Original Approach (original + approach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

In vitro Chemical Reactivity of Doped Bioactive Glasses: an Original Approach by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

Elodie Dietrich
The control of the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, as well as the chemical reactivity of melt-derived glasses is an important state in the biomaterials field. The present work explores the local structure of bioactive glasses before and after in vitro assays in simulated body fluid. This study by solid-state MAS,NMR constitutes an original approach to the understanding of the bioactivity process. [source]

Original approach to multiblock copolymers via reversible addition,fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

Hesna Gemici
,,,-Thiol-terminated (co)polymers synthesized via reversible addition,fragmentation chain transfer polymerization can be oxidized to yield multiblock copolymers via the formation of disulfide bridges. [source]

In vitro Chemical Reactivity of Doped Bioactive Glasses: an Original Approach by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

Elodie Dietrich
The control of the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, as well as the chemical reactivity of melt-derived glasses is an important state in the biomaterials field. The present work explores the local structure of bioactive glasses before and after in vitro assays in simulated body fluid. This study by solid-state MAS,NMR constitutes an original approach to the understanding of the bioactivity process. [source]

Change the Analyst and Not the System: A Different Approach to Intelligence Reform

Uri Bar-Joseph
Recent intelligence failures, including first and foremost the mistaken estimate of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) prior to the war, show that a prime source of such failures is the adherence by analysts to preconceptions (or mind-sets) which entail the rejection of new information that contradicts it. The source of this kind of problem lies in well known psychological mechanisms. Yet official investigations into intelligence blunders have typically ignored this problem or have not suggested an appropriate solution thus far. Our paper suggests an original approach based on the fact that certain types of personalities are more likely than others to fall victim to these biased judgments. Existing psychological tests can help determine individual susceptibility to such tendencies. Therefore we suggest that intelligence organizations should pay far more attention to these personality characteristics, especially an analyst's level of openness, in recruitment, training, and promotion. Such attention would help create more effective reforms in intelligence than organizational models which advocate "devil's advocate" kind of solutions. [source]

Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

Jessica Dubois
Abstract Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatiotemporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1,4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spinothalamic tract and fornix, and finally the corticospinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Blameworthiness, Vice, and The Objectivity of Morals

Phillip Montague
This thesis needs defending because it seems vulnerable to certain counterexamples. One approach to dealing with these counterexamples centers on the concept of blameworthiness, but this approach is flawed. An alternative approach is developed that relies on the concept of a vicious action. And although it too centers on the concept of blameworthiness, it lacks the flaws that are present in the original approach. [source]

An original approach to determining traces of tetracycline antibiotics in milk and eggs by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

Federica Bruno
An original and highly specific method able to identify and quantify traces of five tetracycline antibiotics (TCAs) in milk and eggs is presented. This method uses a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for simultaneous extraction and purification of TCAs in the above matrices. After diluting 5,mL of intact whole milk or 2,g egg samples with Na2EDTA-containing water, samples are passed through a 0.5-g Carbograph 4 extraction cartridge. After analyte elution from the SPE cartridge, an aliquot of the final extract is injected into a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) instrument equipped with an electrospray ion source and a single quadrupole. MS data acquisition is performed in the positive-ion mode and by a time-scheduled multiple-ion selected ion-monitoring program. With methanol as organic modifier, the in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) process generated fragment ions able to pick up one methanol molecule. In several cases, these methanol-adduct fragment ions have m/z values higher than those of the protonated molecules. This event is rarely encountered in MS, thus making the analysis of TCAs by this method extremely specific. Compared with a conventional published method, the present protocol extracted larger amounts of TCAs from both milk and egg and decreased the analysis time by a factor of 3. Recovery of TCAs in milk at the 25-ppb level ranged between 81 and 96% with relative standard deviation (RSD) no larger than 9%. Recovery of TCAs in egg at the 50-ppb level ranged between 72 and 92% with RSD no larger than 7%. Estimated limits of quantification(S/N,=,10) of the method were 2,9 ppb TCAs in whole milk and 2,19 ppb TCAs in eggs. Copyright© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Is the Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Dominant in Australia?

Tomoya Suzuki
The transmission process of monetary policy is a longstanding macroeconomic issue. The lending view is that a monetary tightening affects aggregate demand by shifting the supply schedule of bank loans left. The contraction of bank loans does not necessarily mean a shift of the supply schedule. Therefore, testing the lending view requires the identification of the shifts of the demand and supply schedules in the bank loan market. This paper employs an original approach, finding that the lending channel is not dominant in Australia. The paper also examines features of Australian banks' behaviour which make the lending channel less dominant. [source]

The effects of human resources management practices on the organizational performances of Canadian financial co-operatives

Michel Arcand
Reading through academic literature with a critical eye shows that the relation between human resources management (HRM) and the performance of the firm is a relatively unknown phenomenon. This relation is sometimes described as a "black box". Far from claiming to have closed the debate, this article sets forth an original approach that represents an undisputable input which allows a better understanding of this phenomenon. Even if there are many theories that try to explain this relation, only the universalistic approach of human resources will be of interest. While using both a qualitative and a quantitative approach, our research shows that some HRM practices do seem to give a competitive advantage to Canadian financial co-operative enterprises. [source]

New approach to the study of city planning and domestic dwellings in the ancient Near East

Christophe BenechArticle first published online: 8 MAY 200
Abstract This paper presents the results of a magnetic survey on the Hellenistic and Roman site of Doura- Europos in Syria. The interpretation of the magnetic data is based on an original approach by considering the use of space in a domestic unit. This type of study has been developed for sociological research but is adapted to the information carried within geophysical data. After a brief presentation of the role of geophysical methods for the study of city planning, the most important components of the ,space syntax' will be presented and applied to two blocks of Doura-Europos, one that has been excavated in the twentieth century by the Yale University and another surveyed using the magnetic method. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Vibrational spectroscopic studies to acquire a quality control method of Eucalyptus essential oils,

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 5 2005
M. Baranska
Abstract This article presents a novel and original approach to analyze in situ the main components of Eucalyptus oil by means of Raman spectroscopy. The obtained two-dimensional Raman maps demonstrate a unique possibility to study the essential oil distribution in the intact plant tissue. Additionally, Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman and attenuated total reflection (ATR)-IR spectra of essential oils isolated from several Eucalyptus species by hydrodistillation are presented. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed in order to interpret the spectra of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. It is shown that the main components of the essential oils can be recognized by both vibrational spectroscopic techniques using the spectral information of the pure terpenoids. Spectroscopic analysis is based on the key bands of the individual volatile substances and therefore allows one to discriminate different essential oil profiles of several Eucalyptus species. It has been found that the presented spectroscopic data correlate very well with those obtained by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. All these investigations are helpful tools to generate a fast and easy method to control the quality of the essential oils with vibrational spectroscopic techniques in combination with DFT calculations. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 78: 237,248, 2005 [source]

A New Numerical Approach for a Detailed Multicomponent Gas Separation Membrane Model and AspenPlus Simulation

M. H. Murad Chowdhury
Abstract A new numerical solution approach for a widely accepted model developed earlier by Pan [1] for multicomponent gas separation by high-flux asymmetric membranes is presented. The advantage of the new technique is that it can easily be incorporated into commercial process simulators such as AspenPlusTM [2] as a user-model for an overall membrane process study and for the design and simulation of hybrid processes (i.e., membrane plus chemical absorption or membrane plus physical absorption). The proposed technique does not require initial estimates of the pressure, flow and concentration profiles inside the fiber as does in Pan's original approach, thus allowing faster execution of the model equations. The numerical solution was formulated as an initial value problem (IVP). Either Adams-Moulton's or Gear's backward differentiation formulas (BDF) method was used for solving the non-linear differential equations, and a modified Powell hybrid algorithm with a finite-difference approximation of the Jacobian was used to solve the non-linear algebraic equations. The model predictions were validated with experimental data reported in the literature for different types of membrane gas separation systems with or without purge streams. The robustness of the new numerical technique was also tested by simulating the stiff type of problems such as air dehydration. This demonstrates the potential of the new solution technique to handle different membrane systems conveniently. As an illustration, a multi-stage membrane plant with recycle and purge streams has been designed and simulated for CO2 capture from a 500,MW power plant flue gas as a first step to build hybrid processes and also to make an economic comparison among different existing separation technologies available for CO2 separation from flue gas. [source]

Molecular replacement with MOLREP

Alexei Vagin
MOLREP is an automated program for molecular replacement that utilizes a number of original approaches to rotational and translational search and data preparation. Since the first publication describing the program, MOLREP has acquired a variety of features that include weighting of the X-ray data and search models, multi-copy search, fitting the model into electron density, structural superposition of two models and rigid-body refinement. The program can run in a fully automatic mode using optimized parameters calculated from the input data. [source]