Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Other

  • area other
  • cause other
  • cell other
  • condition other
  • diagnosis other
  • disease other
  • disorder other
  • disorders other
  • drug other
  • factor other
  • function other
  • gene other
  • groups other
  • indication other
  • language other
  • languages other
  • many other
  • mean other
  • mechanism other
  • procedure other
  • process other
  • protein other
  • purpose other
  • reason other
  • receptor other
  • regions other
  • route other
  • several other
  • significant other
  • site other
  • source other
  • species other
  • symptom other
  • system other
  • techniques other
  • the other
  • tissue other
  • type other
  • variable other

  • Terms modified by Other

  • other SNP
  • other abiotic factor
  • other abnormality
  • other acid
  • other action
  • other activity
  • other actor
  • other additive
  • other adjuvant
  • other adolescent
  • other adult
  • other advantage
  • other adverse effects
  • other adverse event
  • other adverse outcome
  • other age
  • other age groups
  • other agencies
  • other agent
  • other agonist
  • other alcohol
  • other alcoholic beverages
  • other alga
  • other algorithms
  • other allele
  • other allergen
  • other allergic disease
  • other alteration
  • other alternative
  • other amino acids
  • other analgesic
  • other analogue
  • other analysis
  • other analyte
  • other analytical methods
  • other animal models
  • other animal species
  • other animals
  • other anion
  • other anomaly
  • other ant
  • other ant species
  • other anthropologist
  • other antibiotics
  • other antibody
  • other antidepressants
  • other antiepileptic drug
  • other antigen
  • other antihypertensive medication
  • other antimicrobial
  • other antioxidant
  • other antipsychotics
  • other anxiety disorders
  • other ape
  • other application
  • other approach
  • other area
  • other argument
  • other arm
  • other aromatic compound
  • other arthropod
  • other article
  • other artifact
  • other artists
  • other asian
  • other asian country
  • other aspect
  • other assessment
  • other asset
  • other association
  • other assumption
  • other atom
  • other atopic disorders
  • other attempt
  • other attribute
  • other author
  • other autoimmune diseases
  • other autoimmune disorders
  • other avian species
  • other bacteria
  • other bacterial
  • other bacterial species
  • other barrier
  • other basin
  • other beetle
  • other behavior
  • other behaviour
  • other being
  • other benefit
  • other benign
  • other beverages
  • other biological
  • other biomarker
  • other biomolecule
  • other biotic
  • other bird
  • other body
  • other body part
  • other body regions
  • other body site
  • other bone
  • other brain area
  • other brain regions
  • other branch
  • other breed
  • other calculation methods
  • other cancers
  • other candidate
  • other candidate gene
  • other carbohydrate
  • other carcinogen
  • other carcinoma
  • other cardiovascular diseases
  • other cardiovascular risk factor
  • other carotenoid
  • other case
  • other catalyst
  • other category
  • other cation
  • other caucasian population
  • other cause
  • other cell
  • other cell component
  • other cell line
  • other cell type
  • other cellular protein
  • other center
  • other centre
  • other cereal
  • other cetacean
  • other cetacean species
  • other challenge
  • other change
  • other channel
  • other character
  • other characteristic
  • other chemical
  • other chemokine
  • other chemokine receptor
  • other chemotherapeutic agent
  • other child
  • other chromosome
  • other chronic
  • other chronic condition
  • other chronic disease
  • other chronic illness
  • other circumstance
  • other city
  • other clade
  • other class
  • other classification
  • other client
  • other clinic
  • other clinical
  • other clinical characteristic
  • other clinical condition
  • other clinical disorders
  • other clinical factor
  • other clinical feature
  • other clinical parameter
  • other clinical variable
  • other clinician
  • other clone
  • other closest relative
  • other cluster
  • other cognitive
  • other cognitive domain
  • other cohort
  • other combination
  • other commentator
  • other commodity
  • other common
  • other community
  • other comorbid condition
  • other comorbidity
  • other company
  • other comparative studies
  • other compartment
  • other complex
  • other complications
  • other component
  • other composite
  • other compound
  • other concentration
  • other concept
  • other concern
  • other condition
  • other confounder
  • other confounding
  • other confounding factor
  • other confounding variable
  • other congenital anomalies
  • other consequence
  • other consideration
  • other consisting
  • other conspecific
  • other constituent
  • other constraint
  • other construct
  • other consumer
  • other contaminant
  • other context
  • other contextual factor
  • other continent
  • other contributing factor
  • other contribution
  • other control
  • other cost
  • other country
  • other covariate
  • other criminal activity
  • other criterioN
  • other crop
  • other cross
  • other crystal form
  • other crystal structure
  • other cue
  • other cultivar
  • other culture
  • other cyanobacteria
  • other cytokine
  • other cytotoxic drug
  • other data
  • other data set
  • other data source
  • other databases
  • other day
  • other defect
  • other dementia
  • other demographic
  • other demographic characteristic
  • other demographic variable
  • other department
  • other derivative
  • other dermatose
  • other design
  • other determinant
  • other developed country
  • other developing country
  • other device
  • other diagnosis
  • other diagnostic groups
  • other diet
  • other difference
  • other dimension
  • other dimer
  • other direction
  • other disabilities
  • other disaster
  • other discipline
  • other disease
  • other disorders
  • other disturbance
  • other dog
  • other domain
  • other drug
  • other drug use
  • other dye
  • other east asian country
  • other ecosystem
  • other effects
  • other element
  • other emotion
  • other end
  • other endpoint
  • other enteric pathogen
  • other entity
  • other environment
  • other environmental condition
  • other environmental factor
  • other environmental variable
  • other enzyme
  • other epithelial cell
  • other essay
  • other estimator
  • other ethnic groups
  • other ethnic minority
  • other ethnic population
  • other ethnicity
  • other etiology
  • other eu country
  • other eukaryote
  • other european
  • other european country
  • other event
  • other evidence
  • other example
  • other executive
  • other existing methods
  • other existing models
  • other experiment
  • other expert
  • other explanation
  • other explanatory factor
  • other explanatory variable
  • other exposure
  • other extract
  • other extreme
  • other eye
  • other face
  • other facility
  • other factor
  • other family
  • other family member
  • other farmer
  • other fatty acid
  • other feature
  • other feed
  • other female
  • other field
  • other finding
  • other firm
  • other fish
  • other fish species
  • other food
  • other forb
  • other force
  • other form
  • other formula
  • other formulations
  • other fraction
  • other fruit
  • other function
  • other functional groups
  • other fungus
  • other galaxy
  • other gase
  • other gastropod
  • other gene
  • other genetic
  • other genetic disorders
  • other genotype
  • other genus
  • other geographical area
  • other geographical regions
  • other government
  • other grade
  • other graft
  • other grain
  • other gram-negative bacteria
  • other ground
  • other group
  • other group member
  • other groups
  • other growth factor
  • other habitat
  • other half
  • other hand
  • other haplotype
  • other hazard
  • other health care professional
  • other health care provider
  • other health problem
  • other health professional
  • other healthcare professional
  • other healthcare provider
  • other heavy metal
  • other herbivore
  • other hormones
  • other hospital
  • other hosts
  • other household
  • other hpv type
  • other human
  • other hypothesis
  • other illicit drug
  • other illness
  • other imaging modality
  • other immigrant
  • other immune cell
  • other immunosuppressant
  • other immunosuppressive agent
  • other impact
  • other important factor
  • other improvement
  • other index
  • other indication
  • other indicator
  • other individual
  • other industrialised country
  • other industrialized country
  • other industry
  • other infections
  • other infectious agent
  • other infectious diseases
  • other inflammatory condition
  • other inflammatory disease
  • other inflammatory mediator
  • other influence
  • other information
  • other ingredient
  • other inhibitor
  • other initiative
  • other injury
  • other innovation
  • other input
  • other insect
  • other insect species
  • other insecticide
  • other instance
  • other institution
  • other instruments
  • other interaction
  • other interest
  • other intermediate
  • other interneuron
  • other intervention
  • other invertebrates
  • other investigation
  • other investigator
  • other investor
  • other involving
  • other ion
  • other island
  • other isoform
  • other isomer
  • other issues
  • other item
  • other joint
  • other journal
  • other jurisdiction
  • other key factor
  • other kind
  • other laboratory
  • other lake
  • other languages
  • other latin american country
  • other layer
  • other legume
  • other lesion
  • other level
  • other life-history trait
  • other lifestyle factor
  • other ligand
  • other limitation
  • other line
  • other lineage
  • other lipid
  • other literature
  • other liver diseases
  • other livestock
  • other local
  • other locality
  • other locations
  • other locus
  • other lymphoma
  • other macromolecule
  • other major
  • other male
  • other malformation
  • other malignancy
  • other mammal
  • other mammalian
  • other mammalian cell
  • other mammalian species
  • other man
  • other managers
  • other manifestation
  • other marine
  • other marker
  • other market
  • other material
  • other matrix
  • other matter
  • other mean
  • other measure
  • other measurement
  • other meat
  • other mechanism
  • other media
  • other mediator
  • other medical
  • other medical condition
  • other medical discipline
  • other medical therapy
  • other medication
  • other member
  • other mental disorders
  • other mental health problem
  • other metabolite
  • other metal
  • other metal ion
  • other metastatic site
  • other metazoan
  • other method
  • other methodology
  • other methods
  • other methods.
  • other metric
  • other micro-organism
  • other microorganism
  • other mineral
  • other minority
  • other missense mutation
  • other mixture
  • other modality
  • other mode
  • other model
  • other model organism
  • other models
  • other modifications
  • other molecular marker
  • other molecule
  • other monomer
  • other month
  • other mother
  • other movement disorders
  • other muscle
  • other mutant
  • other mutation
  • other mycobacteria
  • other narrative
  • other nation
  • other neoplasm
  • other nest
  • other network
  • other neurodegenerative condition
  • other neurodegenerative disease
  • other neurodegenerative disorders
  • other neurological disease
  • other neurological disorders
  • other neurological symptom
  • other neuromuscular disorders
  • other neuron
  • other neurotransmitter
  • other neurotransmitter system
  • other new
  • other node
  • other non
  • other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • other nsaid
  • other nuclear protein
  • other nucleophile
  • other nucleotide
  • other nucleus
  • other numerical methods
  • other nurse
  • other nutrient
  • other object
  • other objective
  • other observation
  • other observer
  • other occasion
  • other occupation
  • other oecd country
  • other offender
  • other oil
  • other ones
  • other only
  • other opiate
  • other opioid
  • other opportunity
  • other option
  • other oral bacteria
  • other organ
  • other organ system
  • other organelle
  • other organisation
  • other organism
  • other organization
  • other outcome
  • other outcome measure
  • other outcome variable
  • other oxide
  • other pair
  • other paper
  • other parameter
  • other parasite
  • other parent
  • other part
  • other participant
  • other particle
  • other partner
  • other party
  • other patch
  • other pathogen
  • other pathology
  • other pathway
  • other patient
  • other patient characteristic
  • other patient groups
  • other patient population
  • other patient-reported outcome
  • other pattern
  • other peak
  • other people
  • other peptide
  • other period
  • other person
  • other personal
  • other personality disorders
  • other perspective
  • other pesticide
  • other pharmacokinetic parameter
  • other pharmacotherapy
  • other phase
  • other phenolic
  • other phenolic compound
  • other phenomenoN
  • other phenotype
  • other phenotypic trait
  • other physical
  • other physician
  • other physiological function
  • other physiological process
  • other phytoplankton
  • other place
  • other plant
  • other plant species
  • other player
  • other point
  • other policy
  • other pollutant
  • other polymer
  • other polymorphism
  • other polypeptide
  • other population
  • other portion
  • other position
  • other possibility
  • other possible cause
  • other possible explanation
  • other possible factor
  • other potential confounder
  • other potential determinant
  • other potential risk factor
  • other practice
  • other practitioner
  • other predator
  • other predictor
  • other pressure
  • other primate
  • other problem
  • other procedure
  • other process
  • other products
  • other profession
  • other professional
  • other professional groups
  • other prognostic factor
  • other prognostic variable
  • other program
  • other proinflammatory cytokine
  • other project
  • other property
  • other protease
  • other protein
  • other protist
  • other provider
  • other province
  • other proxy
  • other psychiatric diagnosis
  • other psychiatric disorders
  • other psychopathology
  • other psychosocial factor
  • other psychotic disorders
  • other published
  • other published data
  • other published studies
  • other purpose
  • other quality
  • other quantity
  • other question
  • other questionnaire
  • other race
  • other races
  • other rat
  • other rating
  • other reaction
  • other reactive oxygen species
  • other reagent
  • other reason
  • other recent studies
  • other receptor
  • other recipient
  • other recommendation
  • other record
  • other regime
  • other regimen
  • other region
  • other regions
  • other registry
  • other relate concept
  • other relate species
  • other relationships
  • other relative
  • other religions
  • other report
  • other reported case
  • other representative
  • other reptiles
  • other requirement
  • other research
  • other research field
  • other research groups
  • other researcher
  • other residue
  • other resin
  • other resource
  • other respect
  • other respiratory diseases
  • other respiratory viruse
  • other response
  • other result
  • other rheumatic disease
  • other risk
  • other risk factor
  • other river
  • other rodents
  • other role
  • other root
  • other route
  • other ruminant
  • other salt
  • other sample
  • other scale
  • other scenario
  • other scholar
  • other school
  • other scientists
  • other season
  • other section
  • other sector
  • other segment
  • other sense
  • other sensory modality
  • other sequence
  • other series
  • other serious disease
  • other serotype
  • other service provider
  • other services
  • other set
  • other setting
  • other sex
  • other sexually transmitted diseases
  • other shows
  • other sibling
  • other side
  • other side effects
  • other sign
  • other signal
  • other signaling molecule
  • other signaling pathway
  • other signalling pathway
  • other significant difference
  • other significant predictor
  • other significant variable
  • other similar studies
  • other site
  • other situation
  • other skill
  • other skin cancers
  • other skin diseases
  • other social
  • other soft tissue
  • other soil
  • other soil variable
  • other solid tumor
  • other solute
  • other solution
  • other solvent
  • other source
  • other specialist
  • other speciality
  • other specialty
  • other species
  • other specimen
  • other sphere
  • other staff
  • other staff member
  • other stage
  • other stakeholder
  • other states
  • other statistics
  • other step
  • other sterol
  • other stimulus
  • other store
  • other strain
  • other strategy
  • other stream
  • other stress
  • other stressor
  • other structural
  • other structure
  • other student
  • other studies
  • other study
  • other study site
  • other subgroup
  • other subject
  • other subpopulation
  • other subspecy
  • other substance
  • other substance use
  • other substance use disorders
  • other substitution
  • other substrate
  • other subtype
  • other subunit
  • other sugar
  • other support
  • other surface
  • other survey
  • other symptom
  • other syndrome
  • other system
  • other t cell
  • other target
  • other task
  • other taxa
  • other taxonomic groups
  • other team member
  • other techniques
  • other technology
  • other teleost
  • other temperature
  • other term
  • other test
  • other tetrapod
  • other themes
  • other theoretical
  • other theory
  • other therapy
  • other thing
  • other thing equal
  • other time
  • other time point
  • other tissue
  • other tool
  • other tooth
  • other topics
  • other toxin
  • other trace element
  • other trait
  • other transcription factor
  • other treatment
  • other treatment groups
  • other treatment modality
  • other treatment option
  • other tree
  • other tree species
  • other trials
  • other trophic level
  • other tumor
  • other tumor type
  • other tumour
  • other type
  • other uncertainty
  • other unit
  • other unknown factor
  • other use
  • other user
  • other vaccine
  • other value
  • other variable
  • other variants
  • other variation
  • other variety
  • other vector
  • other vehicle
  • other version
  • other vertebrate
  • other vertebrate species
  • other viruse
  • other watershed
  • other wavelength
  • other way
  • other week
  • other western country
  • other woman
  • other woody species
  • other word
  • other work
  • other worker
  • other world
  • other writing
  • other xenobiotic
  • other year
  • other yeast

  • Selected Abstracts

    Profit maximization versus disadvantageous inequality: the impact of self-categorization

    Stephen M. Garcia
    Abstract Choice behavior researchers (e.g., Bazerman, Loewenstein, & White, 1992) have found that individuals tend to choose a more lucrative but disadvantageously unequal payoff (e.g., self,$600/other,$800) over a less profitable but equal one (e.g., self,$500/other,$500); greater profit trumps interpersonal social comparison concerns in the choice setting. We suggest, however, that self-categorization (e.g., Hogg, 2000) can shift interpersonal social comparison concerns to the intergroup level and make trading disadvantageous inequality for greater profit more difficult. Studies 1,3 show that profit maximization diminishes when recipients belong to different social categories (e.g., genders, universities). Study 2 further implicates self-categorization, as self-categorized individuals tend to forgo profit whether making a choice for themselves or another ingroup member. Study 3, moreover, reveals that social categorization alone is not sufficient to diminish profit maximization; individuals must self-categorize and identify with their categorization. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Toxicity of radiotherapy in patients with collagen vascular disease

    CANCER, Issue 3 2008
    Alexander Lin MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. A diagnosis of collagen vascular disease (CVD) may predispose to radiotherapy (RT) toxicity. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that influence RT toxicity in the setting of CVD. METHODS. A total of 86 RT courses for 73 patients with CVD were delivered between 1985 and 2005. CVD subtypes include rheumatoid arthritis (RA; 33 patients), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; 13 patients), scleroderma (9 patients), dermatomyositis/polymyositis (5 patients), ankylosing spondylitis (4 patients), polymyalgia rheumatica/temporal arteritis (4 patients), Wegener granulomatosis (3 patients), and mixed connective tissue disorders (MCTD)/other (2 patients). Each patient with CVD was matched to 1 to 3 controls with respect to sex, race, site irradiated, RT dose (±2 Gray), and age (±5 years). RESULTS. There was no significant difference between CVD patients (65.1%) and controls (72.5%) experiencing any acute toxicity. CVD patients had a higher incidence of any late toxicity (29.1% vs 14%; P = .001), and a trend toward an increased rate of severe late toxicity (9.3% vs 3.7%; P = .079). RT delivered to the breast had increased risk of severe acute toxicity, whereas RT to the pelvis had increased risk of severe acute and late toxicity. RT administered in the setting of scleroderma carried a higher risk of severe late toxicity, whereas RT to SLE patients carried a higher risk of severe acute and late toxicity. CONCLUSIONS. Although generally well tolerated, RT in the setting of CVD appears to carry a higher risk of late toxicity. RT to the pelvis or in the setting of SLE or scleroderma may predispose to an even greater risk of severe toxicity. These issues should be considered when deciding whether to offer RT for these patients. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Nutrition and physical activity behaviours among Mäori, Pacific and NZ European children: identifying opportunities for population-based interventions

    Jennifer Utter
    Objectives:To describe how the prevalences of nutrition and physical activity behaviours vary by ethnicity, while controlling for other socio-demographic characteristics, and to identify appropriate points of intervention for defined ethnic populations of New Zealand children. Methods:Secondary data analysis of the 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey. Results:Few ethnic differences were significant for fruit and vegetable consumption and indicators of physical activity. Where ethnic differences in physical activity were significant, Mäori children and Pacific children were more active than New Zealand European/Other (NZEO) children. Pacific children and Mäori children were significantly more likely to skip meals than NZEO children. Pacific children and Mäori children were significantly more likely to buy some/most of the food they consumed at school from the tuckshop or dairy while NZEO children were more likely to bring their school food only from home. Likewise, Pacific children and Mäori children were significantly more likely to be high consumers of some fatty and sugary foods than NZEO children. Conclusions and Implications:Meal skipping and purchasing food away from home were common for Mäori children and Pacific children; school-based programs that aim to improve access to and subsidise the price of healthy foods, including breakfast, could greatly benefit Mäori and Pacific students. Efforts to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity should be more universally applied and made culturally appropriate for all children. [source]

    The underrecognized progressive nature of N370S Gaucher disease and assessment of cancer risk in 403 patients,

    Tamar H. Taddei
    Mutations in GBA1 gene that encodes lysosomal glucocerebrosidase result in Type 1 Gaucher Disease (GD), the commonest lysosomal storage disorder; the most prevalent disease mutation is N370S. We investigated the heterogeneity and natural course of N370S GD in 403 patients. Demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of GD at presentation were examined in a cross-sectional study. In addition, the relative risk (RR) of cancer in patients compared with age-, sex-, and ethnic-group adjusted national rates of cancer was determined. Of the 403 patients, 54% of patients were homozygous (N370S/N370S) and 46% were compound heterozygous for the N370S mutation (N370S/other). The majority of N370S/N370S patients displayed a phenotype characterized by late onset, predominantly skeletal disease, whereas the majority of N370S/other patients displayed early onset, predominantly visceral/hematologic disease, P < 0.0001. There was a striking increase in lifetime risk of multiple myeloma in the entire cohort (RR 25, 95% CI 9.17,54.40), mostly confined to N370S homozygous patients. The risk of other hematologic malignancies (RR 3.45, 95% CI 1.49,6.79), and overall cancer risk (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.32,2.40) was increased. Homozygous N370S GD leads to adult-onset progressive skeletal disease with relative sparing of the viscera, a strikingly high risk of multiple myeloma, and an increased risk of other cancers. High incidence of gammopathy suggests an important role of the adaptive immune system in the development of GD. Adult patients with GD should be monitored for skeletal disease and cancers including multiple myeloma. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Arnd Bönker
    First page of article [source]


    RICHARD J. SMITHArticle first published online: 8 NOV 200


    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1012 2006
    First page of article [source]

    Seasonal and circadian variation in salivary testosterone in rural Bolivian men

    Virginia J. Vitzthum
    Testosterone (T) plays a key role in the increase and maintenance of muscle mass and bone density in adult men. Life history theory predicts that environmental stress may prompt a reallocation of such investments to those functions critical to survival. We tested this hypothesis in two studies of rural Bolivian adult men by comparing free T levels and circadian rhythms during late winter, which is especially severe, to those in less arduous seasons. For each pair of salivary TAM/TPM samples (collected in a , 12-h period), circadian rhythm was considered classic (CCLASSIC) if TAM > 110%TPM, reverse (CREVERSE) if TPM > 110%TAM, and flat (CFLAT) otherwise. We tested the hypotheses that mean TAM > mean TPM and that mean TLW < mean TOTHER (LW = late winter, OTHER = other seasons). In Study A, of 115 TPM,TAM pairs, 51% = CCLASSIC, 39% = CREVERSE, 10% = CFLAT; in Study B, of 184 TAM,TPM pairs, 55% = CCLASSIC, 33% = CREVERSE, 12% = CFLAT. Based on fitting linear mixed models, in both studies TOTHER-AM > TOTHER-PM (A: P = 0.035, B: P = 0.0005) and TOTHER-AM > TLW-AM (A: P = 0.054, B: P = 0.007); TPM did not vary seasonally, and T diurnality was not significant during late winter. T diurnality varied substantially between days within an individual, between individuals and between seasons, but neither T levels nor diurnality varied with age. These patterns may reflect the seasonally varying but unscheduled, life-long, strenuous physical labor that typifies many non-industrialized economies. These results also suggest that single morning samples may substantially underestimate peak circulating T for an individual and, most importantly, that exogenous signals may moderate diurnality and the trajectory of age-related change in the male gonadal axis. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    First page of article [source]


    This paper uses one-min returns on the TOPIX and S&P500 to examine the efficiency of the Tokyo and New York Stock Exchanges. Our major finding is that Tokyo completes reactions to New York within six min, but New York reacts within fourteen min. Dividing the sample period into three subperiods, we found that the response time has shortened and the magnitude of reaction has become larger over the period in both markets. The magnitude of response in New York to a fall in Tokyo is roughly double that of a rise. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2005
    Jieun Rhee
    Staged five times by Yoko Ono between 1964 and 1966, Cut Piece has been interpreted in a variety of ways, including an exploration of sadism/masochism and violence/victimization. It has also been discussed in terms of feminist discourses on the female body and the male gaze. By contrast, this famous event has rarely been examined in terms of audiences' responses to Ono's performances and in particular the relationship between such responses and the social, cultural, national and ethnic contexts. From sacred prostitution cults of Kumano bikuni to the sexual component of the Western avant garde, this essay examines the emblematic roles that Ono's Cut Piece played during the crucial years of performance art. [source]


    Jane Milton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2005
    Pamela A. Moss
    The recent federal interest in advancing "scientifically based research," along with the National Research Council's 2002 report Scientific Research in Education (SRE), have provided space and impetus for a more general dialogue across discourse boundaries within the field of educational research. The goal of this article is to develop and illustrate principles for an educative dialogue across research discourses. I have turned to Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics and the critical dialogue that surrounds it to seek guidance about how we might better understand one another's perspectives and learn more about ourselves through the encounter. To illustrate these principles, I consider the dialogue between SRE authors and critics that was published in Educational Researcher shortly after the release of the report. I focus in particular on one of the many issues about which misunderstandings seem to arise , the nature, status, and role of generalizations , and point to some instructive challenges that each of the articles seems to raise for the others. Finally, I propose what I argue is a more prudent aspiration for general principles in educational research: developing the principles through which open critique and debate across differences might occur and through which sound decisions about particular programs for research might be made. [source]

    Proliferation as More and Other to Mutuality and Synthesis Within Curriculum Studies: A Response to Hlebowitsh

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Short-Term Side Effects of Fractional Photothermolysis

    Galen H. Fisher MD
    Objective:. To ascertain the immediate and short-term side effects of fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of a variety of skin disorders involving the face, neck, chest, and hands. Methods. Physician-administered questionnaires were given during 60 follow-up visits for fractional photothermolysis treatment for a variety of facial skin disorders in patients with skin types ranging from I to IV. The questionnaire addressed 14 possible side effects, pain, and limitation of social activities. In addition, all patients were asked about any additional side effects not mentioned in the survey. An analysis of the data was performed once 60 surveys had been collected. Results. All patients (100%) undergoing fractional photothermolysis had transient post-treatment erythema. Other frequently reported post-treatment side effects were transient and included facial edema (82%), dry skin (86.6%), flaking (60%), a few (one to three) small, superficial scratches (46.6%), pruritis (37%), and bronzing (26.6%). Other more rarely reported effects included transient increased sensitivity (10%) and acneiform eruption (10%). Most patients reported that the pain level was easily tolerated, with an average pain score of 4.6 on a scale of 10. Most patients (72%) reported limiting social engagements for an average of 2 days after treatment. There were no long-lasting adverse events noted in our survey. Conclusion. Fractional photothermolysis to treat dermatologic conditions on the face, neck, chest, and hands is a well-tolerated and safe procedure with several immediate, and slightly delayed, post-treatment side effects. In our experience, these side effects were transient and limited to erythema, edema, dry skin, flaking skin, superficial scratches, pruritis, increased sensitivity, and acneiform eruption. Importantly, we did not see the development of post-treatment scarring, herpetic activation, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, persistent erythema, persistent edema, or infection. [source]

    Trade Liberalization and the Fiscal Squeeze: Implications for Public Investment

    Barsha Khattry
    This article examines the impact of trade liberalization on the level and structure of government expenditures across countries, with particular emphasis on low income countries. It develops the argument that the policies employed during trade liberalization have resulted in a fiscal squeeze as a result of declining tax revenues and rising interest expenditures. To surmount this fiscal hurdle, expenditures on physical capital, which have negligible political ramifications, have been reduced. Other more politically sensitive expenditures, such as spending on social capital, have been financed by incurring additional debt. However, additional debt has exerted upward pressure on interest payments, further exacerbating the fiscal situation. The statistical analysis carried out to examine the evidence uses panel data for eighty developing and industrialized countries over the period 1970,98 and employs a fixed,effects regression framework to account for country,specific characteristics. The results indicate that trade liberalization has indeed resulted in declining revenues and higher interest expenditures and that these factors have contributed to the observed decline in infrastructure spending. [source]

    The Impact of AIDS on Rural Households in Africa: A Shock Like Any Other?

    Carolyn Baylies
    In areas where HIV prevalence is high, household production can be significantly affected and the integrity of households compromised. Yet policy responses to the impact of HIV/AIDS have been muted in comparison to outcomes of other shocks, such as drought or complex political emergencies. This article looks at the reasons for the apparent under,reaction to AIDS, using data from Zambia, and examines recent calls to mitigate the effects of AIDS at household level. Critical consideration is directed at proposals relating to community safety nets, micro,finance and the mainstreaming of AIDS within larger poverty alleviation programmes. It is argued that effective initiatives must attend to the specific features of AIDS, incorporating both an assault on those inequalities which drive the epidemic and sensitivity to the staging of AIDS both across and within households. A multi,pronged approach is advocated which is addressed not just at mitigation or prevention, but also at emergency relief, rehabilitation and development. [source]

    Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway

    Maria Sol Flaherty
    Abstract Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E, and wingless. Other differentially regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. Developmental Dynamics 238:2235,2253, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Limited Opportunities for Paramedic Student Endotracheal Intubation Training in the Operating Room

    Bradford D. Johnston MD
    Abstract Background Paramedics, who often are the first to provide emergency care to critically ill patients, must be proficient in endotracheal intubation (ETI). Training in the controlled operating room (OR) setting is a common method for learning basic ETI technique. Objectives To determine the quantity and nature of OR ETI training currently provided to paramedic students. Methods The authors surveyed directors of paramedic training programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. An anonymous 12-question, structured, closed-response survey instrument was used that requested information regarding the duration and nature of OR training provided to paramedic students. The results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Results From 192 programs, 161 completed surveys were received (response rate, 85%). OR training was used at 156 programs (97%) but generally was limited (median, 17,32 hours per student). Half of the programs provided fewer than 16 OR hours per student. Students attempted a limited number of OR ETI (median, 6,10 ETI). Most respondents (61%) reported competition from other health care students for OR ETI. Other identified hindering factors included the increasing OR use of laryngeal mask airways and physicians' medicolegal concerns. Respondents from 52 (33%) programs reported a recent reduction in OR access, and 56 (36%) programs expected future OR opportunities to decrease. Conclusions Despite its key role in airway management education, the quantity and nature of OR ETI training that is available to paramedic students is limited in comparison to that available to other ETI providers. [source]

    A compendium of human mitochondrial gene expression machinery with links to disease

    Timothy E. Shutt
    Abstract Mammalian mitochondrial DNA encodes 37 essential genes required for ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation, instability or misregulation of which is associated with human diseases and aging. Other than the mtDNA-encoded RNA species (13 mRNAs, 12S and 16S rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs), the remaining factors needed for mitochondrial gene expression (i.e., transcription, RNA processing/modification, and translation), including a dedicated set of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, are products of nuclear genes that are imported into the mitochondrial matrix. Herein, we inventory the human mitochondrial gene expression machinery, and, while doing so, we highlight specific associations of these regulatory factors with human disease. Major new breakthroughs have been made recently in this burgeoning area that set the stage for exciting future studies on the key outstanding issue of how mitochondrial gene expression is regulated differentially in vivo. This should promote a greater understanding of why mtDNA mutations and dysfunction cause the complex and tissue-specific pathology characteristic of mitochondrial disease states and how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to more common human pathology and aging. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria

    Paris Laskaris
    Summary We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources. [source]

    Emergency Department Information System Implementation and Process Redesign Result in Rapid and Sustained Financial Enhancement at a Large Academic Center

    Jason S. Shapiro MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objectives were to measure the financial impact of implementing a fully integrated emergency department information system (EDIS) and determine the length of time to "break even" on the initial investment. Methods:, A before-and-after study design was performed using a framework of analysis consisting of four 15-month phases: 1) preimplementation, 2) peri-implementation, 3) postimplementation, and 4) sustained effects. Registration and financial data were reviewed. Costs and rates of professional and facility charges and receipts were calculated for the phases in question and compared against monthly averages for covariates such as volume, collections rates, acuity, age, admission rate, and insurance status with an autoregressive time series analysis using a segmented model. The break-even point was calculated by measuring cumulative monthly receipts for the last three study phases in excess of the average monthly receipts from the preimplementation phase, corrected for change in volume, and then plotting this against cumulative overall cost. Results:, Time to break even on the initial EDIS investment was less than 8 months. Total revenue enhancement at the end of the 5-year study period was $16,138,953 with an increase of 69.40% in charges and 70.06% in receipts. This corresponds to an increase in receipts per patient from $50 to $90 for professional services and $131 to $183 for facilities charges. Other than volume, there were no significant changes in trends for covariates between the preimplementation and sustained-effects periods. Conclusions:, A comprehensive EDIS implementation with process redesign resulted in sustained increases in professional and facility revenues and a rapid initial break-even point. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:527,535 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Relationship between soil copper content and copper content of selected crop plants in central Chile

    Ricardo Badilla-Ohlbaum
    Abstract A survey of copper levels in agricultural soils of central Chile revealed two soil clusters,one with a mean copper level of 162 mg/kg and one with a mean copper level of 751 mg/kg of soil. Samples of soils from both soil clusters were characterized on the basis of physicochemical characteristics, and copper extractability was compared by saturation and CaCl2 extraction as well as an acid-leaching procedure (TCLP). We also measured the copper content of various tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and onion (Allium cepa) crops growing on these soils. Other than copper levels, soils from the two clusters were quite similar, with slightly greater levels of molybdenum and cadmium in the high-copper soils. Within each cluster, extracted copper levels and total soil copper levels were not correlated. However, the three extraction procedures solubilized significantly more copper from the high-Cu soils. Mineralogical characterization of the soil particles and depth profiles of soil metal levels in a subsample of sites suggested that highly insoluble copper ore and mining wastes might account for the high copper levels. Neither total nor extractable copper levels allowed statistical prediction of the levels of copper in plant tissue. The edible tissues of both crops had the same mean copper content, regardless of the copper soil level. However, copper contents of stems and leaves were significantly higher for plants growing on the high-Cu soils. These results show that in these soils, high copper levels are associated with very insoluble copper species and thus low bioavailability of copper to crop plants. [source]

    Characterization of Neuronal Migration Disorders in Neocortical Structures: Loss or Preservation of Inhibitory Interneurons?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2000
    Petra Schwarz
    Summary: Purpose: Neuronal migration disorders (NMD) are often associated with therapy-resistant epilepsy. In human cerebral cortex, this hyperexcitability has been correlated with a loss of inhibitory interneurons. We used a rat model of focal cortical NMD (microgyria) to determine whether the expression of epileptiform activity in this model coincides with a decrease in inhibitory interneurons. Methods: In 2- to 4-month-old rats, the density of interneurons immunoreactive for ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cal-bindin, and parvalbumin was determined in fronto-parietal cortex in nine 200-,m-wide sectors located up to 2.5 mm lateral and 2.0 mm medial from the lesion center in primary parietal cortex (Par 1). Quantitative measurements in homotopic areas of age-matched sham-operated rats served as controls. Results: The freeze lesion performed in newborn rat cortex resulted in adult rats with a microgyrus extending in a rostro-caudal direction from frontal to occipital cortex. The density of GABA- and parvalbumin-positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex was not significantly different between lesioned and control animals. Only the density of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons located 1.0 mm lateral and 0.5 mm medial from the lesion was significantly (Student t test, p > 0.05) larger in freeze-lesioned rats (5.817 ± 562 and 6,400 ± 795 cells per mm3, respectively; n = 12) compared with measurements in homotopic regions in Parl cortex of controls (4,507 ± 281 and 4,061 ± 319 cells per mm3, respectively; n = 5). Conclusions: The previously reported widespread functional changes in this model of cortical NMD are not related to a general loss of inhibitory interneurons. Other factors, such as a decrease in GABA receptor density, modifications in GABAA receptor subunit composition, or alterations in the excitatory network, e.g., an increase in the density of calbindin-immunoreactive pyramidal cells, more likely contribute to the global disinhibition and widespread expression of pathophysiological activity in this model of cortical NMD. [source]

    Viruses of grapevine in Syria

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 3 2006
    T. Mslmanieh
    Surveys for virus and virus-like diseases were carried out in commercial vineyards and nurseries in seven different Syrian provinces (Aleppo, Dara'a, As Suwayda, Al Qunaytirah, Homs, Hamah, Tartous). Samples were collected at random from 835 individual vines (735 Vitis vinifera and 100 rootstock accessions) for laboratory testing. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), and Grapevine virus A (GVA) were the only viruses recovered by mechanical transmission to herbaceous hosts. Vein necrosis developed in c. 53% of graft-inoculated 110R indicators and vein mosaic in V. riparia inoculated with material from cv. Corna Alegra. A total of 71% of the ELISA-tested V. vinifera plants (522 out of 735) were infected by one (14.8%) or more (55.8%) viruses. GVA was the most widespread (54.7%), followed by Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1, 47.3%), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, 29.7%), and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3, 23.9%). Other economically relevant viruses were scarcer, i.e. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2, 9%), GFLV (0.8%) and ArMV (0.1%). The most important Syrian grapevine varieties, i.e. Hellwany, Salty, Balady, and Zeiny, had average infection rates that ranged between 44% and 91%. The highest incidence of infections was observed at Damascus (90%), whereas it ranged between 68% and 79% in the other provinces, except for Hama (36%). Rootstocks were in much better sanitary condition (25% infection). GFkV (22%) was the most common virus, whilst the presence of GLRaV-3 (3%), GLRaV-1, and GFLV (1%) was negligible. Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) was detected in 72.3% of the samples by RT-PCR. A high percentage of the GRSPaV-positive vines (80%) induced vein necrosis reactions in 110R, thus confirming the recently established correlation between this virus and vein necrosis. [source]

    Effects of oral electrolyte supplementation on endurance horses competing in 80 km rides

    Summary Reasons for performing study: There is no evidence that use of oral electrolyte pastes enhances performance in competing endurance horses. Objective: To ascertain whether oral administration of a high dose (HD) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) to endurance horses would differentially increase water intake, attenuate bodyweight (bwt) loss and improve performance when compared to a low dose (LD). Methods: A randomised, blinded, crossover study was conducted on 8 horses participating in two 80 km rides (same course, 28 days apart). Thirty minutes before and at 40 km of the first ride 4, horses received orally 0.2 g NaCl/kg bwt and 0.07 g KCl/kg bwt. The other 4 received 0.07 g NaCl/kg bwt and 0.02 g KCl/kg bwt. Horses received the alternate treatment in the second ride. Data were analysed with 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures (P<0.05). Results: Estimated water intake was significantly greater with HD both at the 40 km mark and as total water intake; however, differences in bwt loss and speed between HD and LD were not found. Treatment significantly affected serum Na+, Cl,, HCO3, pH and water intake, but not serum K+ or bwt. Serum Na+ and Cl, were significantly higher at 80 km when horses received HD, but no differences were found in early recovery. Venous HCO3 and pH were significantly lower throughout the ride and in early recovery when horses received HD. Conclusions and potential relevance: Other than enhancing water intake, supplementing endurance horses with high doses of NaCl and KCl did not provide any detectable competitive advantage in 80 km rides. Further, the elevated serum electrolyte concentrations induced with HD might not be appropriate for endurance horses. [source]

    Endurance exercise is associated with increased plasma cardiac troponin I in horses

    Summary Reason for performing study: Information is lacking regarding the influence of long distance exercise on the systemic concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnl) in horses. Objectives: To determine if the concentration of cTnl in horses competing in 80 and 160 km endurance races increases with exercise duration and if cTnl concentrations can be correlated with performance data. Methods: Blood samples for the measurement of cTnl and 3 min electrocardiogram recordings were obtained from horses prior to, during and after completion of 80 and 160 km endurance races at 3 ride sites during the 2004 and 2005 American Endurance Ride Conference competition seasons. Results: Full data sets were obtained from 100 of the 118 horses. Endurance exercise was associated with a significant increase in cTnl over baseline in both distance groups. Failure to finish competition (poor performance) was also associated with an increased cTnl concentration over baseline at the time of elimination when data from both distances were combined. Other than one horse that developed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, no arrhythmias were noted on the 3 minute ECG recordings that were obtained after endurance exercise in either distance group. Conclusions: Systemic concentrations of cTnl increase in endurance horses competing in both 80 and 160 km distances. Although final cTnl concentrations were significantly increased over their baseline values in horses that failed to finish competition, the degree of increase was not greater than the increase over baseline seen in the horses that successfully completed competition. The clinical significance of increased cTnl in exercising horses could not be ascertained from the results of this study. Potential relevance: These data indicate that cardiac stress may occur in horses associated with endurance exercise. Future studies utilising echocardiograpy to assess cardiac function in horses with increased cTnl are warranted. [source]

    Reports of information and support needs of daughters and sisters of women with breast cancer

    The aim of this study was to describe the information and support needs of women who have primary relatives with breast cancer. The Information and Support Needs Questionnaire (ISNQ) was developed and revised from previous qualitative and pilot studies. The ISNQ addressed concepts of the importance of, and the degree to which, 29 information and support needs related to breast cancer had been met. The study sample consisted of 261 community-residing women who had mothers, sisters, or a mother and sister(s) with breast cancer. Data were collected using a mailed survey. In addition to the ISNQ, additional items addressed family and health history, breast self-care practices, perception of the impact of the relative's breast cancer and other variables. Also included were established and well-validated measures of anxiety and depression. The findings document women's priority information and support needs. The information need most frequently identified as very important was information about personal risk of breast cancer. Other highly rated needs addressed risk factors for breast cancer and early detection measures. Generally, the women perceived that their information and support needs were not well met. These findings illuminate needs of women for more information and support when they have close family relatives with breast cancer and opportunities for primary care providers to assist women in addressing their needs. [source]

    High risk of hepatitis B-virus reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplantation in hepatitis B core antibody-positive patients

    Kosei Matsue
    Abstract We investigated the serological changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related markers in 55 and 26 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients undergoing allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation, respectively, over the past 4 yr. Five of the 17 allogeneic and one of the five autologous patients with pretransplant anti-hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (anti-HBc) were HBsAg-positive after transplantation, whereas none of the patients negative for anti-HBc were HBsAg-positive in both groups. All patients who became HBsAg-positive received steroid-containing immunosuppressive therapy for chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) or myeloma. Four of the six patients developed flare of HBV hepatitis, and two patients did not. One patient developed fulminant hepatitis treated with lamivudine and plasma exchange. Other five patients received entecavir from the detection of HBsAg. Although HBV-DNA levels became below the limit of detection in all patients, HBsAg positivity remained in three patients after 6 months of treatment. We concluded that anti-HBc positivity is a risk factor for reactivation of HBV after both autologous and allogeneic transplantation, and HBV-related markers should be monitored regularly in these patients. We also stress the efficacy of pre-emptive use of antiviral agents in controlling HBV replication and limiting hepatic injury due to reactivation of HBV in these patients. [source]

    Conventional cytogenetics in myelofibrosis: literature review and discussion

    Kebede Hussein
    Abstract The clinical phenotype of myelofibrosis (MF) is recognized either de novo (primary) or in the setting of polycythemia vera (post-PV) or essential thrombocythemia (post-ET). Approximately one-third of patients with primary MF (PMF) present with cytogenetic abnormalities; the most frequent are del(20q), del(13q), trisomy 8 and 9, and abnormalities of chromosome 1 including duplication 1q. Other less frequent lesions include ,7/del(7q), del(5q), del(12p), +21 and der(6)t(1;6)(q21;p21.3). In general, cytogenetic abnormalities are qualitatively similar among PMF, post-ET MF and post-PV MF although their individual frequencies may differ. Based on prognostic effect, cytogenetic findings in MF are classified as either ,favorable' or ,unfavorable'. The former include normal karyotype or isolated del(20q) or del(13q) and the latter all other abnormalities. Unfavorable cytogenetic profile in both PMF and post-PV/ET MF confers an independent adverse effect on survival; it is also associated with higher JAK2V617F mutational frequency. In addition to their prognostic value, cytogenetic studies in MF ensure diagnostic exclusion of other myeloid neoplasms that are sometimes associated with bone marrow fibrosis (e.g. BCR-ABL1 -positive or PDGFRB -rearranged) and also assist in specific treatment selection (e.g. lenalidomide therapy is active in MF associated with del(5q). [source]