Arrangement

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Arrangement

  • alternating arrangement
  • alternative work arrangement
  • atomic arrangement
  • care arrangement
  • cell arrangement
  • cellular arrangement
  • chain arrangement
  • cis arrangement
  • complex arrangement
  • constitutional arrangement
  • contractual arrangement
  • different arrangement
  • electoral arrangement
  • employment arrangement
  • exchange rate arrangement
  • factorial arrangement
  • financial arrangement
  • flexible work arrangement
  • funding arrangement
  • gene arrangement
  • geometric arrangement
  • geometrical arrangement
  • governance arrangement
  • grid arrangement
  • helical arrangement
  • institutional arrangement
  • ligand arrangement
  • linear arrangement
  • marketing arrangement
  • molecular arrangement
  • new arrangement
  • ordered arrangement
  • orderly arrangement
  • organizational arrangement
  • outsourcing arrangement
  • packing arrangement
  • parallel arrangement
  • partnership arrangement
  • periodic arrangement
  • political arrangement
  • random arrangement
  • rate arrangement
  • regular arrangement
  • social arrangement
  • spatial arrangement
  • structural arrangement
  • supramolecular arrangement
  • syn arrangement
  • three-dimensional arrangement
  • topological arrangement
  • trade arrangement
  • work arrangement


  • Selected Abstracts


    DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENT OF ,-(,-GLUTAMYL)LYSINE CROSS-LINKING IN ALASKA POLLOCK (THERAGRA CHALCOGRAMMA) SURIMI PROTEINS BY STREPTOVERTICILLIUM AND ENDOGENOUS TRANSGLUTAMINASES DURING SUWARI PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2001
    KENJI SATO
    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study is to compare the protein cross-linking reaction in Alaska pollock surimi that is catalyzed by a commercially available microbial transglutaminase and by endogenous Alaska pollock transglutaminase. The endogenous transglutaminase was inhibited by EGTA and activated by CaCl2 The microbial transglutaminase was added to the salted surimi with and without EGTA and CaCl2. These surimi pastes were incubated at 25C up to 24 h followed by cooking at 90C. The resultant gels were fractionated into soluble and insoluble (aggregate) fractions by SDS-urea extraction. Compositional analysis revealed that the aggregate consisted predominantly of cross-linked myosin heavy chain. The distribution of ,-(,-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide in the soluble and aggregate fractions andpeptide mapping analyses of the aggregate fraction demonstrate that the formation of isopeptide cross-links in Alaska pollock surimi proteins during suwari process differs when catalyzed by the microbial transglutaminase and endogenous transglutaminase. [source]


    17. THE ARRANGEMENT AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE COLLECTIONS

    ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA, Issue 1 2007
    Article first published online: 7 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]


    SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL PARTICIPATORY ARRANGEMENTS: WHY IS THERE A PARTICIPATORY MOVEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL?

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2010
    LAURENCE BHERER
    ABSTRACT:,The objective of this article is to explore some of the reasons for the growing number of participatory arrangements at the local level. An approach in terms of governance allows us to examine the underlying patterns of logic that induce public authorities to develop new policy tools such as participatory arrangements. Our study focuses on a medium-sized French city, Bordeaux, where eight types of relatively weak participatory arrangements have been implemented since 1995. The article shows that the French government and European Union have fostered this type of arrangement through a complex series of public programs and policies with the aim of rebuilding their political legitimacy by encouraging participation at the municipal level. This approach is relevant to understanding the origin of the reforms affecting local governments over the past decade. [source]


    REVALUATION PRESSURE AND NEW EXCHANGE RATE ARRANGEMENTS FOR EAST ASIA: A SYMPOSIUM

    PACIFIC ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    George M. Von FurstenbergArticle first published online: 9 JAN 200
    Its venue, Villa Serbelloni, was made available by the Rockefeller Foundation. Reforms of the international monetary and financial system have been discussed there since the 1960s. As was the case then, the focus of the conference was once again on the declining international anchor functions and relations with the US dollar, but this time in and with continental East Asia, rather than Europe and Japan. [source]


    ROLE CONFLICT AND FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS: THE EFFECTS ON APPLICANT ATTRACTION

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    BARBARA L. RAU
    This paper challenges a popular assumption that organizations with flexible work arrangements are more attractive to job seekers than those with a standard work arrangement. Drawing on boundary theory, we suggest that the attractiveness of these arrangements depends in part on job seekers' interrole conflict. Subjects were 142 MBA students at a midsized midwestern university. Those with high role conflict were more attracted to an organization when flextime was offered than when it was not. Those with low role conflict, however, were just slightly less attracted to an organization when flextime was offered. Conversely, subjects with low role conflict were more attracted to an organization when telecommuting was offered than when it was not; subjects with high role conflict were indifferent. These results suggest that organizations should understand the needs of their targeted applicant pool and carefully consider recruitment implications of work arrangements when analyzing costs associated with these policies. [source]


    The end of the MFA and apparel exports: has good CSR allowed Cambodia to hold steady against China in a quota free environment?

    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2006
    Stephen Frost
    Abstract In the lead up the end of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA), commentators routinely argued that Chinese apparel exports would surge in a quota-free environment. It was also expected that Southeast Asian apparel exporting nations would suffer declines, leading to job and economic losses. Of particular concern was Cambodia, a country that relies almost exclusively on apparel exports for foreign earnings. By mid-2005, as trade data started to filter in, the doomsday scenario for countries like Cambodia seemed less clear cut. Although China's apparel exports had indeed soured, a surprising outcome was that exports to the US from Cambodia (and several other neighbours such as Indonesia and Vietnam) had also increased. This article focuses specifically on Cambodia (which of all the Southeast Asian countries surveyed has shown the greatest growth in apparel exports) and examines some of the CSR initiatives that help explain why gloomy prognostications have not yet become true. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    Orientation and Arrangement of Octaruthenium Supramolecules with Alkyl Chains on Graphite

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 35 2007
    Dong-Lin Shieh
    Abstract The self-assemblies of octaruthenium grid-type supramolecules, {[Ru2(CO)4(NH2C16H33)2](,-O2CCO2)}4, on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in air and in 1-phenyloctane were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface supramolecules are arranged into rows in which the metal cores are linearly packed and the alkyl chains are parallel to the surface. With the aid of theoretical calculations in the framework of density functional theory, the electronic origin of the tunneling in the measured STM images is discussed. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]


    Improving the ON/OFF Ratio and Reversibility of Recording by Rational Structural Arrangement of Donor,Acceptor Molecules

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
    Ying Ma
    Abstract Organic molecules with donor,acceptor (D,A) structure are an important type of material for nanoelectronics and molecular electronics. The influence of the electron donor and acceptor units on the electrical function of materials is a worthy topic for the development of high-performance data storage. In this work, the effect of different D,A structures (namely D,,,A,,,D and A,,,D,,,A) on the electronic switching properties of triphenylamine-based molecules is investigated. Devices based on D,,,A,,,D molecules exhibit excellent write,read,erase characteristics with a high ON/OFF ratio of up to 106, while that based on A,,,D,,,A molecules exhibit irreversible switching behavior with an ON/OFF ratio of about (3.2,,101),(1,,103). Moreover, long retention time of the high conductance state and low threshold voltage are observed for the D,A switching materials. Accordingly, stable and reliable nanoscale data storage is achieved on the thin films of the D,A molecules by scanning tunneling microscopy. The influence of the arrangement of the D and A within the molecular backbone disclosed in this study will be of significance for improving the electronic switching properties (ON/OFF current ratio and reversibility) of new molecular systems, so as to achieve more efficient data storage through appropriate design strategies. [source]


    Transaction Cost Estimation and International Regimes: Of Crystal Balls and Sheriff's Posses

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 1 2004
    Michael Lipson
    In the aftermath of the 2003 war in Iraq, there is growing concern over the durability of international institutions and their capacity to withstand international change. Transaction costs are a central factor in theoretical explanations of the conditions under which international institutions will persist or be replaced. Rational institutionalists expect regimes to persist after conditions underlying their creation have changed because of the transaction costs of negotiating a replacement regime. Andrew Moravcsik has recently challenged this view, arguing that such costs are generally low and, in any case, arise from domestic and transnational sources rather than interstate bargaining. Others have argued that transaction costs shape the structure of security institutions. All these approaches assume that states can accurately forecast the transaction costs of maintaining or replacing an international regime. However, as an examination of the replacement of the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) by the Wassenaar Arrangement demonstrates, this assumption is not necessarily warranted. This essay reviews transaction-cost-based theories of international cooperation and proposes that incorporation of a variable concerned with states' capacity to estimate transaction costs would improve our theoretical understanding of institutional persistence and change. Moreover, it considers problems of defining and measuring transaction costs, assesses factors limiting states' accurate estimation of transaction costs, and presents some propositions regarding transaction cost estimation and regime persistence. The essay also examines the implications of inaccurate transaction cost estimation for recent US foreign policy and international order. [source]


    Correlation between Arrangement of Dielectric Layers and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Mg0.93Ca0.07TiO3,(Ca0.3Li0.14Sm0.42)TiO3 Ceramics

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 8 2003
    Joon Yeob Cho
    Effect of geometrical shape and induced thermal strain on the microwave dielectric properties of the layered structure ceramics of Mg0.93Ca0.07TiO3 with (Ca0.3Li0.14Sm0.42)TiO3 was investigated as a function of the number of dielectric layers. The dielectric constant and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF) were not changed significantly with the number of dielectric layers but only depended on the net compositional ratio. However, the dielectric loss quality was affected by the number of interfaces between dielectric layers, which had a partial composition inhomogeneity due to the diffusion of Mg2+ and Ti4+ ions. The dielectric loss quality also decreased with an increase of thermal strain induced to each dielectric layer. [source]


    Ending Up in Pizza: Accountability as a Problem of Institutional Arrangement in Brazil

    LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY, Issue 1 2007
    Matthew M. Taylor
    ABSTRACT Brazilians often complain that investigations of corruption by public servants drag on for years or bring few legal sanctions on the perpetrators. This lack of accountability is so pervasive that a slang phrase, acabou em pizza, is often invoked when investigations are inconclusive. This article investigates the role of four Brazilian public institutions charged with keeping public servants accountable. For analysis, it breaks the accountability process into its three component stages: oversight, investigation, and sanction. Through a study of six prominent cases of corruption, it shows that the weakness of the accountability process in Brazil is due not entirely to the toothlessness of individual institutions of accountability, but also to the independence of such institutions at each of the three stages. These findings suggest that institutional arrangements influence the degree of accountability, and thereby also public trust and confidence, in Latin America's largest democracy. [source]


    Three-Dimensional Serial Section Computer Reconstruction of the Arrangement of the Structural Components of the Parabronchus of the Ostrich, Struthio Camelus Lung

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    John N. Maina
    ,Cubed' three-dimensional computer reconstruction (from serial sections) of the exchange tissue (parenchyma) of the lung of the ostrich, Struthio camelus showing the profuse anastomoses of the air capillaries (shown in cyan) and the blood capillaries (shown in red). While the two terminal respiratory units interdigitate very copiously as they interface intimately, thereby optimizing the respiratory surface area, regarding their size and shape, they are not mirror images as has previously been reported nor do they spatially form a counter-current arrangement, as they have been commonly modelled. See Maina et al., "Three-Dimensional Serial Section Computer Reconstruction of the Arrangement of the Structural Components of the Parabronchus of the Ostrich, Struthio Camelus Lung," on page 1685, in this issue. [source]


    In Situ Monitoring of Silicon Plasma Etching Using a Quantum Cascade Laser Arrangement,

    CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION, Issue 6-7 2007
    D. Stancu
    Abstract In etch plasmas used for semiconductor processing, concentrations of the precursor gas NF3 and of the etch product SiF4 are measured online and in situ using a new diagnostic arrangement, the Q-MACS Etch system, which is based on quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). In addition, the etch rates of SiO2 layers and of the silicon wafer are monitored including plasma-etching endpoint detection. For this purpose the Q-MACS Etch system is working as an interferometer arrangement. The experiments are performed in an industrial, dual-frequency, capacitively coupled, magnetically enhanced, reactive ion etcher (MERIE), which is a plasma reactor developed for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) technologies. In the spectral range 1028 0.3 cm,1, the absorption cross-sections of SiF4 and NF3 are determined to be ,,=,(7.7 0.7) 10,18 cm2 molecule,1 and ,,=,(8.7 0.8) 10,20 cm2 molecule,1, respectively. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Structural Arrangement of the Ternary Metal Boride Carbide Compounds MB2C4 (M: Mg, Ca, La and Ce) from First-Principles Theory.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 38 2008
    Chang-Ming Fang
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    Ga24Br18Se2: A Highly Symmetrical Metalloid Cluster and Its One-Dimensional Arrangement in the Crystalline State as a Model for the Photoconductivity of Solid GaSe.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 44 2007
    Jens Hartig
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]


    Novel Intermetallic Compound UFe5Si3: A New Room-Temperature Magnet with an Original Atomic Arrangement.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 38 2007
    David Berthebaud
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]


    2,[Rb4Sn9] , Low Dimensional Arrangement of Zintl Ions in [Rb(18-crown-6)]2Rb2 [Sn9](en)1.5.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 42 2002
    Ralf Hauptmann
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Crystal Structure of Metastable ,-CeZrO4 Phase Possessing an Ordered Arrangement of Ce and Zr Ions.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 15 2001
    Haruo Kishimoto
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    From Molecule to Bulk Material: Optical Properties of Hydrogen-Bonded Dimers [C12H12N4O2AgPF6]2 and [C28H28N6O3AgPF6]2 Depend on the Arrangement of the Oxime Moieties

    CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 18 2007
    Wen-Dan Cheng Prof.
    Abstract The dependence of the optical properties of [C12H12N4O2AgPF6]2 (dimer-1) and [C28H28N6O3AgPF6]2 (dimer-2) on the arrangement of the oxime moieties in the molecule and in bulk crystals was investigated by means of time-dependent density functional theory. Dimer-1 with simple pyridine oxime ligands and a wavy arrangement has a smaller dipole moment and larger transition energy between the two states, and thus smaller third-order polarizabilities and two-photon absorption cross sections. Dimer-2 with extended pyridine oxime ligands and a ladder arrangement has a larger dipole moment and smaller transition energy between the two states, and thus larger third-order polarizabilities and two-photon absorption cross sections. The lowest energy absorption band is red-shifted for dimer-2 as compared with dimer-1, due to more pronounced ,,, delocalization interactions and weaker hydrogen bonding in dimer-2. The electronic absorption spectra, frequency-dependent third-order polarizabilities, and two-photon absorption cross sections involve significant contributions from charge transfers from ,/,* orbitals of the pyridine oxime ligands but no contribution from PF6, ions or H2O molecules in the wavelength range studied for the monomers and dimers of the C12H12N4O2AgPF6 and C28H28N6O3AgPF6 molecules. The third-order susceptibilities and two-photon absorption coefficients of bulk solids were estimated on the basis of the optical properties of the corresponding dimers, and the bulk material constructed from dimer-2 has the larger optical parameters of the two. [source]


    Quantum Dots Arrangement and Energy Transfer Control via Charge-Transfer Complex Achieved on Poly(Phenylene Ethynylene)/Schizophyllan Nanowires

    CHEMISTRY - AN ASIAN JOURNAL, Issue 9 2009
    Tomohiro Shiraki
    Abstract Assemblies of organic and inorganic compounds in the nanoscale region have contributed to the development of novel functional materials toward future applications, including sensors and opto-electronics. We succeed in fabricating hybrid nanowires composed of a conjugated polymer and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) by a supramolecular assembly technique. The 1-D fashion of the nanowire structure is obtained by the polymer wrapping of cationic poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) with helix-forming polysaccharide schizophyllan (SPG). The electrostatic interaction between cationic PPE and anionic QDs affords the nanowires decorated with QDs. Upon addition of an acceptor molecule, tetranitrofluorenone (TNF), the charge-transfer (CT) complex between PPE and TNF is formed, resulting in energy transfer from the QDs to PPE arising from the induced spectral overlap. Furthermore, the employment of the conjugated polymer allows highly sensitive quenching of the QD's emission by raising the transmission efficiency to the CT complexed electron deficient sites along the polymer backbone. [source]


    Structure,Activity Study on the Spatial Arrangement of the Third Aromatic Ring of Endomorphins 1 and 2 Using an Atypical Constrained C,Terminus

    CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 3 2007
    Ye Yu Dr.
    Abstract The discovery of endomorphins (EMs) has opened the possibility of searching for new analgesics. However, the design of peptide analgesics has proven to be very difficult as a result of their conformational flexibility and a lack of clarity in structure,activity relationships (SAR). In EMs, the amino acid side chains exhibit considerable conformational flexibility, especially in the third aromatic ring, which is free to adopt a bioactive conformation. To resolve these problems, a series of C,terminus EM analogues, [Xaa4 -R]EMs, modified through the substitution of Phe4 with nonaromatic residues and termination with benzyl groups, were designed to generate conformational constrains of the third aromatic ring by amide bond and torsion angles (,4 and ,4) of Xaa4. Introduction of (S)-,-methyl or (S)/(R)-,-carboxamide on the methylene unit of the benzyl group was designed to produce an atypical topographical constraint (,5) of the third aromatic ring rotation. Interestingly, some EM derivatives, with elimination of the C-terminal carboxamide group and significant changes in the address sequence (Phe4 -NH2), still exhibited higher ,-opioid receptor (MOR) affinity than unmodified EMs. In contrast, some analogues with incorrectly constrained C,termini displayed very low affinity and pharmacological activities. Thus, our results indicate that these EM analogues, with atypical constrained C,termini, provide model compounds with potent MOR agonism. They also give evidence that the proper spatial orientation and conformational restriction of the third aromatic ring are crucial for the interaction of EMs with MOR. [source]


    Molecular Arrangement of Fatty Acids at the Solid,Liquid Interface Visualized by Chemical Decoration

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 5 2003
    Stephanie Hoeppener Dr.
    Finding finely formed fat: A method to visualize the carboxylic groups of a highly ordered fatty acid template layer (see picture) by utilizing small probe molecules is demonstrated. STM investigations of the decorated surface strongly indicate a head-to-head arrangement of the fatty acid molecules at the solid,liquid interface. [source]


    Searching for new morphological characters in the systematics of scleractinian reef corals: comparison of septal teeth and granules between Atlantic and Pacific Mussidae

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    Ann F. Budd
    Abstract Recent molecular analyses have challenged the traditional classification of scleractinian corals at all taxonomic levels suggesting that new morphological characters are needed. Here we tackle this problem for the family Mussidae, which is polyphyletic. Most of its members belong to two molecular clades composed of: (1) Atlantic Mussidae and Faviidae (except Montastraea) and (2) Pacific Mussidae (Cynarina, Lobophyllia, Scolymia, Symphyllia) and Pectiniidae. Other Pacific mussids (e.g. Acanthastrea) belong to additional clades. To discover new characters that would better serve as phylogenetic markers, we compare the skeletal morphology of mussid genera in different molecular-based clades. Three sets of characters are considered: (1) macromorphology (budding; colony form; size and shape of corallites; numbers of septal cycles), (2) micromorphology (shapes and distributions of septal teeth and granules), and (3) microstructure (arrangement of calcification centres and thickening deposits within costosepta). Although most traditional macromorphological characters exhibit homoplasy, several new micromorphological characters are effective at distinguishing clades, including the shapes and distribution of septal teeth and granules, the area between teeth, and the development of thickening deposits. Arrangements of calcification centres and fibres differ among clades, but the fine-scale structure of thickening deposits does not. [source]


    Polymeric, Molecular, and Cation/Anion Arrangements in Chloro-, Bromo-, and Iododiruthenium(II,III) Carboxylate Compounds

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2003
    M. Carmen Barral
    Abstract The synthesis and characterization of the anhydrous compounds [Ru2X(,-O2CR)4] [R = CH2CH2OPh, X = Cl (1a), Br (2a), I (3a); R = CMePh2, X = Br (5a), I (6a)] and of the solvated complexes [Ru2X(,-O2CR)4(H2O)] [R = CH2CH2OPh, X = Cl (1b), I (3b); R = CMePh2, X = Cl (4b), Br (5b), I (6b)] are described. Thermogravimetric analyses have been used to confirm the anhydrous or solvated natures of the complexes. The crystal structures of 1b2MeOH, 3b0.5H2O, and 4b have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and none of them shows the usual polymeric arrangement reported for tetracarboxylatodiruthenium(II,III) compounds. The structure of 3b0.5H2O consists of cationic and anionic units, [Ru2(,-O2CCH2CH2OPh)4(H2O)2][Ru2I2(,-O2CCH2CH2OPh)4], and represents the first reported crystal structure of a tetracarboxylato(iodo)diruthenium(II,III) derivative. The structures 1b2MeOH and 4b each show the presence of discrete dinuclear molecules. The crystal structure of [Ru2Cl(,-O2CCMePh2)4(H2O)] demonstrates that diruthenium compounds with the same halide and carboxylate ligands may adopt polymeric or discrete molecular dispositions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the complexes in the 2,300 K range have been carried out. Complex 2a shows a strong antiferromagnetic coupling, consistent with the existence of linear chains in the solid state. The complexes [Ru2X(,-O2CR)4(H2O)] show weak through-space antiferromagnetic coupling, in accordance with non-polymeric structures. The magnetic behaviour of 1a, 3a, 5a, and 6a suggests a mixture of arrangements. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


    Macrocyclic Cyclo[n]malonates , Synthetic Aspects and Observation of Columnar Arrangements by X-ray Crystallography

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 10 2006
    Nikos Chronakis
    Abstract A variety of achiral and chiral macrocyclic oligomalonates were synthesised in a one-step procedure through condensation of malonyl dichloride with ,,,-diols. We have investigated the applicability of this method by varying the length and type of the spacers in the diol. Product distribution analysis revealed that the preferential formation of monomeric, dimeric, or trimeric macrocyclic malonates can be controlled by choosing diols with specific spacers connecting the hydroxy groups. Of special interest are the macrocyclic bismalonates, as they show pronounced crystallisability and arrange into columnar motifs in the solid state. They feature distinctive dihedral angles: all ester moieties adopt anti conformations whereas the planes of the carboxy moieties of each malonate residue arrange in an approximately orthogonal fashion. The latter geometry is enforced by the macrocyclic structures, as revealed by a conformational search in the Cambridge Structural Database. The X-ray diffraction data show that C=OH,C, and C,OH,C hydrogen bonds stabilise the columnar arrangement of the dimeric rings with formation of tubular assemblies. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    YOUNG ADULTS' PERSPECTIVES ON DIVORCE Living Arrangements

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2000
    William V. Fabricius
    There is increasing consensus that the perspectives of children need to be taken into account in decisions made by divorcing parents and the courts and that young adults who have lived through their parents' divorces can be an important source of information about children's perspectives. In this study, the authors assessed the perspectives of 820 college adults from divorced families on the issue of children's living arrangements after divorce. Respondents wanted to have spent more time with their fathers as they were growing up, and the living arrangement they believed was best was living equal time with each parent. The living arrangements they had as children gave them generally little time with their fathers. Respondents reported that their fathers wanted more time with them but that their mothers generally did not want them to spend more time with their fathers. [source]


    Private Pension Arrangements and Retirement in Britain,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2005
    James Banks
    Abstract This paper looks at the policy debate surrounding private pensions and retirement patterns in the UK. Recent increases in longevity have led not only to increased pressures in public pensions but also to corresponding increases in the importance of private pensions in the UK and changes in the way in which they are structured. We consider the economic implications of these changes, and in particular the increased importance of defined contribution plans. In addition, we discuss the prospects for future trends in retirement ages. [source]


    Periodic TiO2 Nanorod Arrays with Hexagonal Nonclose-Packed Arrangements: Excellent Field Emitters by Parameter Optimization

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2009
    Yue Li
    Abstract Periodic TiO2 nanorod arrays with hexagonal nonclose-packed (hncp) arrangements are synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using polystyrene colloidal monolayers as templates and with subsequent annealing in air. The hncp-array formation is governed by in situ volume shrinkage of amorphous TiO2 nanorods in the crystallizing process during annealing. The array periodicity can easily be tuned by different sphere sizes of the colloidal template, whereas the distance between neighboring nanorods can be controlled by altering the background gas pressure during the PLD process, at a given periodicity for the nanorod array. Parameter-controlled growth is helpful for investigating and optimizing the parameter-dependent field-emission properties. The hncp nanorod array exhibits an enhanced field-emission (FE) performance compared to both particle films and nanorod arrays with top aggregation. With an increase in periodicity of a hncp nanorod array, the field-enhancement factor decreases and the turn-on FE field increases. FE characteristics can be further enhanced by increasing the distance between adjacent nanorods while maintaining the same periodicity. The parameter-optimized results suggest that the arrays with a smaller periodicity and a larger distance display the best FE performance and could be highly valuable for designing field-emission devices based on these periodic nanorod arrays. [source]


    Discussion The Increasing Use of Non-Executive Directors: Its Impact on UK Board Structure and Governance Arrangements

    JOURNAL OF BUSINESS FINANCE & ACCOUNTING, Issue 9-10 2000
    Martin J. Conyon
    [source]


    Explaining the Emergence of Different European Union Crisis and Emergency Management Structures

    JOURNAL OF CONTINGENCIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2010
    Ccile Wendling
    Two European Union (EU) tools were adopted to enhance cooperation among Member States in the case of crises and emergencies (natural, industrial or man-made) occurring both inside and outside the EU borders: first, the EU has developed a new tool in the field of civil protection that has been managed by the Directorate General Environment of the European Commission under the label of the Community Civil Protection Mechanism since 2001. Second, the Emergency and Crisis Coordination Arrangements (CCA), under the responsibility of the European Council, have been developed since 2005. Using a sociological neo-institutionalist approach based on the concept of ,divergent isomorphism', the paper explains who and what the sources of EU integration process were leading to the coexistence of these two structures. Two case studies are presented using process tracing to demonstrate that two different pre-existing organizational models were copied to create the EU structures of crisis and emergency management: that of the Community Marine pollution framework for the Community Civil Protection Mechanism and that of NATO for the CCA. [source]