Organizational Hierarchy (organizational + hierarchy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Managerial characteristics and willingness to send employees on expatriate assignments

George S. Benson
Abstract This paper examines the characteristics of managers that influence their willingness to send employees on expatriate assignments. Data from 336 senior managers in a major U.S. professional services firm indicate that managers who are higher up in the organizational hierarchy are more willing to send employees on expatriate assignments. In addition, our findings show that managers who have more extensive international experience are more inclined to send employees on such assignments and that managers with expatriate experience themselves are much more willing to send their employees overseas, regardless of whether they currently work with international clients. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Implementing interdisciplinary practice change in an international health-care organization

Anita C Reinhardt PhD RN
The current emphasis on adopting evidence-based practice often results in the need to change interdisciplinary practice. This article describes the successful system-wide change to evidence-based wound care practices in a large, Middle-Eastern health services organization using a multinational workforce. Elements within this change initiative are identified that stimulated experimentation and collaboration among members of this organization's workforce while also preserving culturally determined expectations for authority and decision-making. The result was a system-wide practice change accomplished through consensus-building and interdisciplinary learning while also utilizing the strengths to be found in an established organizational hierarchy. This description of practice change among the members of a multicultural, multinational workforce provides lessons for managing a diversity of perspectives, creating consensus and accomplishing change in an environment where multiple cultural values intersect. [source]

Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design,

Jerry Bryan Fuller
Although new theoretical models that are suggestive of how work design might be used to foster proactive motivation and proactive performance have been proposed, these models need further elaboration and testing if they are to be useful tools for contemporary organizations. Accordingly, we examine the extent to which feelings of responsibility for constructive change is a proactive psychological mechanism that explains how work design characteristics influence constructive change-oriented behavior and proactive performance. Specifically, we examine job autonomy, position in the organizational hierarchy, access to resources, access to strategy-related information, and role ambiguity as antecedents to felt responsibility for constructive change (FRCC). We also examine the extent to which feelings of responsibility for constructive change are positively related to voice behavior (i.e., constructive, change-oriented communication) and continuous improvement (i.e., proactive role performance). Results indicate hierarchical position and access to resources are positively related to FRCC. Results also indicate proactive personality moderates the relationship between access to resources and FRCC and the relationship between access to strategy-related information and FRCC. Plots of the interactions reveal that these relationships are enhanced for individuals with proactive personalities. The results also indicate that FRCC is positively related to voice behavior and continuous improvement. Perhaps more importantly, the results suggest that FRCC explains the psychological process by which structural and socio-structural forces influence proactive behavior. The results are discussed as they pertain to updated work design theory and theories of high involvement work systems, job characteristics, and leadership prototypes. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Formal mentoring versus supervisor and coworker relationships: differences in perceptions and impact

Babette Raabe
Formal mentoring programs in two companies were examined regarding (1) the extent to which mentees and mentors agreed on the nature of the mentoring relationships and (2) the extent to which dimensions of mentoring relationships were related to outcomes for the mentees, compared with the extent to which dimensions of supervisory and coworker relationships were related to the same outcomes: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. Mentors were at least two hierarchical levels above the mentee, and both were part of the companyies' formal mentoring program. Sixty-one pairs of mentors and mentees participated. Overall, there was little agreement between mentees and mentors regarding the nature of the mentoring relationship. Furthermore, the mentoring relationship was not related to mentee outcomes, while supervisory and coworker relationships were. It is suggested that, if one desires to affect job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and organizational commitment, mentoring functions may be best performed by supervisors and coworkers rather than assigned formal mentors from higher up in the organizational hierarchy. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Shotgun lipidomics: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis and quantitation of cellular lipidomes directly from crude extracts of biological samples

Xianlin Han
Abstract Lipidomics, after genomics and proteomics, is a newly and rapidly expanding research field that studies cellular lipidomes and the organizational hierarchy of lipid and protein constituents mediating life processes. Lipidomics is greatly facilitated by recent advances in, and novel applications of, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). In this review, we will focus on the advances in ESI/MS, which have facilitated the development of shotgun lipidomics and the utility of intrasource separation as an enabling strategy for utilization of 2D mass spectrometry in shotgun lipidomics of biological samples. The principles and experimental details of the intrasource separation approach will be extensively discussed. Other ESI/MS approaches towards the quantitative analyses of global cellular lipidomes directly from crude lipid extracts of biological samples will also be reviewed and compared. Multiple examples of lipidomic analyses from crude lipid extracts employing these approaches will be given to show the power of ESI/MS techniques in lipidomics. Currently, modern society is plagued by the sequelae of lipid-related diseases. It is our hope that the integration of these advances in multiple disciplines will catalyze the development of lipidomics, and such development will lead to improvements in diagnostics and therapeutics, which will ultimately result in the extended longevity and an improved quality of life for humankind. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 24:367,412, 2005 [source]

An Organizational Echelon Analysis of the Determinants of Red Tape in Public Organizations

Richard M. Walker
This article adopts an organizational echelon approach to the study of red tape in public organizations and argues that the nature and extent of red tape will vary at different levels of the organizational hierarchy. These propositions are tested with a multiple-informant survey using a lagged model. The empirical results across the three organizational echelons sampled indicate modest variations in the levels of perceived red tape and major variations in its determinants. Results from the more senior managers uphold prior research findings and hypotheses on the determinants of red tape. This is not surprising because earlier studies typically sampled senior executives. Yet the lower down the organizational hierarchy one travels, the more red tape officials perceive and the more multifaceted the findings on determinants become. The authors conclude that prior empirical work is likely to have underestimated the extent of red tape in public organizations, and oversimplified its determinants. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. [source]