Organic Matter (organic + matter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Organic Matter

  • amorphous organic matter
  • bulk organic matter
  • coarse particulate organic matter
  • dissolved organic matter
  • marine organic matter
  • natural organic matter
  • particulate organic matter
  • sedimentary organic matter
  • soil organic matter
  • water-soluble organic matter

  • Terms modified by Organic Matter

  • organic matter accumulation
  • organic matter composition
  • organic matter concentration
  • organic matter content
  • organic matter decomposition
  • organic matter type

  • Selected Abstracts


    S. Inan
    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the organic matter, sulphur and phosphate contents of Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates (Karabogaz Formation) in the Adiyaman Petroleum Province of SE Turkey. The results of organic geochemical analyses of core samples obtained from the Karabogaz Formation suggest that phosphate deposition occurred in settings where the water column was oxic to sub-oxic. However, the preservation of organic matter was favoured in anoxic environments. Moreover, the presence of sulphur (especially sulphur incorporated into kerogen) in organic matter-rich layers led to early oil generation. The results of stepwise py-gc analyses are consistent with a model in which, with increasing maturity, S-S and C-S bonds are the first to be eliminated from the macromolecular kerogen structure. Study of the maturity evolution of S-rich kerogen by laboratory pyrolysis implies that marginally mature and/or mature kerogen in the Karabogaz Formation, which may be classified as classic "Type II" kerogen, was most probably Type II/S at lower maturity stages. This enabled oil generation to occur at relatively shallow burial depths and relatively early stages of maturation. It is reasonable to conclude that Type II/S kerogen, overlooked in previous studies, was abundant in TOC-rich intervals in the Karabogaz Formation. Early generation (and expulsion) from Type II/S kerogen may have sourced the sulphur-rich oils in the Adiyaman area oilfields. [source]


    R. A. McTavish
    In early electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of North Sea wells, maturation of organic matter (OM) was expressed in terms of maximum palaeotemperature (MPT) based on North American calibrations that did not consider the influences of kerogen composition or overpressure. In the North Sea, the MPTs were anomalous in overpressured sequences and relative to other indices of OM maturation such as vitrinite reflectance, so the ESR method was abandoned there in geochemical studies. However, early empirical study of North Sea ESR data indicated that, in relation to functions that linked temperature and pore pressure, some ESR parameters were predictable without reference to MPTs. In order to re-evaluate ESR parameters as indices of OM maturation, the physical factors (temperature and pressure) which affect OM maturation are related in the present paper to the ESR parameters "g" (spectral position) and Ng (spin density) at six well locations in the northern North Sea. A third ESR parameter, W (line width), is not an effective guide to maturation levels due to its complex relationship to the physical factors and kerogen types. However, cross-plots of W versus "g" and Ng appear to be as effective as pyrolysis for kerogen typing. Levels of maturation investigated in the North Sea wells range through the equivalent vitrinite reflectance values of about 0.50,1.50%. The values of "g" and Ng have been differentiated for kerogen type, but undifferentiated values of "g" have also been studied. Regression analysis has shown that there are linear relationships between the ESR parameters "g" and Ng, and the physical factors present-day temperature (To), "effective" temperature (Te), and differential pressure (Pd). Correlation coefficients for both "g" (undifferentiated and differentiated) and Ng (differentiated) relative to the physical factors are high; the highest values are for "g" and Ng relative to Te and Pd (r =,0.950 for "g" differentiated or undifferentiated, r = 0.944,0.976 for Ng differentiated, respectively). However, correlation coefficients were lower for "g" and Ng relative to To. More frequent high correlation coefficients and larger sample populations suggest that "g" (undifferentiated) is a more reliable index of OM maturation than Ng(differentiated). However, the estimation of levels of OM maturation is improved if both indices are used together. The ESR method appears to be effective both for estimating levels of OM maturation and for kerogen typing. It has a number of potential advantages over other geochemical methods: firstly, it is more sensitive for estimating OM maturation than most other methods; secondly, it can be used to analyze organic matter which is as old as Proterozoic; thirdly, it does not destroy the samples analyzed. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Robert J. M. Hudson
    First page of article [source]

    Electrochemical Detection of Arsenic(III) in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) by Adsorptive Square-Wave Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (Ad-SWCSV)

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 4 2008
    Tsanangurayi Tongesayi
    Abstract This study has demonstrated that As(III) can be electrochemically detected and quantified in the presence of fulvic acid (FA) and dissolved organic matter (DOM). This eliminates the need to remove DOM prior to measurement of As(III) in environmental samples. Apart from reducing analysis time and the cost of the analysis, this could be potentially useful for the development of electrochemical methods for the detection and measurement of As(III) onsite. Both synthetic samples in which FA was added and a real sample with 22.16,mg/L total organic carbon (TOC) were analyzed. [source]

    Fluorescence of Dissolved Organic Matter as a Natural Tracer of Ground Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2001
    Andy Baker
    The fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in ground water in the Permian limestone of northeast England is determined from six monitoring boreholes, a private water supply well and from a natural resurgence in a flooded collapse doline in the environs of Darlington, County Durham, northeast England. Measurements of both protein and "fulvic-like" fluorescence was undertaken from January to December 1999. The wavelengths of fulvic-like fluorescence excitation and emission and of protein fluorescence emission were all determined to be sensitive fingerprints of organic matter fluxes through the ground water, with water within the till and within both gypsum and limestone strata deep inside the Magnesian Limestone being differentiated by these parameters. Previous research has suggested that proteins in waters are "young" in age, hence our seasonal variations suggest that we are sampling recently formed DOM. The rapid response of all deep borehole samples suggests relatively rapid ground water flow, probably through karstic cave systems developed in the gypsum and solution widened features in the dolomitic limestone. Our results suggest that use of both protein and fulvic-like fluorescence wavelength variations provides a DOM signature that can be used as a natural tracer. [source]

    In situ Mixing of Organic Matter Decreases Hydraulic Conductivity of Denitrification Walls in Sand Aquifers

    Gregory F. Barkle
    In a previous study, a denitrification wall was constructed in a sand aquifer using sawdust as the carbon substrate. Ground water bypassed around this sawdust wall due to reduced hydraulic conductivity. We investigated potential reasons for this by testing two new walls and conducting laboratory studies. The first wall was constructed by mixing aquifer material in situ without substrate addition to investigate the effects of the construction technique (mixed wall). A second, biochip wall, was constructed using coarse wood chips to determine the effect of size of the particles in the amendment on hydraulic conductivity. The aquifer hydraulic conductivity was 35.4 m/d, while in the mixed wall it was 2.8 m/d and in the biochip wall 3.4 m/d. This indicated that the mixing of the aquifer sands below the water table allowed the particles to re-sort themselves into a matrix with a significantly lower hydraulic conductivity than the process that originally formed the aquifer. The addition of a coarser substrate in the biochip wall significantly increased total porosity and decreased bulk density, but hydraulic conductivity remained low compared to the aquifer. Laboratory cores of aquifer sand mixed under dry and wet conditions mimicked the reduction in hydraulic conductivity observed in the field within the mixed wall. The addition of sawdust to the laboratory cores resulted in a significantly higher hydraulic conductivity when mixed dry compared to cores mixed wet. This reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the sand/sawdust cores mixed under saturated conditions repeated what occurred in the field in the original sawdust wall. This indicated that laboratory investigations can be a useful tool to highlight potential reductions in field hydraulic conductivities that may occur when differing materials are mixed under field conditions. [source]

    Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in the Humid and Wet Zones of the Ellegirini River, Kenya

    Charles Mwithali M'Erimba
    Abstract Field experiments to quantify the amount of particulate organic matter as an energy source for the system were conducted between February 2002 and June 2002 in humid and wet zones of the Ellegirini River in Kenya. The experiment involved collecting ten random samples from each zone. The humid zone held a hundred times more coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) ash-free dry mass than the wet zone, where the stream current and other influencing parameters decreased CPOM amount. In conclusion it can be said that these significant differences are the result of different attributes between these two zones. Factors like current velocity, discharge or the absence of CPOM holding structures are responsible for low CPOM in the wet zone. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Book review: B. Wolf, G. H. Snyder: Sustainable Soils , The Place of Organic Matter in Sustaining Soils and their Productivity.

    U. Franko

    Photodegradation of Soil Organic Matter and its Effect on Gram-negative Bacterial Growth

    Gabriela N. Bosio
    ABSTRACT To learn more about the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the production of bioavailable products of the dissolved organic matter, we investigate here the effect of the photolysis (,exc > 320 nm) of a soil extract (SE) on the growth of bacteria isolated from the same soil as used for obtaining the extract. Comparative experiments with Aldrich humic acid (AHA) as substrate were performed. The photodegradation of the SE was evaluated with different techniques,UV,visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Known ROS scavengers were employed to study the effect of photochemically produced ROS on the photodegradation of the substrates. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on the bioavailability of the SE and AHA, photolyzed and nonphotolyzed substrates were added to different culture media and the growth of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the soil and a strain of Escherichia coli were studied. The different results obtained were assigned to the dissimilar metabolisms of both bacteria. [source]

    Geochemistry, Petrography and Spectroscopy of Organic Matter of Clay-Associated Kerogen of Ypresian Series: Gafsa-Metlaoui Phosphatic Basin, Tunisia

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Mongi Felhi
    Abstract This work presents geochemical characterization of isolated kerogen out of clay fraction using petrography studies, infrared absorption and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, with N -alkane distributions of saturated hydrocarbon. Mineralogical study of clay mineral associations was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), on Ypresian phosphatic series from Gafsa-Metlaoui basin, Tunisia. The XRD data indicate that smectite, palygorskite and sepiolite are the prevalent clay minerals in the selected samples. In this clay mineral association, the N -alkane (m/z = 57) distribution indicates that the marine organic matter is plankton and bacterial in origin. The kerogens observed on transmitted light microscopy, however, appear to be totally amorphous organic matter, without any appearance of biological form. The orange gel-like amorphous organic matter with distinct edges and homogenous texture is consistent with a high degree of aliphaticity. This material has relatively intense CH2 and CH3 infrared bands in 13C NMR peaks. This aliphatic character is related to bacterial origin. Brown amorphous organic matter with diffuse edges has a lower aliphatic character than the previous kerogen, deduced from relatively low CH2 and CH3 infrared and 13C NMR band intensities. [source]

    Rehabilitation of Stream Ecosystem Functions through the Reintroduction of Coarse Particulate Organic Matter

    Kane T. Aldridge
    Abstract In streams, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) acts as a substrate for microbial activity, which promotes nutrient retention. However, in urban areas, increased peak flows within streams lead to decreased retention of CPOM. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the reintroduction of CPOM, in the form of leaf litter, into a degraded urban stream would increase biofilm activity and phosphorus retention, two ecosystem functions that reflect the integrity of the ecosystem. Stream metabolism and nutrient retention were assessed in treated (T) and control (C) channels of the Torrens River Catchment, South Australia, before and after CPOM addition. Gross primary production and community respiration (CR) were measured as oxygen production and consumption within benthic chambers. Phosphorus retention was measured through a series of short-term filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) addition experiments. Before CPOM addition, there were no differences in CR, but C retained 6.8% more FRP than T. After CPOM addition, CR was greater in T than in C (572 and 276 mg O2·m,2·day,1, respectively), and T retained 7.7% more FRP than C. The increase in FRP retention in T compared to C was attributed to phosphorus limitation of the CPOM and increased demand for phosphorus of the attached microbial heterotrophic community. The reintroduction of CPOM into degraded streams will be an important step in the restoration of stream metabolism and nutrient retention. Maintenance of CPOM may be achieved through restoration of riparian vegetation, a reduction in the increased peak flows, and rehabilitation of stream morphology. [source]

    Diminishing Spatial Heterogeneity in Soil Organic Matter across a Prairie Restoration Chronosequence

    Diana R. Lane
    Abstract Habitat restoration resulting in changes in plant community composition or species dominance can affect the spatial pattern and variability of soil nutrients. Questions about how these changes in soil spatial heterogeneity develop over time at restoration sites, however, remain unaddressed. In this study, a geostatistical approach was used to quantify changes over time in the spatial heterogeneity of soil organic matter (SOM) across a 26-year chronosequence of tallgrass prairie restoration sites at FermiLab, outside of Chicago, Illinois. We used total soil N and C as an index of the quantity of SOM. We also examined changes in C:N ratio, which can influence the turnover of SOM. Specifically, the spatial structure of total N, total C, and C:N ratio in the top 10 cm of soil was quantified at a macroscale (minimum spacing of 1.5 m) and a microscale (minimum spacing of 0.2 m). The magnitude of spatial heterogeneity (MSH) was characterized as the proportion of total sample variation explained by spatially structured variation. At the macroscale, the MSH for total N decreased with time since restoration (r2= 0.99, p < 0.001). The decrease in spatial heterogeneity over time corresponded with a significant increase in the dominance of the C4 grasses. At the microscale, there was significant spatial structure for total N at the 4-year-old, 16-year-old, and 26-year-old sites, and significant spatial structure for total C at the 16-year-old and 26-year-old sites. These results suggest that an increase in dominance of C4 grasses across the chronosequence is homogenizing organic matter variability at the field scale while creating fine-scale patterns associated with the spacing of vegetation. Areas of higher soil moisture were associated with higher soil N and C at the two oldest restoration sites and at the native prairie site, potentially suggesting patches of increased belowground productivity in areas of higher soil moisture. This study is one of the first to report significant changes over time in the spatial structure of organic matter in response to successional changes initiated by restoration. [source]

    Trace element distributions in soils developed in loess deposits from northern France

    T. Sterckeman
    Summary A pedo-geochemical survey was carried out in the Nord-Pas de Calais region (France) on soils developed in loess deposits. Total concentrations of Al, Fe and 18 trace elements, as well as common soil characteristics, were determined in samples from 52 surface and 97 deep horizons developed in these loess deposits. The Pb isotopic composition was determined in two sola. The composition of deep horizons, compared with that of the upper continental crust, with that of horizons developed from 21 other sedimentary rocks from the region and with that of loess from various parts of the world, confirms that loess from the Nord-Pas de Calais region derives from multi-recycled and well-mixed ancient sedimentary rocks. Correlation analysis shows that least mobile (i.e. ionic potential (Z/r) is between 3 and 7) geogenic elements (Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, In, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) are associated with the fraction <2 µm (which we define as ,lutum'). More mobile elements (As, Cd, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se) are less associated with this fraction. Cadmium is particularly linked to Mn. The distribution of [trace element]/([Al] or [Fe]) in the French loess gives the background content for soils developed from most sedimentary materials in northwestern Europe. Topsoils are enriched with all the trace elements examined, except Co, Cr and Ni. Enrichments with Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn are greater in cultivated soils than in forest soils. Enrichments with Pb and with Cu, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se and Sn are mainly due to human contamination through atmospheric fallout. Organic matter seems to act as a sink for all the exogenous trace elements. [source]

    Interaction of copper and zinc with allophane and organic matter in the B horizon of an Andosol

    C. Latrille
    Summary Andosols developed on basaltic material are naturally rich in metals. Organic matter and allophane, the key colloids of these soils, have a strong affinity for trace metals, but are intimately mixed so that speciation of trace metal is difficult to determine. We used three complementary approaches, namely physical fractionation, chemical extraction and potentiometric measurement, to distinguish them. Physical particle-size separations and chemical selective dissolution of allophanes and organic matter were combined to demonstrate relations between the occurrence of colloids and contents of Cu and Zn in an andic B horizon. About 22% of total soil Cu and 7% of total soil Zn were present in the < 5-,m fraction, associated with organic or amorphous mineral constituents. To support this association further, the affinity of soil colloids for Cu and Zn in a mimicked system was demonstrated. An Al-rich allophane was synthesized, and a portion of the organic matter was extracted from the clay fraction, and their reactivities towards Cu2+ or Zn2+ were studied by potentiometry. The two metallic cations displayed specific affinity towards allophane or soluble organic matter. Furthermore, the behaviour of copper and zinc in the ternary system, allophane + soluble organic matter + trace element, revealed a synergy in the surface complexation. The use of these three speciation approaches highlighted the linkage between metals and constituents, and showed how important the colloidal constituents are in the behaviour of Cu and Zn in Andosols. [source]

    Changes in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and cations in soil as a result of fire and water erosion in a Mediterranean landscape

    E. Gimeno-García
    Summary Fire affects large parts of the dry Mediterranean shrubland, resulting in erosion and losses of plant nutrients. We have attempted to measure these effects experimentally on a calcareous hillside representative of such shrubland. Experimental fires were made on plots (4 m × 20 m) in which the fuel was controlled to obtain two different fire intensities giving means of soil surface temperature of 439°C and 232°C with temperatures exceeding 100°C lasting for 36 min and 17 min. The immediate and subsequent changes induced by fire on the soil's organic matter content and other soil chemical properties were evaluated, together with the impact of water erosion. Seven erosive rain events, which occurred after the experimental fires (from August 1995 to December 1996), were selected, and on them runoff and sediment produced from each plot were measured. The sediments collected were weighed and analysed. Taking into account the variations induced by fire on the soil properties and their losses by water erosion, estimates of the net inputs and outputs of the soil system were made. Results show that the greatest losses of both soil and nutrients took place in the 4 months immediately after the fire. Plots affected by the most intense fire showed greater losses of soil (4077 kg ha,1) than those with moderate fire intensity (3280 kg ha,1). The unburned plots produced the least sediment (72.8 kg ha,1). Organic matter and nutrient losses by water erosion were related to the degree of fire intensity. However, the largest losses of N-NH4+ and N-NO3, by water erosion corresponded to the moderate fire (8.1 and 7.5 mg N m,2, respectively). [source]

    Context-dependent effects of freshwater mussels on stream benthic communities

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Summary 1. We asked whether unionid mussels influence the distribution and abundance of co-occurring benthic algae and invertebrates. In a yearlong field enclosure experiment in a south-central U.S. river, we examined the effects of living mussels versus sham mussels (shells filled with sand) on periphyton and invertebrates in both the surrounding sediment and on mussel shells. We also examined differences between two common unionid species, Actinonaias ligamentina (Lamarck 1819) and Amblema plicata (Say 1817). 2. Organic matter concentrations and invertebrate densities in the sediment surrounding mussels were significantly higher in treatments with live mussels than treatments with sham mussels or sediment alone. Organic matter was significantly higher in the sediment surrounding Actinonaias than that surrounding Amblema. Actinonaias was more active than Amblema and may have increased benthic organic matter through bioturbation. 3. Living mussels increased the abundance of periphyton on shells and the abundance and richness of invertebrates on shells, whereas effects of sham mussels were similar to sediment alone. Differences in the amount of periphyton growing on the shells of the two mussel species reflected differences in mussel activity and shell morphology. 4. Differences between living and sham mussel treatments indicate that biological activities of mussels provide ecosystem services to the benthic community beyond the physical habitat provided by shells alone. In treatments containing live mussels we found significant correlations between organic matter and chlorophyll a concentrations in the sediment, organic matter concentrations and invertebrate abundance in the sediment and the amount of chlorophyll a on the sediment and invertebrate abundance. There were no significant correlations among these response variables in control treatments. Thus, in addition to providing biogenic structure as habitat, mussels likely facilitate benthic invertebrates by altering the availability of resources (algae and organic matter) through nutrient excretion and biodeposition. 5. Effects of mussels on sediment and shell periphyton concentrations, organic matter concentrations and invertebrate abundance, varied seasonally, and were strongest in late summer during periods of low water volume, low flow, and high water temperature. 6. Our study demonstrates that freshwater mussels can strongly influence the co-occurring benthic community, but that effects of mussels are context-dependent and may vary among species. [source]

    Effect of soil and physiographic factors on ecological plant groups in the eastern Elborz mountain rangeland of Iran

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    Mohammadreza Tatian
    Abstract To investigate the cause of differences among ecological plant groups in the east of the Elborz mountain rangeland, the role of edaphical and topographical characteristics was considered. Two ordination techniques, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), were used. The values of slope, aspect, altitude and lithology information were provided by Geographic Information System (GIS), and geomorphological land units were determined by intersection of overlaid data layers. Plant sampling was undertaken within nine land units with similar lithology and altitude but which differed in slope and aspect, using 30 randomly selected 1 m2 plots per land unit. Soil samples were taken from two depths (0,20 and 20,50 cm) in each plot. Organic matter, bulk density, texture, calcium carbonate, total nitrogen and available phosphorus and potassium contents were determined. The results indicated that plant species have different responses to edaphical and topographical parameters. The invader species group had a balanced amount of influence from all soil components and topographic factors, whereas the native grasses were located in productive soils, which typically have a low grazing intensity, such as the north facing slopes. Coniferous bushy trees, cushion plants and some shrub plant groups were found on steep slopes with alkaline soils. The broad-leaved bushy trees plant group was abundant in fine texture soils on low and humid slopes. [source]

    Bacteriological quality of skin-moisturizing creams and lotions distributed in a tropical developing country

    I.N. Okeke
    Aims: To evaluate the bacteriological quality of skin moisturizing products in the South-west part of Nigeria and study factors predisposing their bacterial contamination under tropical conditions. Methods and Results: Viable counts for bacteria exceeded 103 cfu ml,1or cfu g,1 in 8 (16·3%) commercially available creams and lotions at time of purchase. Escherichia coli (8), Pseudomonas spp. (7), Staphylococcus spp. (9) and Bacillus spp. (6) were the most commonly recovered bacteria. Following use by volunteers, the proportion of E. coli and other Gram-negative organisms recovered increased. Organic matter, particularly in the absence of preservatives, enhanced survival and growth of bacteria in creams stored under ambient tropical conditions during challenge experiments. Conclusions: Contaminated products are relatively uncommon but some products present a potential health hazard because they are unable to suppress the growth of organisms of likely faecal origin during use. Significance and Impact of the Study: Quality assurance during manufacture, pack size, preservative evaluation, organic matter and water content were identified as factors to be considered during the development of creams and lotions for use in tropical developing countries. [source]

    Microbial degradation of rice and barley straws in the sheep rumen and the donkey caecum

    Ahoefa Agbagla-Dohnani
    Abstract The chemical composition, intake, digestibility, ultrastructure and microbial degradation of rice straw from Camargue were compared with barley straw. These variables were observed in two different herbivore digestive ecosystems: the sheep rumen and the donkey caecum. The two straws differed essentially in their ash content, which was three times higher in rice, owing to its silica content. Other chemical components were comparable, except a higher phenolic acids-to-lignin ratio in rice. Rice straw was better ingested than barley straw. Organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were the same in both straws. Dry matter and cell wall disappearances could be adjusted to the exponential modelling equation with lag time, and differed between animals but not between straws. The sheep rumen had a higher extent of degradation, but the donkey caecum had a higher degradation rate. Statistical analysis revealed that cell-wall components degradation was similar in the two straws except for ferulic acid, which was more degraded in rice straw. Scanning electron microscopy showed important differences in parenchyma degradation, which was much more effective in rice. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Organic matter from comet 81P/Wild 2, IDPs, and carbonaceous meteorites; similarities and differences

    S. Wirick
    Sections were analyzed using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (SXTM) and carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected. We compared the carbon XANES spectra of these Wild 2 samples with a database of spectra on thirty-four interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and with several meteorites. Two of the particles analyzed are iron sulfides and there is evidence that an aliphatic compound associated with these particles can survive high temperatures. An iron sulfide from an IDP demonstrates the same phenomenon. Another, mostly carbon free containing particle radiation damaged, something we have not observed in any IDPs we have analyzed or any indigenous organic matter from the carbonaceous meteorites, Tagish Lake, Orgueil, Bells and Murchison. The carbonaceous material associated with this particle showed no mass loss during the initial analysis but chemically changed over a period of two months. The carbon XANES spectra of the other four particles varied more than spectra from IDPs and indigenous organic matter from meteorites. Comparison of the carbon XANES spectra from these particles with 1. the carbon XANES spectra from thirty-four IDPs (<15 micron in size) and 2. the carbon XANES spectra from carbonaceous material from the Tagish Lake, Orgueil, Bells, and Murchison meteorites show that 81P/Wild 2 carbon XANES spectra are more similar to IDP carbon XANES spectra then to the carbon XANES spectra of meteorites. [source]

    Multiple Sources of Metals of Mineralization in Lower Cambrian Black Shales of South China: Evidence from Geochemical and Petrographic Study

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Jan Pa
    Abstract Black shales of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in southern China (Huangjiawan mine, Zunyi region, northern part of the Guizhou Province) host regionally distributed stratiform polymetallic Ni-Mo-platinum group elements (PGE)-Au phosphate- and sulfide-rich ores. These are confined to a ,0.2-m thick ore horizon composed of mineralized bodies of algal onkolites, phosphate nodules, and sulfide and shale clasts in a mineralized phosphate- and organic matter-rich matrix. Compared to footwall and hanging wall shales, the ore bed is strongly enriched in Ni (up to 100-fold), As (up to 97-fold), Mo (up to 95-fold), Sb (up to 67-fold), Rh (up to 49-fold), Cu (up to 37-fold), Pd (up to 33-fold), Ru (up to 24-fold), Zn (up to 23-fold), Pt (up to 21-fold), Ir (up to 15-fold), Co (up to 14-fold), and Pb (up to 13-fold). Even footwall and hanging wall black shales are significantly enriched by Mo (21-fold) and Ni (12-fold) but depleted in Cr in comparison to average Cambrian black shale. Organic matter is represented by separate accumulations dispersed in the rock matrix or as biotic bitumen droplets and veinlets in ore clasts. Similar organic carbon (Corg) values in an ore bed and enclosing footwall and hanging wall shales of little mineralization indicate that metal accumulation was not controlled only by biogenic productivity and organic matter accumulation rate. Evaporitic conditions during sedimentation of the basal part of the Niutitang Formation were documented by an occurrence of preserved Ni-, V-, Cr-, and Cu-enriched phosphate-rich hardground with halite and anhydrite pseudomorphs on the paleosurface of the underlying Neoproterozoic carbonates. Neoproterozoic black shales of the Doushantuo Formation are characterized by increased metal concentrations. Comparison of metal abundances in both hardground and Doushantuo black shales indicate that black shales could have become a source of metal-rich hardground during weathering. The polymetallic Ni-Mo-PGE sulfide-rich ore bed is interpreted to represent a remnant of shallow-water hardground horizon rich in metals, which originated in a sediment-starved, semi-restricted, seawater environment. During the Early Cambrian transgression an influx of fresh seawater and intensive evaporation, together with the hydrothermal enrichment of seawater in a semi-restricted basin, resulted in the formation of dense metalliferous brines; co-precipitation of metals together with phosphates and sulfides occurred at or above the oxic,anoxic sediment interface. Metal-enriched hardground was disintegrated by the action of waves or bottom currents and deposited in a deeper part of the anoxic basin. Contemporaneously with the formation of a polymetallic Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ore bed, economic sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX)-type barite deposits were forming in a stratigraphically and geotectonically similar setting. The results of geochemical study at the Shang Gongtang SEDEX-type Ba deposit indicate that concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn and other metals decrease from top of the barite body toward the hanging wall black shale. Lower Cambrian black shales of the Niutitang Formation above the barite body also display similar element abundances as Neoproterozoic black shales of the Doushantuo Formation, developed in the footwall of the barite body. But the geochemical composition of the sulfide layer is different from the Ni-Mo ore bed, showing only elevated Pb, Cu, Ni and Mo values. It is suggested that hydrothermal brines at Shang Gongtang might have leached metals from footwall Neoproterozoic sequences and became, after mixing with normal seawater, an additional source of Ag, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn, Ni, PGE, V and other metals. [source]

    The potential for soluble and transport loss of particulate aquaculture wastes

    M F Tlusty
    The relative potential for soluble and transport losses of aquaculture waste was examined. The waste was collected at four junctures between introduction to the environment and the culmination of settlement, including samples of feed, faeces, particulate matter in the water column obtained from sediment traps, and the benthos. Organic matter was used as a model system to investigate the fate of these components because it was simple to analyse and previous research has found it to be correlated to carbon and nutrient levels in the samples. A narrow definition of each loss was considered. Soluble losses were examined by measuring change in organic matter content while the samples were in a stationary water field. The potential for transport losses was examined by determining if light and heavy fractions of a sample differed in their amount of organic matter. Faecal matter had a very high solubility potential, and lost approximately 50% of its organic matter in 12 days. No other sample had losses >,10%. The benthic samples gained organic matter while sitting in the stationary water field. There was no discernible trend to the samples' potential for transport losses. However, for all replicates combined, the smaller the proportion of the lighter fraction, the greater the difference (+) in the organic matter content between the light and heavy fractions. Thus, lighter material is the last to settle and thus more prone to be transported further afield. The implications of this study include the need for model studies to examine different types of loss and also elucidation of divergent degradation properties of each component. This study also points to a functional mechanism behind greater environmental impacts associated with poorly managed farms. [source]

    Organic matter in ancient meteorites

    ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS, Issue 2 2004
    Mark A Sephton
    First page of article [source]

    Morphology of the digestive tract and feeding habits of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker, 1979 in a Brazilian reservoir

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    L. F. Salvador-Jr
    Abstract The present study describes some aspects of the morphology of the digestive tract and the feeding patterns of Loricaria lentiginosa. Sixty-three specimens with gut contents were captured quarterly from November 2001 to August 2002 in Porto Colômbia reservoir, Rio Grande basin, southeastern Brazil. The species has bicuspid teeth inserted in the lips, unicuspid teeth in the dentary bone and pharyngeal teeth, besides having short, numerous and slightly separated gill rakers. The stomach is rudimentary and the intestine is relatively short (Intestinal Quotient = 1.32 ± 0.15). Molluscs, especially bivalves, represented the most important item on the diet of this species, followed by organic matter. The characteristics of the digestive tract as well as the dietary pattern, suggest that L. lentiginosa is able to explore bottom food resources, being classified as benthophagous with a tendency to malacophagy, and utilizing organic matter as an associated or additional food resource. Loricariidae species are able to use not only algae, sediment and detritus, but also plant and invertebrate items. [source]

    Rainfall variability and hydrological and erosive response of an olive tree microcatchment under no-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover in Spain

    E. V. Taguas
    Abstract Most studies on runoff and soil loss from olive orchards were performed on plots, despite the fact that measurements that examine a range of erosive processes on different scales are essential to evaluate the suitability of the use and soil management of this type of land. The main environmental limitations of much of the land used for olive orchards in the Mediterranean are the steep slopes and the shallow soil depth , and this was the case in the study area. Soil erosion and runoff over two hydrological years (2005,2006 and 2006,2007) were monitored in an olive orchard microcatchment of 6·1,ha under no-tillage with spontaneous grass in order to evaluate its hydrological and erosive behaviour. Moreover, soil parameters such as organic matter (%OM), bulk density (BD) and hydraulic saturated conductivity (Ks) were also examined in the microcatchment to describe management effects on hydrological balance and on erosive processes. In the study period, the results showed runoff coefficients of 6·0% in the first year and 0·9% in the second. The differences respond to the impact of two or three yearly maximum events which were decisive in the annual balances. On the event scale, although maximum rainfall intensity values had a big influence on peak flows and runoff, its importance on mean sediment concentrations and sediment discharges was difficult to interpret due to the likely control of grass cover on volume runoff and on soil protection. In the case of annual soil erosion, they were measured as 1·0,Mg,ha,1,yr,1 and 0·3,Mg,ha,1,yr,1. Both are lower than the tolerance values evaluated in Andalusia (Spain). These results support the implementation of no-tillage with spontaneous grass cover for sloping land, although the reduced infiltration conditions determined by Ks in the first horizon suggest grass should be allowed to grow not only in spring but also in autumn. In addition, specific measurements to control gullies, which have formed in the terraced area in the catchment, should be included since it is expected that they could be the main sources of sediments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis for tracking fossil organic carbon in modern environments: implications for the roles of erosion and weathering

    Yoann Copard
    Abstract This work relates to the debate on the fossil organic carbon (FOC) input in modern environments and its possible implication for the carbon cycle, and suggests the use of Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis as a relevant tool for tracking FOC in such environments. Considering that such a delivery is mainly due to supergene processes affecting the continental surface, we studied organic matter in different reservoirs such as bedrocks, alterites, soils and rivers in two experimental catchments at Draix (Alpes de Haute Provence, France). Samples were subjected to geochemical (Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis) investigations and artificial bacterial degradations. After comparing the geochemical fingerprint of samples, geochemical markers of FOC were defined and tracked in the different reservoirs. Our results confirm the contribution of FOC in modern soils and rivers and display the various influences of weathering and erosional processes on the fate of FOC during its exchange between these pools. In addition, the contrasting behaviour of these markers upon the supergene processes has also highlighted the refractory or labile characters of the fossil organic matter (FOM). Bedrock to river fluxes, controlled by gully erosion, are characterized by a qualitative and quantitative preservation of FOM. Bedrock to alterite fluxes, governed by chemical weathering, are characterized by FOC mineralization without qualitative changes in deeper alterites. Alterite to soils fluxes, controlled by (bio)chemical weathering, are characterized by strong FOC mineralization and qualitative changes of FOM. Thus weathering and erosional processes induce different FOM evolution and affect the fate of FOC towards the global carbon cycle. In this study, gully erosion would involve maintenance of an ancient sink for the global carbon cycle, while (bio)chemical processes provide a source of CO2. Finally, this study suggests that Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis can be considered as a relevant tool for tracking FOC in modern environments. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Elementary processes of soil,water interaction and thresholds in soil surface dynamics: a review

    Richard S. B. Greene
    Abstract Elementary processes of soil,water interaction and the thresholds to these processes are important to understand as they control a range of phenomena that occur at the soil surface. In particular processes involved with wetting by rainfall that lead to particle breakdown are critical. This breakdown causes soil detachment and crust formation, which are both key elements in erosion. This paper reviews the range of approaches that have been taken in describing the processes associated with the wetting of a soil surface by rainfall. It assembles the studies that emphasize soil physics, soil chemistry, and erosion mechanics in a framework to enable a balanced consideration of important processes and management strategies to control erosion for a particular situation. In particular it discusses the factors associated with the two basic processes of soil structural breakdown, i.e. slaking and dispersion, and how these processes are critical in particle detachment, transport and surface crust formation. Besides the balance between the exchangeable cation composition and electrolyte concentration (measured as the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total cation concentration (TCC) respectively) of the soil, the importance of energy input and soil organic matter content in controlling clay dispersion is emphasized. Based on the balance between these factors, the soil can be in one of three different regions, i.e. a dispersed region, a ,occulated region and one where the resilience of the soil is variable. The implications of each of these regions to soil erosion management are brie,y outlined, as are the critical roles that soil cover levels and organic matter have in controlling erosion. Finally, the relationship between various laboratory measures of aggregate stability, and corresponding ,eld erosion characteristics, is discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Aeolian dust dynamics in agricultural land areas in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Dirk Goossens
    Abstract The dynamics of fine aeolian dust emitted from agricultural land was investigated over 15 months near Grönheim, Lower Saxony, Germany. The following aspects were studied: airborne dust concentration, the ratio of mineral versus organic dust, the vertical distribution of the particles in the atmosphere, horizontal and vertically integrated horizontal dust flux, vertical dust flux, dust deposition at ground level, grain-size distribution of the mineral dust component, and vertical distribution of organic matter in the dust. Standard meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, precipitation) were measured as well. Dust activity in Grönheim is high in spring (March,May) and autumn (October,November) and low to very low during the rest of the year. There is a strong relationship between the periods of tillage and the intensity of dust activity. Also, there is high dust activity during wind erosion events. For the year 1999, dust emission due to tillage was 6·6 times higher than dust emission due to wind erosion. A dust transport of 15·8 ton km,1 a,1 was calculated for the first 10 m of the atmosphere in 1999. Total dust transport (in the entire mixing layer) was estimated between 16 and 20 ton km,1 a,1. About 25,30 per cent of this dust is mineral dust, emitted from the fields during tillage or during wind erosion events. In spring and autumn there is a strong vertical stratification in the airborne sediment, with much (coarse) dust in the lower air layers and significantly less (and finer) dust at higher altitudes. In summer and winter, when there is no local dust production, there is no stratification: equal amounts of dust are transported at all heights. The stratification in spring and autumn is exclusively caused by the mineral part of the dust. The organic particles are much better mixed in the atmosphere because of their lower density. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nutrients, diversity, and community structure of two phytotelm systems in a lower montane forest, Puerto Rico

    Barbara A. Richardson
    Summary 1. Bromeliad and heliconia phytotelmata in the same forest area were compared in terms of their animal assemblages, nutrient inputs, and plant architecture. 2. For all major elements, nutrient inputs from canopy-derived debris and rainfall in bromeliads were significantly lower than those derived from decaying flower parts and plant secretions in heliconia bracts. Bromeliads contained significantly fewer organisms per unit volume of water and unit dry weight of organic matter than did heliconia inflorescences. They also contained a significantly lower animal biomass (199 mg DW from 15 bromeliads, 527 mg DW from 15 heliconia inflorescences). 3. Species richness was independent of abundance, demonstrating that, at least for small container habitats, higher abundance does not necessarily lead to a greater species richness. Communities were remarkably similar in patterns of relative abundance and species richness (23 spp. in bromeliads, 21 spp. in heliconia), probably due to functional similarities in plant architecture, with the two most abundant species comprising 60,62% of the total community. Coefficients of similarity were low because of marked differences in species assemblages. 4. Some taxa were phytotelm generalists but most showed a preference for one particular habitat, indicating differential selection in the choice of oviposition sites and larval development within the forest ecosystem. In common with many island communities, species richness was lower than that reported for these phytotelm habitats in mainland central and south America. [source]

    Electrochemical Detection of Arsenic(III) in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) by Adsorptive Square-Wave Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (Ad-SWCSV)

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 4 2008
    Tsanangurayi Tongesayi
    Abstract This study has demonstrated that As(III) can be electrochemically detected and quantified in the presence of fulvic acid (FA) and dissolved organic matter (DOM). This eliminates the need to remove DOM prior to measurement of As(III) in environmental samples. Apart from reducing analysis time and the cost of the analysis, this could be potentially useful for the development of electrochemical methods for the detection and measurement of As(III) onsite. Both synthetic samples in which FA was added and a real sample with 22.16,mg/L total organic carbon (TOC) were analyzed. [source]