Other Pharmacotherapies (other + pharmacotherapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Trends in morphine prescriptions, illicit morphine use and associated harms among regular injecting drug users in Australia

Abstract This paper examines population trends in morphine prescriptions in Australia, and contrasts them with findings from annual surveys with regular injecting drug users (IDU). Data on morphine prescriptions from 1995 to 2003 were obtained from the Drug Monitoring System (DRUMS) run by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Data collected from regular IDU as part of the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) were analysed (2001,2004). The rate of morphine prescription per person aged 15,54 years increased by 89% across Australia between 1995 and 2003 (from 46.3 to 85.9 mg per person). Almost half (46%) of IDU surveyed in 2004 reported illicit morphine use, with the highest rates in jurisdictions where heroin was less available. Recent morphine injectors were significantly more likely to be male, unemployed, out of treatment and homeless in comparison to IDU who had not injected morphine. They were also more likely to have injected other pharmaceutical drugs and to report injection related problems. Among those who had injected morphine recently, the most commonly reported injecting harms were morphine dependence (38%), difficulty finding veins into which to inject (36%) and scarring or bruising (27%). Morphine use and injection is a common practice among regular IDU in Australia. In some cases, morphine may be a substitute for illicit heroin; in others, it may be being used to treat heroin dependence where other pharmacotherapies, such as methadone and buprenorphine, are perceived as being unavailable or undesirable by IDU. Morphine injection appears to be associated with polydrug use, and with it, a range of problems related to drug injection. Further research is required to monitor and reduce morphine diversion and related harms by such polydrug injectors. [source]

Review of bupropion for smoking cessation

Abstract The advent of bupropion hydrochloride sustained release (Zyban) has heralded a major change in the options available for smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Bupropion is a selective re-uptake inhibitor of dopamine and noradrenalin which prevents or reduces cravings and other features of nicotine withdrawal. Bupropion is a useful oral and non-nicotine form of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. For this review a total of 221 papers were reviewed plus poster presentations. This review examines in detail original clinical trials on efficacy, categorised according to whether they were acute treatment trials in healthy smokers; studies in specific populations such as people with depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cardiovascular disease; or relapse prevention studies. Overall, these studies in varying populations comprising over four thousand subjects, showed bupropion consistently produces a positive effect on smoking cessation outcomes. The evidence highlights the major public health role that bupropion has in smoking cessation. The methodological issues of published clinical trials reporting one year outcomes were examined in detail including: completeness of follow-up; loss to follow-up; intention to treat analysis; blindness of assessment; and validation of smoking status. The review discusses contraindications, adverse effects, dose and overdose, addictive potential, and the role of bupropion in reducing cessation-related weight gain. Bupropion combined with or compared to other pharmacotherapies (nicotine patch; nortriptyline) is considered. Impressive evidence exists for the use of bupropion in smoking cessation among difficult patients who are hard-core smokers such as those with cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Bupropion reduces withdrawal symptoms as well as weight gain and is effective for smoking cessation for people with and without a history of depression or alcoholism. Serious side effects of bupropion use are rare. The major safety issue with bupropion is risk of seizures (estimated at approximately 0.1%) and it should not be prescribed to patients with a current seizure disorder or any history of seizures. In clinical trials of bupropion for smoking cessation no seizures were reported. Allergic reactions occur at a rate of approximately 3% and minor adverse effects are common including dry mouth and insomnia. [source]

Effectiveness of current treatment approaches for benzodiazepine discontinuation: a meta-analysis

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Jannette M. Parr
ABSTRACT Aims To assess the effectiveness of current treatment approaches to assist benzodiazepine discontinuation. Methods A systematic review of approaches to benzodiazepine discontinuation in general practice and out-patient settings was undertaken. Routine care was compared with three treatment approaches: brief interventions, gradual dose reduction (GDR) and psychological interventions. GDR was compared with GDR plus psychological interventions or substitutive pharmacotherapies. Results Inclusion criteria were met by 24 studies, and a further eight were identified by future search. GDR [odds ratio (OR) = 5.96, confidence interval (CI) = 2.08,17.11] and brief interventions (OR = 4.37, CI = 2.28,8.40) provided superior cessation rates at post-treatment to routine care. Psychological treatment plus GDR were superior to both routine care (OR = 3.38, CI = 1.86,6.12) and GDR alone (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.25,2.67). However, substitutive pharmacotherapies did not add to the impact of GDR (OR = 1.30, CI = 0.97,1.73), and abrupt substitution of benzodiazepines by other pharmacotherapy was less effective than GDR alone (OR = 0.30, CI = 0.14,0.64). Few studies on any technique had significantly greater benzodiazepine discontinuation than controls at follow-up. Conclusions Providing an intervention is more effective than routine care. Psychological interventions may improve discontinuation above GDR alone. While some substitutive pharmacotherapies may have promise, current evidence is insufficient to support their use. [source]

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present on human hepatocytes and has a direct role in decreasing hepatic steatosis in vitro by modulating elements of the insulin signaling pathway,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Nitika Arora Gupta
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring peptide secreted by the L cells of the small intestine. GLP-1 functions as an incretin and stimulates glucose-mediated insulin production by pancreatic , cells. In this study, we demonstrate that exendin-4/GLP-1 has a cognate receptor on human hepatocytes and that exendin-4 has a direct effect on the reduction of hepatic steatosis in the absence of insulin. Both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP/R) messenger RNA and protein were detected on primary human hepatocytes, and receptor was internalized in the presence of GLP-1. Exendin-4 increased the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1), AKT, and protein kinase C , (PKC-,) in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Small interfering RNA against GLP-1R abolished the effects on PDK-1 and PKC-,. Treatment with exendin-4 quantitatively reduced triglyceride stores compared with control-treated cells. Conclusion: This is the first report that the G protein,coupled receptor GLP-1R is present on human hepatocytes. Furthermore, it appears that exendin-4 has the same beneficial effects in vitro as those seen in our previously published in vivo study in ob/ob mice, directly reducing hepatocyte steatosis. Future use for human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, either in combination with dietary manipulation or other pharmacotherapy, may be a significant advance in treatment of this common form of liver disease. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]