Other Personal (other + personal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Origins of Modern Divorce

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2007
High rates of marital dissolution and easy access to divorce are not unprecedented, historically or cross-culturally. But contemporary divorce in North America and Western Europe has different origins and features than divorce in previous cultures. The origins of modern divorce patterns date back more than 200 years, to the invention of the historically unprecedented idea that marriage should be based on love and mutual affection. Ironically, then, the fragility of modern marriage stems from the same values that have elevated the marital relationship above all other personal and familial commitments: the concentration of emotion, passion, personal identity, and self-validation in the couple relationship and the attenuation of emotional attachments and obligations beyond the conjugal unit. The immediate causes of divorce may range from factors as diverse as the personal psychological characteristics of one or both spouses to the stresses of economic hardship and community disintegration. But in a larger perspective, the role of divorce in modern societies and its relatively high occurrence both flow from the same complex of factors that have made good marriages so much more central to people's happiness than through most of the past, and deterioration of a marital relationship so much more traumatic. [source]

Citizenship and The State

M. Victoria Costa
This study surveys debates on citizenship, the state, and the bases of political stability. The survey begins by presenting the primary sense of ,citizenship' as a legal status and the question of the sorts of political communities people can belong to as citizens. (Multi)nation-states are suggested as the main site of citizenship in the contemporary world, without ignoring the existence of alternative possibilities. Turning to discussions of citizen identity, the study shows that some of the discussion is motivated by a perceived need for citizens to have a sense of political belonging, on the assumption that such a sense promotes political activity and has other personal and social benefits. But there are serious problems with the strategy of understanding the relevant sense of belonging in terms of identification with the nation-state. The study explores a more promising way to generate this sense of belonging. First, societies should function, to a sufficiently high degree, in accord with political principles of justice and democratic decision making. Second, there should be a general consensus on political principles among citizens, as well as high levels of engagement in democratic deliberation. [source]

The Effectiveness of Indigenous Job Search Strategies

This analysis uses the only existing large-scale longitudinal survey of Indigenous Australians to examine the effects of job search behaviour over an 18-month period starting from March 1996. Job search methods were not generally related to the probability of finding and retaining employment when a range of other personal and regional factors are taken into account. Search intensity (as measured by the number of jobs applied for) had a significant effect on the prospect of finding employment, but was unrelated to the probability of job retention. [source]

Poverty dynamics: empirical evidence for Canada

Ross Finnie
The distributions of short- and long-term episodes are identified and reveal substantial differences by sex and family type. Entry and exit models explore the relationships between poverty transitions and sex, family status and other personal and situational attributes. Duration effects on exiting and re-entering poverty are found to be important, and models including past poverty experiences point to strong ,occurrence dependence' for poverty entry and incidence. Fixed-effect panel data models confirm the above and reveal asymmetries in the impacts of household transitions on poverty. JEL Classification: I3 La dynamique de la pauvreté : résultats empiriques pour le Canada., Les auteurs examinent la dynamique de la pauvreté(bas revenus)à l'aide des données disponibles pour les citoyens qui ont soumis leurs rapports d'impôt entre 1992 et 1996. On identifie les distributions d'épisodes (courts et longs) de pauvreté, et celles-ci révèlent des différences significatives selon le sexe et les attributs familiaux. Les modèles d'entrée et sortie identifient les relations entre le statut de pauvreté, le sexe, le statut familial, et d'autres attributs personnels et situationnels. Il appert que les effets de durée sur les périodes de sortie et de ré-entrée dans un statut de pauvreté sont importants; les modèles qui prennent en compte les épisodes de pauvreté antérieurs montrent qu'il y a une forte corrélation (occurrence dependence) tant pour le passage au statut de pauvreté que pour l'incidence de tels épisodes. Les résultats des études transversales confirment ces résultats et révèlent des asymétries dans les impacts des transitions dans les ménages sur la pauvreté. [source]