Osmolality

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Osmolality

  • plasma osmolality
  • serum osmolality
  • urinary osmolality
  • urine osmolality


  • Selected Abstracts


    Effects of Light Intensity and Salinity on Growth, Survival, and Whole-Body Osmolality of Larval Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 4 2003
    James P. Henne
    The southern flounder Paralichthys lethosligma is a high-valued flatfish found in estuarine and shelf waters of the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Wide temperature and salinity tolerances exhibited by juveniles and adults make it a versatile new candidate for commercial culture, and studies are underway in the southeastern U.S. to develop hatchery methods for this species. The objectives of this study were to establish illumination and salinity conditions that optimize growth and survival of larval southern flounder reared through the yolk-sac and first feeding stages to 15-d post-hatching (15 dph). Early embryos were stocked into black 15-L tanks under light intensities of 5, 50, 100, and 1,000 Ix and at salinities of 24 and 34 ppt in a 4 2 factorial design. Significant (P 0.05) effects of both light intensity and salinity on growth and survival were obtained, with no interaction between these effects. On 11 dph and 15 dph, growth was generally maximized at the intermediate light intensities (50 and 100 Ix) and minimized at the extremes (5 and 1,000 Ix). By 15 dph, growth was higher at 34 ppt than at 24 ppt. Survival to 15 dph showed trends similar to those of growth. Survival was higher at 100 Ix (avg. = 46%, range = 41,54%) than at 5 Ix (avg. = 11%, range = 6,17%) and higher at 34 ppt (avg. = 43%, range = 3145%) than at 24 ppt (avg. = 17%, range = 8,38%). Whole-body osmolality (mOsmol/kg) was significantly lower in larvae reared at 24 ppt (avg. = 304, range = 285,325) through 11 dph than in larvae reared at 34 ppt (avg. = 343, range = 296,405). Larvae reared under the extreme light intensity treatments (5 and 1,000 Ix) at 34 ppt appeared to exhibit osmoregulatory stress, particularly on 11 dph, when a marked increase in whole-body osmolality was observed. The mid-intensity treatments (50 and 100 Ix) at 34 ppt optimized growth and survival of larval southern flounder in this study; and elicited the most stable osmotic response. These conditions appear to be consistent with those that southern flounder larvae encounter in nature during this early developmental period. [source]


    The Effects of Osmolality, Cryoprotectant and Equilibration Time on Striped Bass Morone saxatilis Sperm Motility

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
    Shuyang He
    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of osmolality, cryoprotectant, and equilibration time on striped bass sperm motility. In the first experiment, solutions of NaCI or KCI with osmolalities ranging from 0 to 700 mmol/kg were tested on sperm activation. Over 60% of the sperm were activated by isotonic NaCI and KCI solutions with a treatment osmolality of 350 mmol/kg. Sperm remained motile until osmolality increased to 600 mmol/ kg. In the second and third experiments, Extenders 1, 2 and 3 with osmolalities of 350, 500, and 600 mmol/kg, respectively, were tested. Sperm samples stored in Extender 2 showed significantly higher (P 0.01) sperm motility after 10 min of exposure as well as greater (P < 0.01) post-thaw motility when compared to samples stored in Extenders 1 and 3. In the fourth experiment, two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant and equilibration time. In the first trial, methanol with a concentration of 5% and 10% yielded the highest (P < 0.05) sperm motility prior to freezing at all equilibration times examined. However, 5% DMSO yielded the highest (P < 0.01) post-thaw motility (38 3.6%). DMSO with concentrations of 10% and 15% resulted in 17 2.3% and 6 1.0% post-thaw motility, respectively. Both methanol and DMA, at all concentrations tested, resulted in less than 10% post-thaw motility. In the second trial, four DMSO concentrations with three different equilibration times were examined. We observed a significant (P < 0.001) interaction effect between DMSO concentration and equilibration time. Post-thaw motility was significantly greater (P < 0.01) with a concentration of 5% DMSO at all equilibration times examined, compared to 1.25, 2.5, and 10% DMSO. An average post-thaw motility of 40 2.9% was achieved after 10 min equilibration using 5% DMSO. [source]


    Sperm motility and seminal plasma characteristics in Barbus sharpeyi (Gnther, 1874)

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Sayyed Mohammad Hadi Alavi
    Abstract Spermatozoa concentration, ionic composition, osmolality, glucose and total protein contents of seminal plasma and sperm motility were determined in Barbus sharpeyi (Cyprinidae, Teleosotei). Spermatozoa concentration ranged from 9.77 to 20.20 109 spermatozoa mL,1. Osmolality (mOsmol kg,1) and ionic contents (mM L,1) of the seminal plasma were 274.59.0, 70.03.4 Na+, 28.80.9 K+, 101.73.1 Cl,, 0.90.1 Mg2+ and 2.10.1 Ca2+ respectively. Total protein and glucose were 5.30.2 g L,1 and 76.74.3 mM L,1 respectively. Sperm motility was initiated in a hypo-osmotic condition, composed of either an ionic (KCl or NaCl) or a non-ionic (sucrose) activation medium. Duration of sperm motility was very short: <2 min after activation in distilled water. Percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher in an activation medium containing NaCl compared with that of distilled water. An activating medium containing NaCl or KCl higher than 150 mM or sucrose higher than 275 mM totally inhibited the activation of sperm motility. Immediately after sperm activation, wave(s) propagated along the flagellum, but waves were restricted to the proximal part of the flagellum (close to the head) at 1 min post activation. Studied characteristics in the present study were compared with those of other cyprinids for understanding inter-species differences. [source]


    Mechanisms of intercellular hypertonicity and isotonic fluid absorption in proximal tubules of mammalian kidneys

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2002
    F. KIILArticle first published online: 30 APR 200
    ABSTRACT The main purpose of this theoretical analysis (second of two articles) is to examine whether transjunctional diffusion of NaCl causes intercellular hypertonicity, which permits transcellular water transport across solute-impermeable lateral cell membranes until osmotic equilibration. In the S2 segment with tubular NaCl concentration 140 mM, the calculated apical intercellular NaCl concentration is c0 , 132 mM, which exceeds peritubular NaCl concentration by 12 mM or 22 mOsm kg,1. Variations in volume flow, junctional reflection coefficient (,NaCl=0.25,0.50), gap distance (g=6,8 ), junctional depth (d=18,100 ), intercellular diffusion coefficient (DLIS=500,1500 ,m2 s,1) and hypothetical active NaCl transport alter c0 only by a fraction of 1 mM. However, dilution and back-leakage of NaHCO3 lower apical intercellular hyperosmolality to ,18 mOsm kg,1. Water transport through solute-impermeable lateral cell membranes continues until intercellular and cellular osmolalities are equal. Transcellular and transjunctional volume flow are of similar magnitude (2 nL min,1 mm,1 tubule length) in the S2 segment. Thus, diffusion ensures isotonic absorption of NaCl. Two-thirds of NaHCO3 and other actively transported sodium salts are extruded into the last third of the exponentially widening intercellular space where the exposure time is only 0.9 s. Osmotic equilibration is dependent on aquaporins in the cell membranes. If permeability to water is low, transcellular water transport stops; tubular fluid becomes hypotonic; NaCl diffusion diminishes, but transjunctional water transport remains unaltered as long as transcellular transport of NaHCO3 and other solutes provides the osmotic force. [source]


    Interactions between maternal subtotal nephrectomy and salt: effects on renal function and the composition of plasma in the late gestation sheep fetus

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Amanda C. Boyce
    Effects of altered maternal salt intake between 122 and 127 days gestation (term is 150 days) were studied in eight fetuses carried by ewes which had renal insufficiency caused by subtotal nephrectomy (STNxF) and seven fetuses carried by intact ewes (IntF). Plasma sodium and osmolality were increased in ewes with subtotal nephrectomy on a high-salt intake (0.17 m NaCl in place of drinking water for 5 days; P < 0.05). The STNxF had normal body weights. A high maternal salt intake did not affect fetal blood pressure or heart rate. Plasma osmolality was higher in STNxF (P < 0.001), and plasma sodium and osmolality were increased by high salt (P < 0.001 and P < 0.04, respectively). The STNxF had higher urinary osmolalities (P= 0.002), which were also increased by a high maternal salt intake (P= 0.03). Renal blood flow fell in STNxF in response to a high maternal salt intake, but increased in IntF (P= 0.003). In STNxF but not IntF, glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein excretion were positively related to fetal plasma renin levels (P, 0.01). It is concluded that the salt intake of pregnant ewes with renal insufficiency affects maternal and fetal osmolar balance, fetal plasma sodium and fetal renal function. Since STNxF also had altered renal haemodynamic responses to high maternal salt and evidence of renin-dependent glomerular filtration and protein excretion, we suggest that interactions between dietary salt and pre-existing maternal renal disease impair glomerular integrity and function in the fetus. [source]


    Hyper osmolality does not modulate natriuretic peptide concentration in patients after coronary artery surgery

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2009
    E. L. HONKONEN
    Background: The heart secretes natriuretic peptides (NPs) in response to myocardial stretch. Measuring NP concentrations is a helpful tool in guiding treatment. It has been suggested that sodium ion and hyperosmolality could affect NP excretion. If this is true, peri-operative NP measurements could be inconsistent when hypertonic solutions are used. With different osmolalities but equal volumes of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) , and hypertonic saline (HS) , infusions, this double-blinded study tested the hypothesis that osmolality modulates the excretion of NPs. Methods: Fifty coronary surgery patients were randomized to receive within 30 min 4 ml/kg either HS or HES post-operatively. Samples for analysis of atrial NP (ANP), brain NP (BNP), plasma and urine sodium and osmolality and urine oxygen tension were obtained before and 60 min after starting the infusions and on the first post-operative morning. The haemodynamic parameters were measured at the same time points. Results: Plasma osmolality and sodium increased only in the HS group. Changes in plasma BNP and ANP levels did not differ between the groups (P=0.212 and 0.356). There were no correlations between NP levels and osmolality or sodium at any time point. In the HS group, urine volume was higher (3295 vs. 2644 ml; P<0.05) and the need for furosemide treatment was less (0.4 vs. 3.8 mg; P<0.01) than in the HES group. Conclusions: The absence of effects of plasma sodium content or hyperosmolality on NP release validates the value of NPs as a biomarker in peri-operative patients. [source]


    Inhibitory effect of osmotic concentration, potassium and pH on motility of the sperm of the North American burbot Lota lota maculosa

    JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    M. D. Zuccarelli
    Seminal plasma factors maintaining North American (NA) burbot Lota lota maculosa sperm quiescent were examined. Sperm were diluted into buffered saline solutions of various compositions and motility assessed. After 1 h in these solutions at 10 C, aliquots of the suspension were diluted with tap water and motility again assessed. Dilution of sperm in an incubation solution containing Ca2+ in the absence of K+ initiated sperm motility resulting in low motility when sperm were subsequently diluted in tap water. Incubation solutions with osmolalities >200 mOsm kg,1 and containing 125 mM K+ prevented the onset of sperm motility and were associated with maximal sperm motility upon dilution in tap water. Sperm maintained at lower osmolalities exhibited limited motility upon dilution in tap water indicating interdependence between K+ and osmolality in maintaining sperm quiescent in the presence of Ca2+. Sperm kept in incubation solution at pH values < c. 75 for 1 h demonstrated reduced motility when subsequently diluted in tap water. That motility of sperm was pH sensitive was further indicated by CO2 inhibition of motility. Therefore, NA burbot sperm are probably maintained in an immotile state, yet with potential for motility, by combination of high K+, osmolality and possibly pH. The results from this study differ from published information on sperm quiescence in the temporally and geographically distinct Eurasian burbot Lota lota lota. [source]


    Sex differences in ionoregulatory responses to dietary oil exposure in polar cod

    JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 2000
    J. S. Christiansen
    Serum osmolalities and chloride concentrations were examined in polar cod. When exposed to oil male and female fish responded differently. Ingestion of food contaminated with oil led to a significant decrease in osmolality (from 503 to 492 mOsm kg,1) in males. There was no significant effect of oil ingestion on serum osmolality in females, but chloride concentrations were increased (from 196 to 203 mmol kg,1). Gender related responses should, therefore, be considered when assessing the possible effects of environmental pollutants on fish physiology. [source]


    The Effects of Osmolality, Cryoprotectant and Equilibration Time on Striped Bass Morone saxatilis Sperm Motility

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
    Shuyang He
    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of osmolality, cryoprotectant, and equilibration time on striped bass sperm motility. In the first experiment, solutions of NaCI or KCI with osmolalities ranging from 0 to 700 mmol/kg were tested on sperm activation. Over 60% of the sperm were activated by isotonic NaCI and KCI solutions with a treatment osmolality of 350 mmol/kg. Sperm remained motile until osmolality increased to 600 mmol/ kg. In the second and third experiments, Extenders 1, 2 and 3 with osmolalities of 350, 500, and 600 mmol/kg, respectively, were tested. Sperm samples stored in Extender 2 showed significantly higher (P 0.01) sperm motility after 10 min of exposure as well as greater (P < 0.01) post-thaw motility when compared to samples stored in Extenders 1 and 3. In the fourth experiment, two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant and equilibration time. In the first trial, methanol with a concentration of 5% and 10% yielded the highest (P < 0.05) sperm motility prior to freezing at all equilibration times examined. However, 5% DMSO yielded the highest (P < 0.01) post-thaw motility (38 3.6%). DMSO with concentrations of 10% and 15% resulted in 17 2.3% and 6 1.0% post-thaw motility, respectively. Both methanol and DMA, at all concentrations tested, resulted in less than 10% post-thaw motility. In the second trial, four DMSO concentrations with three different equilibration times were examined. We observed a significant (P < 0.001) interaction effect between DMSO concentration and equilibration time. Post-thaw motility was significantly greater (P < 0.01) with a concentration of 5% DMSO at all equilibration times examined, compared to 1.25, 2.5, and 10% DMSO. An average post-thaw motility of 40 2.9% was achieved after 10 min equilibration using 5% DMSO. [source]


    Improved conception rates in sows inseminated with cryopreserved boar spermatozoa prepared with a more optimal combination of osmolality and glycerol in the freezing extender

    ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Tetsuji OKAZAKI
    ABSTRACT Cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) are added in freezing extenders to prevent intracellular ice crystal formation. However, it has been reported that high dose of CPAs confer toxicity on spermatozoa. Recently, the reduction of intracellular water by a high osmolality solution has also resulted in the suppression of ice crystal formation in spermatozoa, suggesting that the optimal combination of glycerol concentration and freezing extender osmolality could contribute to the development of effective sperm cryopreservation techniques. In this study, we investigated the motility, membrane and acrosomal integrity of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa treated with freezing extender (NSF) of varying osmolalities (300, 400, 500 mOsm/kg) and final concentrations of glycerol (0.5, 1, 2, 3%). The spermatozoa that were treated at 400 mOsm/kg and 2% glycerol showed significantly higher rates of motility and membrane integrity compared with those in other treatment groups. In addition, the conception and implantation rates of swine artificially inseminated with spermatozoa frozen by the novel freezing extender (conception; 79%, implantation; 57.5%) were significantly higher than those of frozen-thawed spermatozoa treated in the conventional NSF (300 mOsm/kg, 3% glycerol) (conception; 29%, implantation; 33.8%). From these results, we concluded that the novel hyperosmotic (400 mOsm/kg) and low-glycerol (final concentration 2%) freezing extender is beneficial for the cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. [source]


    Effects of aerobic fitness on hypohydration-induced physiological strain and exercise impairment

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    T. L. Merry
    Abstract Aim:, Hypohydration exacerbates cardiovascular and thermal strain and can impair exercise capacity in temperate and warm conditions. Yet, athletes often dehydrate in exercise, are hypervolaemic and have less cardiovascular sensitivity to acute hypervolaemia. We tested the hypothesis that trained individuals have less cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and performance affect of hypohydration during exercise. Methods:, After familiarization, six trained [O2 peak = 64 (SD 8) mL kg,1 min,1] and six untrained [O2 peak = 45 (4) mL kg,1 min,1] males cycled 40 min at 70%O2 peak while euhydrated or hypohydrated by 1.5,2.0% body mass (crossover design), before a 40-min work trial with euhydration or ad libitum drinking (in Hypohydration trial), in temperate conditions (24.3,C, RH 50%, va = 4.5 m s,1). Baseline hydration was by complete or partial rehydration from exercise+heat stress the previous evening. Results:, During constant workload, heart rate and its drift were increased in Hypohydration compared with Euhydration for Untrained [drift: 33 (11) vs. 24 beats min,1 h,1 (10), 95% CI 5,11] but not Trained [14 (3) vs. 13 beats min,1 h,1 (3), CI ,2 to 3; P = 0.01 vs. Untrained]. Similarly, rectal temperature drift was faster in Hypohydration for Untrained only [by 0.57,C h,1 (0.25); P = 0.03 vs. Trained], concomitant with their reduced sweat rate (P = 0.05) and its relation to plasma osmolality (P = 0.03). Performance power tended to be reduced for Untrained (,13%, CI ,35 to 2) and Trained (,7%, CI: ,16 to 1), without an effect of fitness (P = 0.38). Conclusion:, Mild hypohydration exacerbated cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain and tended to impair endurance performance, but aerobic fitness attenuated the physiological effects. [source]


    Mechanisms of transjunctional transport of NaCl and water in proximal tubules of mammalian kidneys

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2002
    F. KIILArticle first published online: 30 APR 200
    ABSTRACT Tight junctions and the intercellular space of proximal tubules are not accessible to direct measurements of fluid composition and transport rates, but morphological and functional data permit analysis of diffusion and osmosis causing transjunctional NaCl and water transport. In the S2 segment NaCl diffuses through tight junctions along a chloride gradient, but against a sodium gradient. Calculation in terms of modified Nernst,Fick diffusion equation after eliminating electrical terms shows that transport rates (300,500 pmol min,1 mm,1 tubule length) and transepithelial voltage of +2 mV are in agreement with observations. Diffusion coefficients are Dtj=1500 ,m2 s,1 in the S1 segment, and Dtj=90,100 ,m2 s,1 in the S2 segment where apical intercellular NaCl concentration is 132 mM, 1 mM below complete stop (Dtj=0 and Donnan equilibrium). Tight junctions with gap distance 6 are impermeable to mannitol (effective molecular radius 4 ); reflection coefficients are ,=0.92 for NaHCO3 and ,=0.28 for NaCl, because of difference in anion size. The osmotic force is provided by a difference in effective transjunctional osmolality of 10 mOsm kg,1 in the S1 segment and 30 mOsm kg,1 in the S2 segment, where differences in transjunctional concentration contribute with 21 mOsm kg,1 for NaHCO3 and ,4 mOsm kg,1 for NaCl. Transjunctional difference of 30 mOsm kg,1 causes a volume flow of 2 nL min,1 mm,1 tubule length. Luminal mannitol concentration of 30 mM stops all volume flow and diffusive and convective transport of NaCl. In conclusion, transjunctional diffusion and osmosis along gradients generated by transcellular transport of other solutes account for all NaCl transport in proximal tubules. [source]


    Factors regulating renal angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the rat

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2000

    Changes in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity appear to be important in mediating the natriuresis which ensues after administration of an oral or gastric sodium load. In this study, we sought to determine the time course of the changes in ACE activity in the kidney which occur after sodium ingestion. In addition, we sought to investigate mechanisms which might underlie these changes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity was measured by generation of histidyl-leucine in homogenates of kidneys harvested at varying time-points after gastric sodium administration. The effects of intravenous sodium loading, solution osmolality and of changes in renal nerve activity were also investigated. Intragastric instillation of both the sodium-containing solution and its iso-osmotic urea control solution resulted in significant increases in renal ACE activity (NaCl: P < 0.0005; Urea: P < 0.01). The increase in renal ACE activity after gastric sodium loading was more prolonged than after the urea control (P < 0.025, NaCl vs. urea at 90 min). This prolonged increase in renal ACE activity appeared to reflect a response to absorbed sodium as intravenous sodium administration caused a significant increase in renal ACE activity at 90 min (P < 0.0005). In contrast to these stimuli which increased renal ACE activity, renal denervation caused a significant decrease in ACE activity in the kidney (P < 0.05). We conclude that gastric sodium loading increases renal ACE activity. This effect appears to be due initially to a response to an increase in gastric lumenal osmolality and later to absorbed sodium. These changes in renal ACE activity are not mediated by a decrease in renal nerve activity. [source]


    Ion transport and osmotic adjustment in Escherichia coli in response to ionic and non-ionic osmotica

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Lana Shabala
    Summary Bacteria respond to osmotic stress by a substantial increase in the intracellular osmolality, adjusting their cell turgor for altered growth conditions. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism we demonstrate here that bacterial responses to hyperosmotic stress specifically depend on the nature of osmoticum used. We show that increasing acute hyperosmotic NaCl stress above ,1.0 Os kg,1 causes a dose-dependent K+ leak from the cell, resulting in a substantial decrease in cytosolic K+ content and a concurrent accumulation of Na+ in the cell. At the same time, isotonic sucrose or mannitol treatment (non-ionic osmotica) results in a gradual increase of the net K+ uptake. Ion flux data are consistent with growth experiments showing that bacterial growth is impaired by NaCl at the concentration resulting in a switch from net K+ uptake to efflux. Microarray experiments reveal that about 40% of upregulated genes shared no similarity in their responses to NaCl and sucrose treatment, further suggesting specificity of osmotic adjustment in E. coli to ionic and non-ionic osmotica. The observed differences are explained by the specificity of the stress-induced changes in the membrane potential of bacterial cells highlighting the importance of voltage-gated K+ transporters for bacterial adaptation to hyperosmotic stress. [source]


    Osmoadaptation in bacteria and archaea: common principles and differences

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 12 2001
    Markus Roeler
    The availability of water is the most important prerequisite for life of any living cell, and exposure of cells to hypersaline conditions always threatens the cells with a drastic loss of water. To re-establish the essential turgor pressure, cells increase the water activity of their cytoplasm by accumulation of compatible solutes, either by synthesis or by uptake. The ability to respond to increasing osmolality is well conserved in all three lines of descent and, here, we compare the osmoadaptive strategies of Bacteria and Archaea. The temporal sequence of events after an osmotic upshock will be discussed, with a focus on the most rapid response, notably the mechanisms of transport activation at the protein level, and different signals for osmolality will be compared. The spectrum of compatible solutes used by different organisms is rather diverse and a comparison of ,bacterial' and ,archaeal' compatible solutes will be given. [source]


    Interactions between maternal subtotal nephrectomy and salt: effects on renal function and the composition of plasma in the late gestation sheep fetus

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Amanda C. Boyce
    Effects of altered maternal salt intake between 122 and 127 days gestation (term is 150 days) were studied in eight fetuses carried by ewes which had renal insufficiency caused by subtotal nephrectomy (STNxF) and seven fetuses carried by intact ewes (IntF). Plasma sodium and osmolality were increased in ewes with subtotal nephrectomy on a high-salt intake (0.17 m NaCl in place of drinking water for 5 days; P < 0.05). The STNxF had normal body weights. A high maternal salt intake did not affect fetal blood pressure or heart rate. Plasma osmolality was higher in STNxF (P < 0.001), and plasma sodium and osmolality were increased by high salt (P < 0.001 and P < 0.04, respectively). The STNxF had higher urinary osmolalities (P= 0.002), which were also increased by a high maternal salt intake (P= 0.03). Renal blood flow fell in STNxF in response to a high maternal salt intake, but increased in IntF (P= 0.003). In STNxF but not IntF, glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein excretion were positively related to fetal plasma renin levels (P, 0.01). It is concluded that the salt intake of pregnant ewes with renal insufficiency affects maternal and fetal osmolar balance, fetal plasma sodium and fetal renal function. Since STNxF also had altered renal haemodynamic responses to high maternal salt and evidence of renin-dependent glomerular filtration and protein excretion, we suggest that interactions between dietary salt and pre-existing maternal renal disease impair glomerular integrity and function in the fetus. [source]


    Increasing renal mass improves survival in anephric rats following metanephros transplantation

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Damian Marshall
    Renal failure and end-stage renal disease are prevalent diseases associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, the preferred treatment for which is kidney transplantation. However, the gulf between supply and demand for kidneys remains high and is growing every year. A potential alternative to the transplantation of mature adult kidneys is the transplantation of the developing renal primordium, the metanephros. It has been shown previously, in rodent models, that transplantation of a metanephros can provide renal function capable of prolonging survival in anephric animals. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increasing the mass of transplanted tissue can prolong survival further. Embryonic day 15 rat metanephroi were transplanted into the peritoneum of anaesthetized adult rat recipients. Twenty-one days later, the transplanted metanephroi were anastomosed to the recipient's urinary system, and 35 days following anastomosis the animal's native renal mass was removed. Survival times and composition of the excreted fluid were determined. Rats with single metanephros transplants survived 29 h longer than anephric controls (P < 0.001); animals with two metanephroi survived 44 h longer (P < 0.001). A dilute urine was formed, with low concentrations of sodium, potassium and urea; potassium and urea concentrations were elevated in terminal serum samples, but sodium concentration and osmolality were comparable to control values. These data show that survival time is proportional to the mass of functional renal tissue. While transplanted metanephroi cannot currently provide life-sustaining renal function, this approach may have therapeutic benefit in the future. [source]


    Renal Response to Arginine Vasopressin During the Oestrous Cycle in the Rat: Comparison of Glucose and Saline Infusion Using Physiological Doses of Vasopressin

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    David E. Hartley
    The renal response to arginine vasopressin in the rat has been shown to depend on reproductive status. However there is no consensus as to when the kidney is most responsive. The varying results could depend on the protocol and the dose of hormone used. A study has been performed, with physiological doses of vasopressin, comparing the responses during infusion of hypotonic saline and glucose. After an equilibration period of 150 min, conscious rats were infused on each of the four days of the oestrous cycle with either isotonic saline (0.077 M) or 0.14 M glucose for a control period of 45 min. Vasopressin was then infused at 10-40 fmol min,1 for 1 h, followed by a recovery period of 90 min. Timed urine samples were collected for determination of volume, sodium concentration and osmolality. During the control period urine flow was greatest at oestrus and dioestrus day 2 and sodium excretion on dioestrus day 2 irrespective of the infusate. Vasopressin concentrations achieved lay within the physiological range and no difference was observed between the different days for a given dose. Infusion of vasopressin in both saline and glucose produced a dose-dependent antidiuresis, the greatest responses being seen of pro-oestrus and dioestrus day 2. It was only with the highest rate of infusion that a significant increase in sodium excretion was seen on each day of the cycle and the greatest responses were seen on pro-oestrus and dioestrus day 1 for both infusates. Thus the kidney shows the greatest response to physiological doses of vasopressin at pro-oestrus and dioestrus day 1 irrespective of the infusate employed. [source]


    The role of steroid hormones in the regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin release and mRNA expression in hypothalamo neurohypophysial explants from the rat

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2000
    Celia D. Sladek
    Vasopressin and oxytocin release from the neural lobe, and the vasopressin and oxytocin mRNA contents of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei are increased by hypertonicity of the extracellular fluid. The factors regulating these parameters can be conveniently studied in perifused explants of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system that include the supraoptic nucleus (but not the paraventricular nucleus) with its axonal projections to the neural lobe. Vasopressin and oxytocin release and the mRNA content of these explants respond appropriately to increases in the osmolality of the perifusate. This requires synaptic input from the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Glutamate is a likely candidate for transmitting osmotic information from the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis to the magnocellular neurones, because agonists for excitatory amino acid receptors stimulate vasopressin and oxytocin release, and because increased vasopressin release and mRNA content induced in hypothalamo-neurohypophysial explants by a ramp increase in osmolality are blocked by antagonists of both NMDA (N -methyl-D-aspartate) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Osmotically stimulated vasopressin release is also blocked by testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol and corticosterone. Both oestrogen and dihydrotestosterone block NMDA stimulation of vasopressin release, and in preliminary studies oestradiol blocked AMPA stimulation of vasopressin release. Thus, steroid inhibition of osmotically stimulated vasopressin secretion may reflect inhibition of mechanisms mediated by excitatory amino acids. Recent studies have demonstrated numerous mechanisms by which steroid hormones may impact upon neuronal function. Therefore, additional work is warranted to understand these effects of the steroid hormones on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion and to elucidate the potential contribution of these mechanisms to regulation of hormone release in vivo. [source]


    Diurnal rhythms in neurohypophysial function

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2000
    Mary L. Forsling
    The neurohypophysial hormones oxytocin and vasopressin show daily rhythms of secretion with elevated hormone release during the hours of sleep. This pattern can be modulated by ovarian steroids and alters with age. The pattern appears to be due in part to the nocturnal increase in melatonin secretion, which stimulates hormone release in man, while being inhibitory in the rat. Pinealectomy alters both the 24 h pattern of neurohypophysial hormone release in the rat and the firing rate of magnocellular supraoptic nucleus neurones. There is also a reduced hormone release in response to hypovolaemia and raised plasma sodium concentration compared to sham operated animals, with a smaller increase in neuronal activity, as determined by immediate-early gene expression. The normal responses can be restored by nocturnal administration of melatonin. Melatonin also influences the neurohypophysial hormone response in the human to known stimuli of release, such as raised plasma osmolality, exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Recent studies have revealed that not only does the release of vasopressin and oxytocin vary over each 24 h, but the respective renal and pregnant uterine responses also show diurnal variations. [source]


    The ameliorative effect of cysteine prodrug l -2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    B.H. Ali
    Abstract Pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity of the synthetic anticancer drug cisplatin (CP) involves generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals in the kidney cortex, and cysteine prodrug l -2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant action. Therefore, in the present work, we aimed at testing the possible protective or palliative effect of OTC on CP nephrotoxicity in rats. OTC was given at an oral dose of 150 mg/kg/day for 7 days. On day 7, some of these rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (or vehicle) at a dose of 6 mg/kg. Rats were killed, blood and urine samples were collected, and the kidneys were removed 6 days after CP treatment. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated histopathologically by light microscopy, and biochemically by measuring the concentrations of creatinine and urea in serum, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in renal cortex, and by urinalyses. CP significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine (P < 0.05) by about 128% and 170% respectively. CP treatment reduced cortical GSH concentration by about 34% (P < 0.05), and the activity of SOD by about 28% (P < 0.05). CP treatment significantly increased urine volume and N -acetyl- , - d -glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, and significantly decreased osmolality and protein concentrations. OTC significantly mitigated all these effects. Sections from saline- and OTC-treated rats showed apparently normal proximal tubules. However, kidneys of CP-treated rats had a moderate degree of necrosis. This appeared to be lessened when CP was given simultaneously with OTC. The concentration of CP in the cortical tissues was not significantly altered by OTC treatment. The results suggested that OTC had ameliorated the histopathological and biochemical indices of nephrotoxicity in rats. Pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies, OTC may potentially be useful as a nephroprotective agent. [source]


    Fluid control in elderly patients with nocturia

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Osamu Natsume
    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiology of nocturnal polyuria associated with aging. Methods: Fifty patients (mean age 67.7 years, range 50,87) with nocturia were recruited for this prospective study. Patients were classified into nocturnal polyuria (NP) and non-nocturnal polyuria (non-NP) groups based on records of their frequency-volume charts. A hypertonic saline infusion test was carried out to evaluate individual osmotic and volume control. Results: In the NP group, there was a significantly increased nocturnal diuretic rate compared with the daytime diuretic rate. In the non-NP group, there was a significantly decreased nocturnal diuretic rate compared with the daytime rate. There was also a positive correlation between systolic blood pressure and nocturnal diuretic rate, and a negative correlation between systolic blood pressure and daytime diuretic rate in those with NP, but no correlation in those without NP. Thus, a close relationship between diuretic rates and systolic blood pressure was seen in NP patients. Moreover, a slight overall shift upward from the physiological range of plasma osmolality relative to arginine vasopressin after hypertonic saline loading was seen in those with NP compared with those without. An altered circadian rhythm was also seen in diurnal plasma arginine vasopressin levels in patients with and without NP. Conclusions: Patients with nocturnal polyuria are likely to have a more hypervolemic or vasoconstrictive condition. It is considered that non-osmotic control takes on a greater meaning in patients with nocturnal polyuria, though osmotic control contributes less to diuresis within the physiological plasma osmolality range with aging. [source]


    The Relationship Between the Action of Arginine Vasopressin and Responsiveness to Oral Desmopressin in Older Men: A Pilot Study

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
    Theodore M. Johnson II
    OBJECTIVES: To identify whether oral desmopressin (ddAVP) reduced nocturnal urine volume (NUV) in older men with nocturia without obvious bladder outlet obstruction and to determine whether deficiencies in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and action demonstrated using water deprivation testing predicted responsiveness to ddAVP. DESIGN: Participants had a 2-day Clinical Research Center (CRC) evaluation followed by a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of individually titrated oral ddAVP. SETTING: Participants were from a single Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. MEASUREMENTS: Maximum urine osmolality and percentage increase in osmolality were measured after subjects received aqueous vasopressin as part of the overnight water deprivation study; these data were used to categorize participants as normal, having partial central AVP deficiency, or having impaired renal responsiveness to AVP. Response to ddAVP was assessed using data from frequency-volume records. RESULTS: Fourteen participants completed the CRC stay and ddAVP trial. Subjects given ddAVP reduced NUV significantly from baseline (P=.02) and had significantly lower NUV than when on placebo (P=.01). The mean net reduction in NUV from ddAVP compared to placebo was 1418%. Using water deprivation testing to categorize participants, 10 were normal, two had partial central AVP deficiency, and two had impaired renal responsiveness. The mean net reduction in NUV for those with abnormal water deprivation tests was 1125%, versus 1516% for those with normal water deprivation testing (P=.70). CONCLUSION: In this small randomized, controlled trial in older men with nocturia, ddAVP reduced NUV. Counter to expectations, participants deemed normal according to water deprivation tests had approximately equivalent responsiveness to ddAVP. Although this study cannot offer definitive conclusions on the lack of prediction of water deprivation testing for ddAVP benefit, these data offer additional information that may help clarify the pathophysiology and optimal treatment of nocturia in older men. [source]


    An Intervention to Increase Fluid Intake in Nursing Home Residents: Prompting and Preference Compliance

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 7 2001
    Sandra F. Simmons PhD
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a three-phase, behavioral intervention to improve fluid intake in nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: Controlled clinical intervention trial. SETTING: Two community NHs. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three incontinent NH residents. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention consisted of three phases for a total of 32 weeks: (1) 16 weeks of four verbal prompts to drink per day, in between meals; (2) 8 weeks of eight verbal prompts per day, in between meals; and (3) 8 weeks of eight verbal prompts per day, in between meals, plus compliance with participant beverage preferences. MEASUREMENTS: Between-meal fluid intake was measured in ounces by research staff during all three phases of the intervention. Percentage of fluids consumed during meals was also estimated by research staff for a total of nine meals per participant (3 consecutive days) at baseline and at 8 and 32 weeks into the intervention. Serum osmolality, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine values were obtained for all participants in one of the two sites at the same three time points. RESULTS: The majority (78%) of participants increased their fluid intake between meals in response to the increase in verbal prompts (phase 1 to 2). A subset of residents (21%), however, only increased their fluid intake in response to beverage preference compliance (phase 3). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of intervention participants who had laboratory values indicative of dehydration compared with the control participants. Cognitive and nutritional status were predictive of residents' responsiveness to the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: A behavioral intervention that consists of verbal prompts and beverage preference compliance was effective in increasing fluid intake among most of a sample of incontinent NH residents. Verbal prompting alone was effective in improving fluid intake in the more cognitively impaired residents, whereas preference compliance was needed to increase fluid intake among less cognitively impaired NH residents. [source]


    Is the intrinsic potassium content of forages an important factor in intake regulation of dairy cows?

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 4 2009
    F. Leiber
    Summary Hay from intensively managed grassland with high nutrient density and digestibility containing 29 g potassium/kg dry matter (DM) and hay from an alpine pasture, clearly lower in energy, digestibility and potassium (12 g/kg DM) were offered as sole feeds to 18 lactating dairy cows following a change-over arrangement within three periods of 21 days each (schedule either alpine-lowland-alpine or lowland-alpine-lowland hay). Faeces and urine were quantitatively collected over 7 days. Dry matter intake was similar and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake was higher with alpine than with lowland hay (1.57 kg/100 kg vs. 1.43 kg/100 kg body weight). Potassium intake was approximately three times lower with alpine than with lowland hay. Urinary water output was closely correlated with potassium intake. It was also correlated with DM intake but only in animals receiving lowland hay, while it remained independent from intake when alpine hay was fed. Plasma osmolality was lower when alpine hay was fed. As energy requirements were not covered with either diet, the lower NDF intake with lowland hay was assumed to have been caused by higher ruminal osmolality because of the higher intrinsic potassium concentrations of this hay type. Further studies are necessary to determine potassium levels critical for feed intake. [source]


    Comparative study on the regulation of body fluids and mammary circulation at different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on different types of roughage

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 2 2000
    N. Chaiyabutr
    Summary The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of prolonged feeding of urea-treated rice straw, compared with feeding of hay, on the regulation of body fluids, milk yield and mammary circulation at early lactation (30 days postpartum), mid-lactation (120 days postpartum) and late lactation (210 days postpartum) in crossbred Holstein Friesians. Sixteen first lactating crossbred Holstein Friesians (HF), consisting of eight animals of two breed types, 87.5%HF and 50%HF, were selected and each breed was randomly allocated into two groups. Each group, consisting of four animals from the same breed, was fed either 5% urea-treated rice straw or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage in combination with a similar concentrate throughout the experiments. During the course of lactation there were no significant differences in body weight, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma volume and blood volume among groups of 87.5%HF animals and 50%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw. Water turnover rate, total body water space and total body water as a percentage of body weight of 50%HF animals were significantly higher than those of 87.5%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw. The packed cell volume was significantly higher in all lactating periods of both groups of 50%HF animals in comparison with 87.5%HF animals. The ratio of DM intake to milk production for 87.5%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw was significantly lower than that of 50%HF animals in early lactation. The udder blood flow and milk secretion of 87.5%HF were significantly higher in early lactation and markedly declined when lactation advanced in comparison with those of 50%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw. The ratio of mammary blood flow to milk yield for all groups was in a similar range during early lactation although it significantly increased in mid- and late lactation for both groups of 87.5%HF animals. From these results it can be concluded that both 50%HF and 87.5%HF animals feeding on urea-treated rice straw as a roughage source do not show any undernutritional effects in comparison with those fed with hay during the course of lactation. The physiological response differences between breeds are that 87.5%HF animals, which have a genetic makeup closer to the exotic bos taurus breed and a high milk yield, show a poor adjustment to the tropical environment and poorer lactation persistency in comparison with 50%HF animals. [source]


    Physico-biochemical parameters and protein profiles of sperm from beluga Huso huso

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    P. Li
    Summary Basic physico-biochemical parameters and protein profiles of sperm from beluga (Huso huso), have been evaluated. The results show a stable spermatozoan velocity (ranging from 136.23 5.63 to 105.78 5.27 ,ms,1) and motility during 2 min post activation, as well as a long duration of the overall spermatozoa motility period (up to 5 min). Mean values were determined for seminal plasma protein concentration (0.29 0.16 mg ml,1), spermatozoa concentration (0.28 0.27 109 spz ml,1), seminal plasma osmolality (51.33 4.91 mOsmol kg,1), the pH (8.49 0.01) and Na+ (18.97 3.65 mm), K+ (2.83 1.36 mm), Ca2+ (0.19 0.06 mm), Mg2+ (0.49 0.23 mm) and Cl, (6.33 0.58 mm) concentrations. Moreover, in seminal plasma, five protein bands with molecular weights (MW) of 71, 49, 46, 34, 29 kDa were identified. In spermatozoa, about 100 spots with molecular weights varying from 26.5 to 107 kDa and iso-electric points ranging from 5 to 9.5 were found. The observed physiological and biochemical properties, together with protein patterns, should be considered for the development of methods for controlled reproduction and sperm cryopreservation for the highly endangered beluga sturgeon. [source]


    The current status of sperm cryopreservation of the endangered Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage) in Malaysia

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    P. C. Chew
    Summary The objective of this study was to develop a cryopreservation method in Probarbus jullieni sperm, an endangered riverine fish species in Southeast Asia, including the optimization of an extender solution (14 extender formulations were tested) and selecting a cryoprotectant (five types of agents and methanol were used at concentrations (v/v) of 5, 7.5, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20%). The semen to diluent ratios tested were as follow: 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 4, 1 : 5, 1 : 7, 1 : 9, 1 : 14, 1 : 19, 1 : 24 and 1 : 49. Vapour exposure duration was set at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min while the distance between sample and liquid nitrogen (LN2) during the vapour exposure was designed at 3, 3.5, 4, 5 and 6 cm. Further, the time frame for thawing was set at 6, 7, 8, 10, 20 and 30 s. The optimum protocol was by using CF-HBSS (pH 7.5, osmolality 285 10 mOsmol kg,1) in combination with methanol at 9% (v/v); sperm to diluents ratio between 1 : 3 to 1 : 5; vapour exposure for 5 min or 10 min, with samples placed at 3.5 cm or 4 cm above LN2 and thawing at 40C for 7 s. The mean of pre-frozen and post-thaw sperm motility was 80.1 13.6% (n = 43) and 49.6 16.4% (n = 43) respectively. The reproductive characteristics of P. jullieni during its spawning season were addressed in present work. Cryopreserved sperm was found to have lower fertilization ability (4.2 2.5%, n = 1050) and hatching rate (1.6 1.2%, n = 1050) compared with fresh sperm (fertilization 77.7 6.2%, n = 1050; hatching 64.7 7.7%, n = 1050). The resulted problems and constraints encountered in the process of sperm cryopreservation of the species studied were also reported in this paper. [source]


    Effect of short term exposure to the anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol on plasma osmolality of juvenile dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    A. K. Bernatzeder
    Summary The plasma osmolality of early juvenile dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, exposed to 2-phenoxyethanol and control fish that were pithed prior to sampling, was investigated. Exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol, after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min, did not alter plasma osmolality (Friedman test; P = 0.976). There was no significant relationship between the size of fish within the range 133,170 mm SL (40,85 g) and plasma osmolality. Finally, there was no significant difference in plasma osmolality between anaesthetized fish and the control group that were pithed directly after removal from the tanks. Anaesthetizing juvenile dusky kob with 2-phenoxyethanol prior to blood sampling did not affect plasma osmolality. [source]


    Changes in serum cortisol, metabolites, osmotic pressure and electrolytes in response to different blood sampling procedures in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Marino
    This study investigated the effect of five sampling procedures on serum cortisol, glucose, total protein, osmolality, Na+, Cl,, K+ and Ca++ concentrations in 2-year-old cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L). Mild disturbance caused by rapid removal of fish and brief handling did not induce significant variation in any of the blood parameters investigated. Confinement and crowding elicited a high and significant increase in serum cortisol, glucose, osmolality, Na+, Cl,, and Ca++ concentrations. Exposure to MS 222 (140 mg L,1) significantly increased osmolality, but not ionic concentration. Site of blood withdrawal (cardiac sinuses/caudal vein) had no effect on the concentration of analysed blood constituents, except for K+ levels. Scattered literature of sea bass blood chemistry is reviewed and compared with ,normal' ranges of blood constituents measured in this study. We conclude that it is necessary to select and rigorously execute an opportune blood sampling procedure whenever blood constituents are used as indicators of fish functional state. [source]