidad han sido propuestos como una herramienta potencial en la selección de áreas para conservación cuando la información sobre la distribución de algunas especies es escasa. A pesar de que algunas evaluaciones de este concepto han producido resultados variados, los sitios seleccionados para evaluar grupos indicadores pueden incluir una alta proporción de otras especies. Evaluamos la hipótesis de que las especies en riesgo de extinción probablemente no se incluyan en sitios seleccionados para proteger grupos indicadores. Usando la metodología de selección de reserva, comparamos la capacidad de siete grupos indicadores ( peces de agua dulce, aves, mamíferos, almejas de agua dulce, reptiles, anfibios y especies en riesgo de estos seis taxones ) para proveer protección a otras especies en general y especies en riesgo, en particular, en la región del Atlántico Medio de los Estados Unidos. A pesar de que los sitios con un solo grupo indicador proporcionaron protección para el 61% al 82% de todas las otras especies, ningún grupo taxonómico proporcionó protección para más del 58% de todas las otras especies en riesgo. La incapacidad de proteger especies en riesgo posiblemente se vincule con su rareza. Al examinar la relación entre la probabilidad de cobertura de una especie para cada grupo indicador y la extensión de su rango geográfico dentro del área de estudio, encontramos que las especies con rangos más restringidos tenían menor probabilidad de ser protegidas que las especies de distribución más amplia. Además, encontramos que, a pesar de que los sitios seleccionados con grupos indicadores compuestos principalmente por especies terrestres ( aves y mamíferos ) incluyeron porcentajes relativamente altos de estas especies ( 82%,85% ), éstos incluyeron porcentajes más bajos de especies estrictamente acuáticas ( 27%,55% ). Finalmente, de importancia y posible utilidad, encontramos que las especies en riesgo, por si mismas, funcionaron bien como grupo indicador, abarcando, en promedio, el 84% de todas las otras especies. [source]

    Spatial Tests of the Pesticide Drift, Habitat Destruction, UV-B, and Climate-Change Hypotheses for California Amphibian Declines

    Carlos Davidson
    In California, the transport and deposition of pesticides from the agriculturally intensive Central Valley to the adjacent Sierra Nevada is well documented, and pesticides have been found in the bodies of Sierra frogs. Pesticides are therefore a plausible cause of declines, but to date no direct links have been found between pesticides and actual amphibian population declines. Using a geographic information system, we constructed maps of the spatial pattern of declines for eight declining California amphibian taxa, and compared the observed patterns of decline to those predicted by hypotheses of wind-borne pesticides, habitat destruction, ultraviolet radiation, and climate change. In four species, we found a strong positive association between declines and the amount of upwind agricultural land use, suggesting that wind-borne pesticides may be an important factor in declines. For two other species, declines were strongly associated with local urban and agricultural land use, consistent with the habitat-destruction hypothesis. The patterns of decline were not consistent with either the ultraviolet radiation or climate-change hypotheses for any of the species we examined. Resumen: Por mucho tiempo se ha sugerido que los pesticidas transportados por el viento son una causa de la declinación de anfibios en áreas sin destrucción de hábitat evidente. En California, el transporte y depósito de pesticidas provenientes del Valle Central, donde se practica la agricultura intensiva, hacia la Sierra Nevada adyacente está bien documentado y se han encontrado pesticidas en el cuerpo de ranas de la Sierra. Por lo tanto, los pesticidas son una causa verosímil de las declinaciones, pero a la fecha no se han encontrado relaciones directas entre los pesticidas y la declinación de anfibios. Construimos mapas de sistemas de información geográfica del patrón espacial de las declinaciones de ocho taxones de anfibios de California, y comparamos los patrones de declinación observados con los esperados por las hipótesis de pesticidas transportados por el viento, la destrucción del hábitat, la radiación ultravioleta y el cambio climático. En cuatro especies, encontramos una fuerte asociación positiva entre las declinaciones y la cantidad de tierras de uso agrícola en dirección contraria a los vientos, lo que sugiere que los pesticidas transportados por el viento pueden ser un factor importante en las declinaciones. Para otras dos especies, las declinaciones se asociaron contundentemente con el uso del suelo urbano y agrícola, lo cual es consistente con la hipótesis de la destrucción del hábitat. Los patrones de declinación no fueron consistentes con la hipótesis de la radiación ultravioleta ni la de cambio climático para ninguna de las especies examinadas. [source]

    Application of the New Keystone-Species Concept to Prairie Dogs: How Well Does It Work?

    Natasha B. Kotliar
    This prompted Power et al. (1996) to refine the definition: keystone species have large effects on community structure or ecosystem function (i.e., high overall importance), and this effect should be large relative to abundance (i.e., high community importance). Using prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) as an example, I review operational and conceptual difficulties encountered in applying this definition. As applied to prairie dogs, the implicit assumption that overall importance is a linear function of abundance is invalid. In addition, community importance is sensitive to abundance levels, the definition of community, and sampling scale. These problems arise largely from the equation for community importance, as used in conjunction with removal experiments at single abundance levels. I suggest that we shift from the current emphasis on the dualism between keystone and nonkeystone species and instead examine how overall and community importance vary (1) with abundance, (2) across spatial and temporal scales, and (3) under diverse ecological conditions. In addition, I propose that a third criterion be incorporated into the definition: keystone species perform roles not performed by other species or processes. Examination of how these factors vary among populations of keystone species should help identify the factors contributing to, or limiting, keystone-level functions, thereby increasing the usefulness of the keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. Although the quantitative framework of Power et al. falls short of being fully operational, my conceptual guidelines may improve the usefulness of the keystone-species concept. Careful attention to the factors that limit keystone function will help avoid misplaced emphasis on keystone species at the expense of other species. Resumen: Se ha sugerido que el concepto de especie pilar no sea usado más en ecología y conservación, principalmente debido a que el concepto ha sido pobremente definido. Esto instigó a Power et al. (1996) a refinar la definición: las especies pilar tienen grandes efectos en la estructura de una comunidad o la función de un ecosistema (alta importancia en lo general), y este efecto debe ser grande en relación con la abundancia (alta importancia en la comunidad). Usando los perros de pradera (Cynomys spp) como ejemplo, revisé las dificultades operativas y conceptuales encontradas durante la aplicación de esta definición. Al aplicarse a perros de pradera, la suposición implícita de que la importancia en lo general es una función lineal de la abundancia es inválida. Además, la importancia en la comunidad es sensible a los niveles de abundancia, a la definición de comunidad y a la escala de muestreo. Estos problemas surgen, en gran medida, de la ecuación para la importancia en la comunidad, al ser usada conjuntamente con experimentos de remoción a un solo nivel de abundancia. Sugiero que el énfasis actual en la dualidad sobre especies pilares/no pilares cambie para examinar cómo varía la importancia en lo general y en la comunidad; (1) con la abundancia, (2) a lo largo de escalas espaciales y temporales, y (3) bajo diversas condiciones ecológicas. Además, propongo que sea incorporado un tercer criterio en la definición: las especies pilar llevan a cabo funciones no llevadas a cabo por otras especies o procesos. El análisis de cómo varían estos factores entre poblaciones de especies pilar ayudará a identificar los factores que contribuyen, o limitan las funciones a nivel pilar, incrementando con ello la utilidad del concepto de especie pilar en ecología y conservación. Aunque el marco de trabajo cuantitativo de Power et al. no llega a ser completamente operacional, mis guías conceptuales pueden mejorar la utilidad de este concepto. Una atención especial a los factores que limitan el funcionamiento pilar ayudaría a evitar un énfasis mal ubicado en especies pilar a costa de otras especies. [source]

    Conservation and expression of IQ-domain-containing calpacitin gene products (neuromodulin/GAP-43, neurogranin/RC3) in the adult and developing oscine song control system

    David F. Clayton
    Abstract Songbirds are appreciated for the insights they provide into regulated neural plasticity. Here, we describe the comparative analysis and brain expression of two gene sequences encoding probable regulators of synaptic plasticity in songbirds: neuromodulin (GAP-43) and neurogranin (RC3). Both are members of the calpacitin family and share a distinctive conserved core domain that mediates interactions between calcium, calmodulin, and protein kinase C signaling pathways. Comparative sequence analysis is consistent with known phylogenetic relationships, with songbirds most closely related to chicken and progressively more distant from mammals and fish. The C-terminus of neurogranin is different in birds and mammals, and antibodies to the protein reveal high expression in adult zebra finches in cerebellar Purkinje cells, which has not been observed in other species. RNAs for both proteins are generally abundant in the telencephalon yet markedly reduced in certain nuclei of the song control system in adult canaries and zebra finches: neuromodulin RNA is very low in RA and HVC (relative to the surrounding pallial areas), whereas neurogranin RNA is conspicuously low in Area X (relative to surrounding striatum). In both cases, this selective downregulation develops in the zebra finch during the juvenile song learning period, 25,45 days after hatching. These results suggest molecular parallels to the robust stability of the adult avian song control circuit. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]

    Body musculature of Beauchampiella eudactylota (Gosse, 1886) (Rotifera: Euchlanidae) with additional new data on its trophi and overall morphology

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    O. Riemann
    Abstract This study presents the results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence-labelled phalloidin used to visualize the system of body musculature in Beauchampiella eudactylota. Moreover, the poorly known trophi of B. eudactylota are described based on scanning electron microscopy. In total, four paired longitudinal muscles (musculi longitudinales I,IV) and three circular muscles (musculi circulares I,III) were identified. Among these are the musculus longitudinalis ventralis, the musculus longitudinalis dorsalis and the musculus circumpedalis as documented in previous studies for other rotifer species. Compared to other species, B. eudactylota is characterized by the low number of lateral longitudinal muscles and the absence of some longitudinal muscles (musculi longitudinales capitum) and circular muscles (corona sphincter, musculus pars coronalis). Moreover, scanning electron microscopic data on the trophi of B. eudactylota reveal a number of striking similarities to the trophi in some species of Epiphanidae. This suggests that either (1) these similarities represent plesiomorphic characters present both in Epiphanidae and B. eudactylota or (2) they are synapomorphic features of B. eudactylota and some species of Epiphanidae, which would question the monophyly of Euchlanidae. [source]

    Residence time and potential range: crucial considerations in modelling plant invasions

    John R. U. Wilson
    ABSTRACT A prime aim of invasion biology is to predict which species will become invasive, but retrospective analyses have so far failed to develop robust generalizations. This is because many biological, environmental, and anthropogenic factors interact to determine the distribution of invasive species. However, in this paper we also argue that many analyses of invasiveness have been flawed by not considering several fundamental issues: (1) the range size of an invasive species depends on how much time it has had to spread (its residence time); (2) the range size and spread rate are mediated by the total extent of suitable (i.e. potentially invasible) habitat; and (3) the range size and spread rate depend on the frequency and intensity of introductions (propagule pressure), the position of founder populations in relation to the potential range, and the spatial distribution of the potential range. We explored these considerations using a large set of invasive alien plant species in South Africa for which accurate distribution data and other relevant information were available. Species introduced earlier and those with larger potential ranges had larger current range sizes, but we found no significant effect of the spatial distribution of potential ranges on current range sizes, and data on propagule pressure were largely unavailable. However, crucially, we showed that: (1) including residence time and potential range always significantly increases the explanatory power of the models; and (2) residence time and potential range can affect which factors emerge as significant determinants of invasiveness. Therefore, analyses not including potential range and residence time can come to misleading conclusions. When these factors were taken into account, we found that nitrogen-fixing plants and plants invading arid regions have spread faster than other species, but these results were phylogenetically constrained. We also show that, when analysed in the context of residence time and potential range, variation in range size among invasive species is implicitly due to variation in spread rates, and, that by explicitly assuming a particular model of spread, it is possible to estimate changes in the rates of plant invasions through time. We believe that invasion biology can develop generalizations that are useful for management, but only in the context of a suitable null model. [source]

    MDMA, methamphetamine and their combination: possible lessons for party drug users from recent preclinical research

    Abstract The substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ,Ecstasy') and methamphetamine (METH, ,ice', ,speed') are increasingly popular drugs amongst party-drug users. Studies with humans have investigated the acute and possible long-term adverse effects of these drugs, yet outcomes of such studies are often ambiguous due to a variety of confounding factors. Studies employing animal models have value in determining the acute and long-term effects of MDMA and METH on brain and behaviour. Self-administration studies show that intravenous METH is a particularly potent reinforcer in rats and other species. In contrast, MDMA appears to have powerful effects in enhancing social behaviour in laboratory animals. Brief exposure to MDMA or METH may produce long-term reductions in dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain and alterations in the density of various receptor and transporter proteins. However it is still unclear, particularly in the case of MDMA, whether this reflects a ,neurotoxic' effect of the drug. Lasting alterations in social behaviour, anxiety, depressive symptoms and memory have been demonstrated in laboratory rats given MDMA or METH and this matches long-term changes reported in some human studies. Recent laboratory studies suggest that MDMA/METH combinations may produce greater adverse neurochemical and behavioural effects than either drug alone. This is of some concern given recent evidence that party drug users may be frequently exposed to this combination of drugs. [source]

    The musculature of three species of gastrotrichs surveyed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2006
    Francesca Leasi
    Abstract The muscular system of gastrotrichs consists of circular, longitudinal and helicoidal bands that when analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy, provide new insights into their functional organization and phylogenetic importance. We therefore undertook a comparative study of the muscle organization in three species of Gastrotricha from the orders Macrodasyida (Paradasys sp., Lepidodasyidae; Turbanella sp., Turbanellidae) and Chaetonotida (Polymerurus nodicaudus, Chaetonotidae). The general muscle organization of the marine interstitial macrodasyidans, Paradasys and Turbanella, not only confirms earlier observation on other species but also adds new details concerning the organization and number of helicoidal, longitudinal and other muscle bands (e.g. semicircular band). The freshwater, epibenthic,epiphytic chaetonotid, Polymerurus nodicaudus, has a similar muscular organization to other species of Chaetonotidae, especially species of Chaetonotus, Halichaetonotus and Lepidodermella. Perhaps unique to Polymerurus is the combined presence of an unbranched Rückenhautmuskel (also in Halichaetonotus and Lepidodermella) and a specialized dorsoventral caudal muscle, which flank the splanchnic component of the longitudinal muscles (only in Chaetonotus and Lepidodermella). This combination, together with the presence of splanchnic dorsoventral muscles, known only in Xenotrichulidae, implies a unique phylogenetic position for Polymerurus, and indicates a potential basal position of this taxon among the Chaetonotidae studied so far (i.e. Aspidiophorus, Chaetonotus, Halichaetonotus and Lepidodermella). [source]

    Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical observations of the nervous systems of three macrodasyidan gastrotrichs

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2003
    R. Hochberg
    Abstract The nervous systems of three macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, Dactylopodola baltica, Macrodasys caudatus and Dolichodasys elongatus, were investigated using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Labelling of neural structures against serotonin revealed the presence of two pairs of cerebral cells, a dorsal cerebral connective, and paired ventral nerve cords in D. baltica. In M. caudatus and D. elongatus serotonin immunoreactivity was present in a single pair of dorsal cerebral cells and the ventral nerve cords; the dorsal connective of D. elongatus was also immunoreactive to serotonin and acetylated ,-tubulin. The presence of paired, serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in D. baltica and other species may represent the plesiomorphic condition in Macrodasyida. The fine structure of the photoreceptors in D. baltica was also investigated to explore the potential ground pattern for eyes in the Macrodasyida. The pigmented photoreceptors of D. baltica contain a unicellular pigment cup, sheath cell and sensory receptor. The pigment cup contains numerous osmiophilic granules that presumably function to shield the eyes from downwelling light in the red part of the spectrum. Projecting into the pigment cup and sheath cell are numerous microvilli from a bipolar sensory cell. A single sensory cell may represent the plesiomorphic condition in Macrodasyida, with multiplication of sensory cells representative of more derived taxa. [source]

    Runoff and soil loss under individual plants of a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland: influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity

    E. Bochet
    Abstract The influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity on soil loss and runoff was determined at the plant scale for three representative species of a semi-arid patchy shrubland vegetation of east Spain, representing contrasting canopy structures and plant phenologies (Rosmarinus officinalis, Anthyllis cytisoides and Stipa tenacissima). Twenty-seven microplots of less than 1 m2, each containing one single plant, were built to quantify runoff volume and sediment yield under the canopies of the three species. Runoff and rates of soil loss measured in these plots under natural rainfall conditions were compared with control microplots built in the bare inter-plant areas. Precipitation was automatic-ally recorded and rainfall intensity calculated over a two-year period. Results indicated that individual plants played a relevant role in interrill erosion control at the microscale. Compared with a bare soil surface, rates of soil loss and runoff reduction varied strongly depending on the species. Cumulative soil loss was reduced by 94·3, 88·0 and 30·2 per cent, and cumulative runoff volume was reduced by 66·4, 50·8 and 18·4 per cent under the Rosmarinus, Stipa and Anthyllis canopies, respectively, compared with a bare surface. Anthyllis was significantly less efficient than the two other species in reducing runoff volume under its canopy. Differences between species could only be identified above a rainfall intensity threshold of 20 mm h,1. The different plant morphologies and plant compon-ents explained the different erosive responses of the three species. Canopy cover played a major role in runoff and soil loss reduction. The presence of a second layer of protection at the soil surface (litter cover) was fundamental for erosion control during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity and soil water status prior to rainfall strongly influenced runoff and soil loss rates. The possible use of these species in restoration programmes of degraded areas is discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Correlation of fluorescence and electron microscopy of F-actin-containing sensory cells in the epidermis of Convoluta pulchra (Platyhelminthes: Acoela)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2002
    R Pfistermüller
    Abstract Phalloidin-stained whole mounts of acoel turbellarians show brightly fluorescing club-shaped structures distributed over the epidermis and concentrated especially at the anterior and posterior tips of the body. By correlating electron micrographic images and fluorescence images of Convoluta pulchra, these structures can be seen to be sensory receptors with a central cilium surrounded by a collar of microvilli. The other candidate for showing fluorescence in the epidermis, namely gland necks, can be ruled out since their distribution is too dense to resemble the distribution of the fluorescent structures seen here. The collared sensory receptors were inserted between epidermal cells, and each bore a central cilium surrounded by a collar of 6,18 microvilli and an additional centrally positioned 2,7 microvilli of which 2 or 3 were associated with a modified rootlet called the swallow's nest. Confocal scanning laser microscopy resolved the core of actin filaments within the microvilli of the collar and their rootlet-like connections to the base of the sensory cell. Such receptors could also be identified by fluorescence microscopy in several other species of acoel turbellarians. [source]

    Ultrastructure of the seminal receptacle and the dimorphic sperm in the commensal bivalve Mysella bidentata (Veneroida; Galeommatoidea; Montacutidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2001
    Åse Jespersen
    Abstract Jespersen, Å. and Lützen, J. 2001. Ultrastructure of the seminal receptacle and the dimorphic sperm in the commensal bivalve Mysella bidentata (Veneroida: Galeommatoidea: Montacutidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82: 107,115 The seminal receptacle and the euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa of Mysella bidentata were examined at an ultrastructural level and the results were compared with earlier findings of the same and other species of the Montacutidae. The euspermatozoon has a slender 13 µm long nucleus and a 1.1 µm long bullet-shaped acrosome. The acrosome of the paraspermatozoon is almost identical in ultrastructure to that of the euspermatozoa but is longer (1.9 µm) and more slender and is bent at an angle to the diminutive nucleus (1.1 µm long). The unpaired seminal receptacle is lined by a heavily ciliated epithelium and a non-ciliated epithelium with short and broad microvilli. Euspermatozoa only are stored in the receptacle. They are densely packed and orientated with their heads towards the non-ciliated epithelium. In this position they develop numerous extremely fine microvilli from the acrosome which apparently serve to attach them to the epithelial microvillar surface. Stored sperm may presumably remain functional for at least six months. A possible function of paraspermatozoa could be to clump sperm into sperm bags to keep them in suspension. [source]

    The effects of green tree retention and subsequent prescribed burning on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in boreal pine-dominated forests

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2006
    Petri Martikainen
    We studied how two methods to promote biodiversity in managed forests, i.e. green tree retention and prescribed fire, affect the assemblages of carabid beetles. Our experiment consisted of 24 study sites, each 3,5 ha in size, which had been prepared according to factorial design. Each of the eight treatment combinations determined by the two factors explored , tree retention level (0, 10, 50 m3/ha,1 and uncut controls) and prescribed use of fire (yes/no) , was replicated three times. We sampled carabids using pitfall traps one year after the treatments. Significantly more individuals were caught in most of the burned sites, but this difference was partially reflective of the trap-catches of Pterostichus adstrictus. The fire did not increase no. of P. adstrictus in the uncut sites as much as in the other sites. Species richness was significantly affected by both factors, being higher in the burned than in the unburned sites and in the harvested than in the unharvested sites. Many species were concentrated in the groups of retention trees in the burned sites, but only a few were in the unburned sites. The species turnover was greater in the burned than in the unburned sites, as indicated by the NMDS ordinations. Greater numbers of smaller sized species and proportion of brachypterous species were present in the burned sites. Fire-favored species, and also the majority of other species that prefer open habitats were more abundantly caught in the burned sites than in the unburned sites. Dead wood or logging waste around the traps did not correlate with the occurrence of species. We conclude that carabids are well adapted to disturbances, and that frequent use of prescribed fire is essential for the maintenance of natural assemblages of carabid beetles in the boreal forest. Small retention tree groups can not maintain assemblages of uncut forest, but they can be important by providing food, shelter and breeding sites for many species, particularly in the burned sites. [source]

    Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities: a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
    Roel J. Strykstra
    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were ranked in eight classes according to their level of seed dispersal capability, their seed bank formation (dispersal in time and space) and their individual life span. In the communities, all eight classes were found, but communities differed in the distribution of the species over the classes. A theoretical framework was constructed to use the level of specialization of plant species in terms of dispersal in space and time, and life span, to define the characteristics of safe site dynamics within communities. Following simple rules, the relative reliability of the occurrence of safe sites in space and time was defined. After that, the relative reliability of the habitat was linked to the best fitting combination of trait specialization level. Having defined this link, communities could be characterized in a comparative way by their level and pattern of reliability of the opportunities for recruitment in space and time. The meaning of the coexistence of a range of trait combinations in one community was discussed. It was postulated that habitat reliability can explain this by assuming that the habitat of the community is part of a larger system, or consists of several "subsystems". These insights need to be considered in nature conservation. Succession and also specializations beyond the scope of dispersal and life span may influence the occurrence of species in a seemingly unfit habitat (for instance the occurrence of semi parasitic annuals in a community of perennials, because they use the perennial root system of other species). Finally, the meaning of safe site reliability in space and time in the context of restoration of communities was discussed. The reliability in space and time may be different today from that of the past, which restricts the feasibility of restoration of communities. [source]

    Modelling rainfall interception loss in forest restoration trials in Panama

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Darryl E. Carlyle-Moses
    Abstract A modified Liu analytical model of rainfall interception (Ic) by tree canopies was evaluated using rainfall, throughfall and stemflow data collected from forest restoration trials in the Republic of Panama. The model uses an introduced approach to estimating the water storage capacities of tree boles, which has a more realistic physical basis than earlier iterations of the Liu model. Study species (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Ochroma pyramidale, and Pachira quinata) were selected on the basis of differing leaf size and crown characteristics. Significant interspecific differences in both observed and simulated cumulative interception loss were found, with A. mangium intercepting more rainfall than other species. Errors between calculated and modelled cumulative Ic ranged from + 6·3% to + 30·5%, with modelled Ic always being the larger term. During-event evaporation rates from the study trees were positively related to tree height, crown area, and basal diameter. Crown area and the storage capacity of tree boles were negatively correlated. The results of a sensitivity analysis suggested that the modified model was most sensitive to variations in during-event evaporation rate. The implications of the model's sensitivity to during-event evaporation and the importance of this mechanism of interception loss are discussed, while suggestions are provided that may lead to further improvements to the analytical model. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Brood conspicuousness and clutch viability in male-caring assassin bugs (Rhinocoris tristis)

    Abstract 1.,Conspicuousness to mates can bring benefits to both males (increased mating success) and females (reduced search costs), but also brings costs (e.g. increased predation and parasitism). Assassin bugs, Rhinocoris tristis, lay egg clutches either on exposed stems or hidden under leaves. Males guard eggs against parasitoids. Guarding males are attractive to females who add subsequent clutches to the brood. This is an excellent opportunity to study the effects of conspicuousness on the fitness of males and females. 2.,Using viable eggs in a multi-clutch brood as a correlate of fitness, the present study examined whether laying eggs on stems affected (1) female fitness, through exposure to parasitism and cannibalism, and (2) male fitness, through attracting further females. 3.,Stem broods were more parasitised. However, males on stems accumulated more mates and more eggs, a net benefit even accounting for parasitism. The eggs gained from being on a stem were cannibalised. By contrast, higher mortality on stems suggests that females should gain by ovipositing on leaves. To the extent that egg viability represents fitness, male and female interests may therefore differ. This suggests a potential for sexual conflict that may affect other species with male care. 4.,Despite higher costs, females actually initiated more broods, and subsequently added bigger clutches to broods, on stems than under leaves. This suggests either that viable eggs do not reflect fitness, or that females laid in unfavourable locations. The key is now to address lifetime fitness, since unmeasured factors may affect offspring viability post-hatching, and to investigate who controls the location of oviposition in R. tristis. [source]

    Do past experience and competitive ability influence foraging strategies of parasitoids under interspecific competition?

    Abstract 1.,In solitary parasitoids, several species can exploit the same host patch and competition could potentially be a strong selective agent as only one individual can emerge from a host. In cereal crops, Aphidius rhopalosiphi and A. ervi share the grain aphid Sitobion avenae as host. 2.,The present work studied foraging strategies of both species on patches already exploited by the other species. The study analysed larval competition in multi-parasitised hosts and compared the foraging behaviour of females with and without previous experience. 3.,It was found that A. ervi wins larval competition three times more often than A. rhopalosiphi. Both species spent less time on patches exploited by a heterospecific than on unexploited ones. When they foraged on heterospecifically exploited patches, experienced females induced less mortality in aphids than inexperienced ones. 4.,Although A. rhopalosiphi is a specialist on cereal aphids and is the most abundant species due to its early appearance in the season, S. avenae is still a profitable host for A. ervi, because: (i) A. rhopalosiphi leaves patches partially exploited, (ii) A. ervi wins larval competition in three out of four multi-parasitised hosts, and (iii) A. ervi is only slightly deterred by the cornicular secretions of the host and can thus easily parasitise hosts. [source]

    Variation among individual butterflies along a generalist,specialist axis: no support for the ,neural constraint' hypothesis

    Abstract 1.,Degree of host specialisation was a continuous variable in a population of Edith's checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha). A novel host, Collinsia torreyi, had been added to the diet in response to anthropogenic disturbance, and then abandoned prior to the current study. Butterflies either showed no preference or preferred their traditional host, Pedicularis semibarbata. 2.,Strength of preference for Pedicularis over Collinsia was measured in the field and used to estimate host specialisation of individual butterflies. Efficiency was estimated from the times taken by each insect to perform two tasks: (i) identification of a Pedicularis plant as a host, and (ii) successful initiation of oviposition after the decision to do so had been made. 3.,There was no clear trend for association between host specialisation and either measure of efficiency. Generalists were not slower than specialists at identifying Pedicularis as a host or at handling it after deciding to oviposit. 4.,Prior work indicated that generalists paid no detectable cost in terms of reduced discrimination among individuals of their preferred host species. 5.,In contrast to other species, generalist E. editha paid in neither time nor accuracy. Why then does the diet not expand? Behavioural adaptations to the traditional host caused maladaptations to the novel host and generated short-term constraints to evolutionary expansion of diet breadth. To date, however, no long-term constraints have been found in this system. In those traits investigated to date, increased adaptation to the novel host has not caused reduced adaptation to the traditional host. [source]

    Nuptial food gifts influence female egg production in the scorpionfly Panorpa cognata

    Abstract 1.,Before copulation, male Panorpa cognata scorpionflies offer females a salivary secretion, which is consumed by the female during copulation. It has previously been demonstrated that this nuptial food gift functions as mating effort by increasing male attractiveness and by increasing ejaculate transfer during copulation. 2.,In this study, the effect of saliva consumption on female reproductive output was investigated, and thus the possibility that nuptial food gifts also serve as paternal investment. The experimental design enabled the effect of nuptial gift consumption to be disentangled from other possible effects of multiple mating or increased copula duration. 3.,The results showed that saliva consumption increases female egg production by on average 8% (4.5 eggs) per consumed salivary mass, whereas mean egg weight was not influenced.4. These results have important implications for the evolution and maintenance of both male nuptial gifts and female polyandry in this and other species. [source]