Osmotic Effects (osmotic + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Secretin activation of the apical Na+ -dependent bile acid transporter is associated with cholehepatic shunting in rats,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
Gianfranco Alpini
The role of the cholangiocyte apical Na+ -dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) in bile formation is unknown. Bile acid absorption by bile ducts results in cholehepatic shunting, a pathway that amplifies the canalicular osmotic effects of bile acids. We tested in isolated cholangiocytes if secretin enhances ASBT translocation to the apical membrane from latent preexisting intracellular stores. In vivo, in bile duct,ligated rats, we tested if increased ASBT activity (induced by secretin pretreatment) results in cholehepatic shunting of bile acids. We determined the increment in taurocholate-dependent bile flow and biliary lipid secretion and taurocholate (TC) biliary transit time during high ASBT activity. Secretin stimulated colchicine-sensitive ASBT translocation to the cholangiocyte plasma membrane and 3H-TC uptake in purified cholangiocytes. Consistent with increased ASBT promoting cholehepatic shunting, with secretin pretreatment, we found TC induced greater-than-expected biliary lipid secretion and bile flow and there was a prolongation of the TC biliary transit time. Colchicine ablated secretin pretreatment-dependent bile acid,induced choleresis, increased biliary lipid secretion, and the prolongation of the TC biliary transit. In conclusion, secretin stimulates cholehepatic shunting of conjugated bile acids and is associated with increased cholangiocyte apical membrane ASBT. Bile acid transport by cholangiocyte ASBT can contribute to hepatobiliary secretion in vivo. (HEPATOLOGY 2005.) [source]

Pilot study on the effect of reducing dietary FODMAP intake on bowel function in patients without a colon

Catherine Croagh MB
Abstract Background: Poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) in the diet should, by virtue of their osmotic effects, increase fecal output following colectomy and ileal pouch formation or ileorectal anastomosis (IRA). The aim was to perform a proof-of-concept evaluation of this hypothesis. Methods: Fifteen patients (13 pouch, 2 IRA) had dietary and symptomatic evaluation before and during a low FODMAP diet. Carbohydrate malabsorption was evaluated by breath tests. Pouchitis was assessed clinically/endoscopically or by fecal lactoferrin. Results: Of 8 patients with a breath hydrogen response to lactulose, 7 had fructose malabsorption, 3 with lactose malabsorption, and 1 had lactose malabsorption alone. Five of 7 studied retrospectively improved stool frequency (from median 8 to 4 per day; P = 0.02), this being sustained over 0.5,3 years of follow-up. Five of 8 patients completed a prospective arm of the study. One patient had sustained improvement in stool frequency and 1 had reduced wind production. Overall, none of 8 patients who had pouchitis improved. In contrast, median daily stool frequency fell from 8 to 4 (P = 0.001) in the 7 without pouchitis. The degree of change in FODMAP intake also predicted response. There was a tendency for pouchitis to be associated with low baseline FODMAP intake. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of carbohydrate malabsorption in these patients. Reduction of the intake of FODMAPs may be efficacious in reducing stool frequency in patients without pouchitis, depending on dietary adherence and baseline diet. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Influence of temperature and salinity on the germination of Lotus creticus (L.) from the arid land of Tunisia

Mokhtar Rejili
Abstract Effects of salinity, temperature and their interactions on the rate and final percentage of germination were evaluated for two populations (Msarref, Oued dkouk) of the invasive glycophyte Lotus creticus Linné, grown under arid environmental conditions of the Tunisia. Seeds that were not treated with NaCl germinated well in a wide range of temperatures. For both populations, maximum germination occurred in distilled water at 25°C and lowest germination for all salinities was at 35°C. Germination was substantially delayed and significantly reduced with an increase in NaCl to levels above 300 mm. Compared to the Oued dkouk population, final germination and germination rate of the Msarref population was completely inhibited at 300 mm NaCl. The interactive effect of temperature and NaCl concentration on final germination and germination rate was significant (P < 0.01), indicating that the germination response to salinity depended on temperature. The inhibition of Oued dkouk population seed germination at high salt concentration was mostly due to osmotic effects while ionic effects were noted at Msarref population. The germination behaviour of the Oued dkouk population would therefore imply adaptive mechanisms to saline environments, while in the Msarref population such mechanisms seem to be absent. Since seed germination is more sensitive to salinity stress than the growth of established plants, the greater tolerance to salinity of Oued dkouk population would be an adaptive feature of this population to saline environment. Résumé L'effet de l'interaction de la salinité et de la température sur la germination de deux populations (Msarref et Oued Dkouk) du lotier de crête (Lotus creticus L.), glycophyte poussant dans des conditions environnementales arides en Tunisie, est étudié. Chez les deux populations, le taux de germination le plus élevé est obtenu à 25°C et le plus faible à 35°C. A 300 mm de NaCl, la germination de la population d'Oued Dkouk est ralentie alors que celle de Msarref est complètement inhibée. L'effet de l'interaction de deux stress est hautement significatif (P < 0,01). Il semble, ainsi, que l'effet de chacun de deux stress est intensifié par l'autre. Cependant, les deux populations montrent un comportement halophytique différent. L'inhibition de la germination, par la salinité, chez Oued Dkouk est due à un effet osmotique alors que chez Mserref, il est ionique. Il en résulte que la population de oued Dkouk présente une capacité adaptative à l'aridité plus importante que celle observée chez la population Msarref. [source]

The observation of intact hepatic endothelial cells by cryo-electron microscopy

F. Braet
Summary Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) can optimally be imaged by whole mount transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, TEM allows only investigation of vacuum-resistant specimens and this usually implies the study of chemically fixed and dried specimens. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can be used as a good alternative for imaging samples as whole mounts. Cryo-EM offers the opportunity to study intact, living cells while avoiding fixation, dehydration and drying, at the same time preserving all solubles and water as vitrified ice. Therefore, we compared the different results obtained when LSECs were vitrified using different vitrification conditions. We collected evidence that manual blotting at ambient conditions and vitrification by the guided drop method results in the production of artefacts in LSECs, such as the loss of fenestrae, formation of gaps and lack of structural details in the cytoplasm. We attribute these artefacts to temperature and osmotic effects during sample preparation just prior to vitrification. By contrast, by using an environmentally controlled glove box and a vitrification robot (37 °C and 100% relative humidity), these specific structural artefacts were nearly absent, illustrating the importance of controlled sample preparation. Moreover, data on glutaraldehyde-fixed cells and obtained by using different vitrification methods suggested that chemical prefixation is not essential when vitrification is performed under controlled conditions. Conditioned vitrification therefore equals chemical fixation in preserving and imaging cellular fine structure. Unfixed, vitrified LSECs show fenestrae and fenestrae-associated cytoskeleton rings, indicating that these structures are not artefacts resulting from chemical fixation. [source]

Neuronal uptake and metabolism of glycerol and the neuronal expression of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Nga Huynh Tran Nguyen
Abstract Glycerol is effective in the treatment of brain oedema but it is unclear if this is due solely to osmotic effects of glycerol or whether the brain may metabolize glycerol. We found that intracerebral injection of [14C]glycerol in rat gave a higher specific activity of glutamate than of glutamine, indicating neuronal metabolism of glycerol. Interestingly, the specific activity of GABA became higher than that of glutamate. NMR spectroscopy of brains of mice given 150 µmol [U- 13C]glycerol (0.5 m i.v.) confirmed this predominant labelling of GABA, indicating avid glycerol metabolism in GABAergic neurones. Uptake of [14C]glycerol into cultured cerebellar granule cells was inhibited by Hg2+, suggesting uptake through aquaporins, whereas Hg2+ stimulated glycerol uptake into cultured astrocytes. The neuronal metabolism of glycerol, which was confirmed in experiments with purified synaptosomes and cultured cerebellar granule cells, suggested neuronal expression of glycerol kinase and some isoform of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Histochemically, we demonstrated mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in neurones, whereas cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was three to four times more active in white matter than in grey matter, reflecting its selective expression in oligodendroglia. The localization of mitochondrial and cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases in different cell types implies that the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is of little importance in the brain. [source]

Do physical forces contribute to cryodamage?

Joseph Saragusty
Abstract To achieve the ultimate goal of both cryosurgery and cryopreservation, a thorough understanding of the processes responsible for cell and tissue damage is desired. The general belief is that cells are damaged primarily due to osmotic effects at slow cooling rates and intracellular ice formation at high cooling rates, together termed the "two factor theory." The present study deals with a third, largely ignored component,mechanical damage. Using pooled bull sperm cells as a model and directional freezing in large volumes, samples were frozen in the presence or absence of glass balls of three different diameters: 70,110, 250,500, and 1,000,1,250,µm, as a means of altering the surface area with which the cells come in contact. Post-thaw evaluation included motility at 0,h and after 3,h at 37°C, viability, acrosome integrity, and hypoosmotic swelling test. Interactions among glass balls, sperm cells, and ice crystals were observed by directional freezing cryomicroscopy. Intra-container pressure in relation to volume was also evaluated. The series of studies presented here indicate that the higher the surface area with which the cells come in contact, the greater the damage, possibly because the cells are squeezed between the ice crystals and the surface. We further demonstrate that with a decrease in volume, and thus increase in surface area-to-volume ratio, the intra-container pressure during freezing increases. It is suggested that large volume freezing, given that heat dissipation is solved, will inflict less cryodamage to the cells than the current practice of small volume freezing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 104: 719,728 © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]