Other Phenotypes (other + phenotype)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of Social Structure on the Behaviour and Performance of Alternative Reproductive Phenotypes in Male Rock Shrimp, Rhynchocinetes typus

ETHOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Stefan Dennenmoser
Males that adopt alternative mating tactics within a conditional strategy often undergo costly morphological changes when switching to the next phenotype during ontogeny. Whether costs of changing to a subsequent reproductive phenotype are outweighed by a higher mating probability may depend on the frequencies of different phenotypes in a group of competitors. Benefits and costs associated with different phenotype frequencies depend on interactions within and between alternative phenotypes, but the underlying behavioural mechanisms have rarely been studied. Herein, we used the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus as a model: ontogenetic male stages of this species differ in morphological and behavioural traits that indicate alternative reproductive phenotypes. The small, subordinate, male stage (typus) develops via several intermediate stages (intermedius) to the dominant male stage (robustus): in competitive interactions the typus males usually employ the sneaking tactic, while the robustus males invariably employ the monopolizing fighter tactic. In laboratory experiments, we manipulated phenotype frequencies to examine whether there are frequency-dependent effects on searching behaviour, aggressiveness and mating probability. With increasing frequency of robustus males, the rate of aggressive interactions among them increased. Furthermore, robustus males increased walking velocity when more than one robustus male was present. In contrast, typus males did not adjust their searching or aggressive behaviour. The increase of aggressive interactions among robustus males provided more opportunities for typus males to seize a temporarily unguarded female. While typus males exploit fights among robustus males that produce mating opportunities for them, robustus males benefit from typus males, which reveal the presence of receptive females. We suggest that each phenotype benefits from the presence of the other phenotype and suffers costly interference among individuals of the same phenotype. Whether frequency-dependent effects on the mating probability of subordinates also affect their ontogenetic switchpoint should be examined in future studies. [source]

Deletion of Brca2 exon 27 causes hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks, chromosomal instability, and reduced life span in mice

Greg Donoho
The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27 encodes a single, distinct interaction domain. Deletion of all RAD51-interacting domains causes embryonic lethality in mice. A less severe phenotype is seen with BRAC2 truncations that preserve some, but not all, of the BRC motifs. These mice can survive beyond weaning, but are runted and infertile, and die very young from cancer. Cells from such mice show hypersensitivity to some genotoxic agents and chromosomal instability. Here, we have analyzed mice and cells with a deletion of only the RAD51-interacting region encoded by exon 27. Mice homozygous for this mutation (called brca2lex1) have a shorter life span than that of control littermates, possibly because of early onsets of cancer and sepsis. No other phenotype was observed in these animals; therefore, the brca2lex1 mutation is less severe than truncations that delete some BRC motifs. However, at the cellular level, the brca2lex1 mutation causes reduced viability, hypersensitivity to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and gross chromosomal instability, much like more severe truncations. Thus, the extreme carboxy-terminal region encoded by exon 27 is important for BRCA2 function, probably because it is required for a fully functional interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Identification of Xenorhabdus nematophila genes required for mutualistic colonization of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes

Kurt Heungens
Summary One stage in the symbiotic interaction between the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila and its nematode host, Steinernema carpocapsae, involves the species-specific colonization of the nematode intestinal vesicle by the bacterium. To characterize the bacterial molecular determinants that are essential for vesicle colonization, we adapted and applied a signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screen to this system. We identified 15 out of 3000 transposon mutants of X. nematophila with at least a 15-fold reduction in average vesicle colonization. These 15 mutants harbour disruptions in nine separate loci. Three of these loci have predicted open reading frames (ORFs) with similarity to genes (rpoS, rpoE, lrp) encoding regulatory proteins; two have predicted ORFs with similarity to genes (aroA, serC) encoding amino acid biosynthetic enzymes; one, designated nilB (nematode intestine localization), has an ORF with similarity to a gene encoding a putative outer membrane protein (OmpU) in Neisseria; and three, nilA, nilC and nilD, have no apparent homologues in the public database. nilA, nilB and nilC are linked on a single 4 kb locus. nilB and nilC are > 104 -fold reduced in their ability to colonize the nematode vesicle and are predicted to encode membrane-localized proteins. The nilD locus contains an extensive repeat region and several small putative ORFs. Other than reduced colonization, the nilB, nilC and nilD mutants did not display alterations in any other phenotype tested, suggesting a specific role for these genes in allowing X. nematophila to associate with the nematode host. [source]

Multiparametric analysis of normal and postchemotherapy bone marrow: Implication for the detection of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes,

CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2008
D. Olaru
Abstract Background: The knowledge of normal marrow is mandatory to assess the malignant counterpart of normal cells and define leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs). In this study, the expression of a variety of antigens expressed in normal and postchemotherapy bone marrow (BM) was analyzed to provide a frame of reference for the identification of myeloid LAIPs. Methods: Multiparameter four- and six-color flow cytometry was used to define antigen combinations totally absent or present at very minimal levels in marrow cells of normal individuals (n = 20) and patients receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20). Immature (blast) cells were gated according to CD45/SSC properties. Fifty-three acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples were studied in six-color combinations. Results: In six-color flow cytometry, 47 phenotypes were totally absent from blast gate in all normal samples. Forty-one other phenotypes were identified in less than 0.05% of blast cells. There was no difference between normal and postchemotherapy BMs. The four-color panel allowed to identify only 30 phenotypes present at a frequency <0.05%. Using the six-color panel, 58% of the absent or infrequent phenotypes in normal BM were found in at least one of 53 AML samples. All AML cases exhibited at least one LAIP. Conclusion: Our results show that the ability to distinguish leukemic from healthy cells is considerably increased by a six-color approach. Furthermore, these absent or infrequent phenotypes in normal BM are identified in AML and can be utilized for minimal residual disease study. © 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

Absence of Gup1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in defective cell wall composition, assembly, stability and morphology

Célia Ferreira
Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gup1p and its homologue Gup2p, members of the superfamily of membrane-bound O -acyl transferases, were previously associated with glycerol-mediated salt-stress recovery and glycerol symporter activity. Several other phenotypes suggested Gup1p involvement in processes connected with cell structure organization and biogenesis. The gup1, mutant is also thermosensitive and exhibits an altered plasma membrane lipid composition. The present work shows that the thermosensitivity is independent of glycerol production and retention. Furthermore, the mutant grows poorly on salt, ethanol and weak carboxylic acids, suggestive of a malfunctioning membrane potential. Additionally, gup1, is sensitive to cell wall-perturbing agents, such as Calcofluor white, Zymolyase, lyticase and sodium dodecyl sulphate and exhibits a sedimentation/aggregation phenotype. Quantitative analysis of cell wall components yielded increased contents of chitin and ,-1,3-glucans and lower amounts of mannoproteins. Consistently, scanning electron microscopy showed a strikingly rough surface morphology of the mutant cells. These results suggest that the gup1, is affected in cell wall assembly and stability, although the Slt2p/MAP kinase from the PKC pathway was phosphorylated during hypo-osmotic shock to a normal extent. Results emphasize the pleiotropic nature of gup1,, and are consistent with a role of Gulp1p in connection with several pathways for cell maintenance and construction/remodelling. [source]

New Approaches for Validation of Lethal Phenotypes and Genetic Reversion in Helicobacter pylori

HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2001
Timothy K. McDaniel
Background. Because of limited genetic tools for use in Helicobacter pylori, tests routinely applied in other bacteria for demonstrating a gene's role in viability and other phenotypes have not been applied to this organism. In a mutational study of putative response regulator genes, we aimed to develop such tools for H. pylori. Materials and Methods. We attempted to mutate five response regulator genes by allelic exchange insertional mutagenesis. For genes that yielded no viable mutants, a second copy of the gene was inserted into the chromosome via a suicide vector, and it was seen if providing the second copy would permit the gene's disruption. For genes that yielded mutants with selectable phenotypes, a strategy was developed for reversion whereby an intact copy of the gene is introduced to the organism by transformation with PCR products. Following this procedure, revertants were selected by phenotypic tests then tested for genetic reversion. Results. After failure to attain transformants upon attempted mutation of genes HP0166 and HP1365, we inserted a second copy of each gene within the H. pylori chromosome. In each case the second copy relieved the block of transformation. Mutation of genes HP0703 and HP1021 gave non-motile and small-colony phenotypes, respectively. Following transformation with PCR products containing intact copies of the genes, both phenotype and genotype had reverted following phenotypic selections. Conclusions. The methods used in this study provide new approaches for confirming suspected genotype/phenotype associations and should be widely applicable in the study of H. pylori. [source]

Molecular and muscle pathology in a series of caveolinopathy patients,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2005
Luigi Fulizio
Abstract Mutations in the caveolin-3 gene (CAV3) cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 1C (LGMD1C) and other muscle phenotypes. We screened 663 patients with various phenotypes of unknown etiology, for caveolin-3 protein deficiency, and we identified eight unreported caveolin-deficient patients (from seven families) in whom four CAV3 mutations had been detected (two are unreported). Following our wide screening, we estimated that caveolinopathies are 1% of both unclassified LGMD and other phenotypes, and demonstrated that caveolin-3 protein deficiency is a highly sensitive and specific marker of primary caveolinopathy. This is the largest series of caveolinopathy families in whom the effect of gene mutations has been analyzed for protein level and phenotype. We showed that the same mutation could lead to heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and muscle histopathological changes. To study the role of the Golgi complex in the pathological pathway of misfolded caveolin-3 oligomers, we performed a histopathological study on muscle biopsies from caveolinopathy patients. We documented normal caveolin-3 immunolabeling at the plasmalemma in some regenerating fibers showing a proliferation of the Golgi complex. It is likely that caveolin-3 overexpression occurring in regenerating fibers (compared with caveolin-deficient adult fibers) may lead to an accumulation of misfolded oligomers in the Golgi and to its consequent proliferation. Hum Mutat 25:82,89, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Serum bFGF and VEGF correlate respectively with bowel wall thickness and intramural blood flow in Crohn's disease

Dr. Antonio Di Sabatino MD
Abstract Serum levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),two factors known to promote tissue repair, fibroblast proliferation, and angiogenesis,were measured in Crohn's disease patients and correlated with bowel wall thickness (BWT), measured by conventional grey scale ultrasonography, and with the ileal intramural vessel flow, measured by contrast-enhanced color Doppler imaging. Serum samples were obtained from 25 patients with active Crohn's disease and 22 healthy volunteers, all sex- and age-matched. Serum bFGF and VEGF levels were measured by ELISA assay. All the patients were examined with conventional transabdominal bowel sonography. Color Doppler of the intramural enteric vessels was then performed after the intravenous injection of Levovist, a galactose-based sonographic contrast agent. In Crohn's disease patients, serum bFGF and VEGF were significantly higher compared with healthy volunteers. A positive correlation between serum bFGF and BWT and between serum VEGF and color Doppler signal intensity was found. The raised serum bFGF levels in Crohn's disease patients with intestinal strictures compared with patients with other phenotypes (fistulizing, inflammatory), together with the correlation observed between serum bFGF and BWT, suggests a possible involvement of bFGF in the process of transmural fibrogenesis in Crohn's disease. The higher levels of VEGF in those patients with increased intramural blood flow suggests that VEGF may be considered a marker of angiogenesis in this condition. [source]

Treatment outcomes and clinicopathologic characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer patients who received platinum-containing chemotherapy

Ji Eun Uhm
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of platinum-containing chemotherapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients in terms of the response rate (RR) and progression-free survival. A second aim was to characterize the clinical behavior at the time of relapse of TNBC. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of patients with metastatic breast cancer who received taxane,platinum chemotherapy as the first- or second-line treatment, focusing on the TN phenotype. In total, 257 patients with metastatic breast cancer received platinum-containing chemotherapy at Samsung Medical Center from 1999 to 2006. Of these patients, 106 patients with available data on estrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) receptor status received taxane,platinum regimen as the first- or second-line treatment. The overall RR of patients with TNBC was 39%. This rate did not differ significantly from those of patients with other phenotypes. The time to death after chemotherapy (19 vs. 50 months, p = 0.037) and overall survival (OS) (21 vs. 56 months, p = 0.030) differed significantly between patients with TNBC and non-TNBC. TNBC showed a unique locoregional infiltration pattern at relapse, which might reflect its aggressive clinical behavior. Despite the similar response to platinum-containing chemotherapy, patients with TNBC had a shorter OS than patients with non-TNBC. The implication of TN phenotype as poor prognostic factor is uncertain, because it needs to be defined whether poor outcome is related to the rapid growing characteristics of tumor itself or the resistance to drug therapy. Further prospective studies are warranted. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Deregulation of Stat5 expression and activation causes mammary tumors in transgenic mice

Elena Iavnilovitch
Abstract Members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) family regulate essential cellular growth and survival functions in normal cells and have also been implicated in tumorigenesis. We have studied the potential role of Stat5 in mammary tumorigenesis by targeting Stat5 variants to the mammary gland of transgenic mice using regulatory sequences of the ,-lactoglobulin gene. Mammary-directed expression of the wild-type Stat5, constitutively activated Stat5 and carboxyl-terminally truncated dominant negative Stat5 forms resulted in mammary tumors with incidence rates of up to 22% and latency periods of 8,12 months. Undifferentiated carcinomas most frequently occurred in mice expressing the carboxyl-terminally truncated Stat5. The more differentiated papillary and micropapillary adenocarcinomas were primarily found in mice overexpressing the native and constitutively active transgenes. Higher levels of translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and cyclin D1 expression but lower levels of activated Stat3 were found in tumors of mice expressing the constitutively active Stat5 when compared to mice expressing the wild-type or truncated forms. A higher expression of the estrogen receptor (ER,) was observed in carcinomas compared to other phenotypes. The ability of both forms of Stat5, the transactivating form and the dominant negative form, to participate in oncogenesis indicates that there is more than one mechanism by which Stat5 contributes to this process. The transactivation function of Stat5 is involved in the determination of tumors with a more differentiated phenotype. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Circulating endothelial microparticles as a marker of cerebrovascular disease,

Keun-Hwa Jung MD
Objective Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) have been reported to reflect vascular damage. Detailed profiling of these blood endothelial markers may adumbrate the pathogenesis of stroke or enable determination of the risk for stroke. We investigated EMP profiles in patients at risk for cerebrovascular disease. Methods We prospectively examined 348 consecutive patients: 73 patients with acute stroke and 275 patients with vascular risk factors but no stroke events. We quantified various types of EMPs by flow cytometry using CD31, CD42b, annexin V (AV), and CD62E antibodies in the peripheral blood of patients. This method allowed fractionation of CD31+/CD42b,, CD31+/AV+, and CD62E+ EMPs. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with EMPs were assessed. Results Recent ischemic episodes were found to be more strongly associated with greater CD62E+ EMP levels than with levels of other phenotypes. Increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and infarct volumes in acute stroke patients were significantly associated with greater CD62E+ EMP levels. In the risk factor group, patients with extracranial arterial stenosis had greater CD62E+ EMP levels, whereas those with intracranial arterial stenosis had greater CD31+/CD42b, and CD31+/AV+ EMP levels. The ratio of CD62E+ to CD31+/CD42b, or CD31+/AV+ EMP level significantly discriminated extracranial and intracranial arterial stenosis. Interpretation Circulating EMP phenotypic profiles reflect distinct phenotypes of cerebrovascular disease and are markers of vascular pathology and an increased risk for ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol 2009;66:191,199 [source]

Risks of selected congenital malformations among offspring of mixed race-ethnicity

Juan Yang
Abstract BACKGROUND Little is known about the occurrence of specific congenital malformations among offspring of mixed race-ethnicity. METHODS Using data from a population-based registry, we explored the occurrence of selected malformation phenotypes in offspring to parents who were of different race-ethnicity. Data were derived from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based active surveillance system for collecting information on infants and fetuses with congenital malformations using multiple source ascertainment. Approximately 2.6 million live births and stillbirths occurred during 1989,2000. Information on parental race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, black, and Asian) was obtained from birth certificates and fetal death files. Malformation phenotypes studied were spina bifida, anencephaly, cleft lip, cleft palate, tetralogy of Fallot, d-transposition of great arteries, hypospadias, small intestinal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, microtia, and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. RESULTS A total of 11.2% of births were to parents of mixed race-ethnicity. Compared to births of parents who were both white, moderately increased risks (risk ratio , 1.7) of anencephaly, polydactyly, and microtia, and decreased risks (risk ratio , 0.6) of hypospadias and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis were observed among births of several mixed race-ethnicity groups. For anencephaly, polydactyly, and microtia, but not other phenotypes, the risks were different depending on whether maternal versus paternal race-ethnicity was considered. Risks observed between births of a nonwhite parent and a white parent and births of parents who were both nonwhite were similar for most malformation phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS Some malformation phenotypes appear to vary in their risk based on mixed racial-ethnic groupings. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]