Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Oregon

  • oregon coast
  • oregon green

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. The residential patterns, adaptation experiences, and impacts of immigrants on North American cities have been well documented in the geographical literature. In this article, we build on prior work by testing the theories of Gaim Kibreab, who identified three factors that shape the experiences of recent refugees: attitudes of the receiving society; current policy environments; and employment opportunities in local communities. We analyze some of the ways in which these factors operate as interrelated systems for two comparative groups of foreign-born migrants in Portland, Oregon: sub-Saharan Africans; and Russians and Ukrainians. Using a mixed-methods approach, we triangulate data from a blend of in-depth interviews, participant observation in the community and at refugee and immigrant social service agencies, census and other statistical records, and cartographic analyses to report on the findings of our work. Data suggest that the residential, economic, and social spaces of new refugees are constructed as a complex multiplicity of networks and relationships that link time and place [source]


    The foster care system attempts to prepare children and youth who have suffered child maltreatment for successful adult lives. This study documents the economic advantages of a privately funded foster care program that provided longer term, more intensive, and more expensive services compared to public programs. The study found significant differences in major adult educational, health, and social outcomes between children placed in the private program and those placed in public programs operated by Oregon and Washington. For the outcomes for which we could find financial data, the estimated present value of the enhanced foster care services exceeded their extra costs. Generalizing to the roughly 100,000 adolescents age 12-17 entering foster care each year, if all of them were to receive the private model of services, the savings for a single cohort of these children could be about $6.3 billion in 2007 dollars. (JEL D61, H75) [source]

    Evaluating reserves for species richness and representation in northern California

    Jeffrey R. Dunk
    ABSTRACT The Klamath-Siskiyou forests of northern California and southern Oregon are recognized as an area of globally outstanding biological distinctiveness. When evaluated at a national or global level, this region is often, necessarily, considered to be uniformly diverse. Due to large variation in biotic and abiotic variables throughout this region, however, it is unlikely that biological diversity is uniformly distributed. Furthermore, land management decisions nearly always occur at spatial scales smaller than this entire region. Therefore, we used field data from a random sampling design to map the distribution of local and regional richness of terrestrial molluscs and salamanders within northern California's portion of the Klamath-Siskiyou region. We also evaluated the protection afforded by reserves established for varying reasons (e.g. for inspiration and recreation for people vs. species conservation) to hotspots of species richness and species representation of these taxa. No existing reserves were created with these taxa in mind, yet it was assumed that reserves established largely around considerations for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) would afford adequate protection for many lesser-known species. Species of terrestrial molluscs and salamanders share two general features: (1) they have extremely low vagility, and (2) they are often associated with moist, cool microclimates. Existing reserves disproportionately included areas of hotspots of species richness for both taxa, when hotspots included the richest c. 25% of the area, whereas non-reserved lands contained greater than expected areas with lower species richness. However, when a more strict definition of hotspot was used (i.e. the richest c.10% of areas), local hotspots for both taxa were not disproportionately found in reserves. Reserves set aside largely for human aesthetics and recreation and those set aside for biodiversity both contributed to the protection of areas with high (greatest 25%) species richness. Existing biodiversity reserves represented 68% of mollusc species and 73% of salamander species, corresponding to the 99th and 93rd percentiles, respectively, of species representation achieved by simulating a random distribution of the same total area of reservation. Cumulatively, however, reserves set aside for inspiration and biodiversity represented 83% of mollusc species and 91% of salamander species. The existing reserves provide conservation value for terrestrial molluscs and salamanders. This reserve network, however, should not be considered optimal for either taxa. [source]

    The effects of fire, local environment and time on ant assemblages in fens and forests

    Jaime S. Ratchford
    ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of the abiotic environment, plant community composition and disturbance by fire on ant assemblages in two distinct habitat types in the Siskiyou Mountains in northern California and southern Oregon, USA. Sampling over 2 years in burned and unburned Darlingtonia fens and their adjacent upland forests, we found that the effects of disturbance by fire depended on habitat type. In forests, fire intensity predicted richness in ant assemblages in both years after the fire, and plant community composition predicted richness 2 years after the fire. No factors were associated with richness in the species-poor fen ant assemblages. Species-specific responses to both habitat type and disturbance by fire were idiosyncratic. Assemblage composition depended on habitat type, but not disturbance by fire, and the composition of each assemblage between years was more dissimilar in burned than unburned sites. [source]

    Dating young geomorphic surfaces using age of colonizing Douglas fir in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon, USA,

    Thomas C. Pierson
    Abstract Dating of dynamic, young (<500 years) geomorphic landforms, particularly volcanofluvial features, requires higher precision than is possible with radiocarbon dating. Minimum ages of recently created landforms have long been obtained from tree-ring ages of the oldest trees growing on new surfaces. But to estimate the year of landform creation requires that two time corrections be added to tree ages obtained from increment cores: (1) the time interval between stabilization of the new landform surface and germination of the sampled trees (germination lag time or GLT); and (2) the interval between seedling germination and growth to sampling height, if the trees are not cored at ground level. The sum of these two time intervals is the colonization time gap (CTG). Such time corrections have been needed for more precise dating of terraces and floodplains in lowland river valleys in the Cascade Range, where significant eruption-induced lateral shifting and vertical aggradation of channels can occur over years to decades, and where timing of such geomorphic changes can be critical to emergency planning. Earliest colonizing Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were sampled for tree-ring dating at eight sites on lowland (<750 m a.s.l.), recently formed surfaces of known age near three Cascade volcanoes , Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens and Mount Hood , in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Increment cores or stem sections were taken at breast height and, where possible, at ground level from the largest, oldest-looking trees at each study site. At least ten trees were sampled at each site unless the total of early colonizers was less. Results indicate that a correction of four years should be used for GLT and 10 years for CTG if the single largest (and presumed oldest) Douglas fir growing on a surface of unknown age is sampled. This approach would have a potential error of up to 20 years. Error can be reduced by sampling the five largest Douglas fir instead of the single largest. A GLT correction of 5 years should be added to the mean ring-count age of the five largest trees growing on the surface being dated, if the trees are cored at ground level. This correction would have an approximate error of ±5 years. If the trees are cored at about 1·4 m above the ground surface (breast height), a CTG correction of 11 years should be added to the mean age of the five sampled trees (with an error of about ±7 years). Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Textural and compositional controls on modern beach and dune sands, New Zealand

    J. J. Kasper-Zubillaga
    Abstract Textural, compositional, physical and geophysical determinations were carried out on 111 beach and dune sand samples from two areas in New Zealand: the Kapiti,Foxton coast sourced by terranes of andesite and greywackes and the Farewell Spit,Wharariki coast sourced by a wide variety of Paleozoic terranes. Our aim is to understand how long-shore drift, beach width and source rock control the sedimentological and petrographic characteristics of beach and dune sands. Furthermore, this study shows the usefulness of specific minerals (quartz, plagioclase with magnetite inclusions, monomineralic opaque grains) to interpret the physical processes (fluvial discharges, long-shore currents, winds) that distribute beach and dune sands in narrow and wide coastal plains. This was done by means of direct (grain size and modal analyses) and indirect (specific gravity, magnetic/non-magnetic separations M/NM, magnetic susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops) methods. Results are compared with beach sands from Hawaii, Oregon, the Spanish Mediterranean, Elba Island and Southern California. Compositionally, the Kapiti,Foxton sands are similar to first-order immature sands, which retain their fluvial signature. This results from the high discharge of rivers and the narrow beaches that control the composition of the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions controls the specific gravity of the Kapiti,Foxton sands due to their low content of opaque minerals and coarse grain size. Magnetic susceptibility of the sands is related mainly to the abundance of feldspars with Fe oxides, volcanic lithics and free-opaque minerals. The Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands are slightly more mature than the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The composition of the Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands does not reflect accurately their provenance due to the prevalence of long-shore drift, waves, little river input and a wide beach. Low abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions and free opaque grains produces poor correlations between specific gravity (Sg) and Fe oxide bearing minerals. The small correlation between opaque grains and M/NM may be related to grain size. The magnetic susceptibility of Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands is low due to the low content of grains with magnetite inclusions. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) agree with the magnetic susceptibility values. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Positive diversity,stability relationships in forest herb populations during four decades of community assembly

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 10 2010
    Martin Dov
    Ecology Letters (2010) Abstract It is suggested that diversity destabilizes individual populations within communities; however, generalizations are problematic because effects of diversity can be confounded by variation attributable to community type, life history or successional stage. We examined these complexities using a 40-year record of reassembly in forest herb communities in two clearcut watersheds in the Andrews Long-term Ecological Research Site (Oregon, USA). Population stability was higher among forest than colonizing species and increased with successional stage. Thus, life history and successional stage may explain some of the variability in diversity,stability relationships found previously. However, population stability was positively related to diversity and this relationship held for different forest communities, for species with contrasting life histories, and for different successional stages. Positive relationships between diversity and population stability can arise if diversity has facilitative effects, or if stability is a precursor, rather than a response, to diversity. [source]

    Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2003
    Michael J. Adams
    Abstract Positive interactions among non-native species could greatly exacerbate the problem of invasions, but are poorly studied and our knowledge of their occurrence is mostly limited to plant-pollinator and dispersal interactions. We found that invasion of bullfrogs is facilitated by the presence of co-evolved non-native fish, which increase tadpole survival by reducing predatory macroinvertebrate densities. Native dragonfly nymphs in Oregon, USA caused zero survival of bullfrog tadpoles in a replicated field experiment unless a non-native sunfish was present to reduce dragonfly density. This pattern was also evident in pond surveys where the best predictors of bullfrog abundance were the presence of non-native fish and bathymetry. This is the first experimental evidence of facilitation between two non-native vertebrates and supports the invasional meltdown hypothesis. Such positive interactions among non-native species have the potential to disrupt ecosystems by amplifying invasions, and our study shows they can occur via indirect mechanisms. [source]

    Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    P. J. Howell
    Howell PJ, Dunham JB, Sankovich PM. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 96,106. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA Abstract,,, Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16,18 °C and potentially as high as 21 °C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18,25 °C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7,14 °C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11,18 °C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. [source]

    Relationship between stream temperature, thermal refugia and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss abundance in arid-land streams in the northwestern United States

    J. L. Ebersole
    Abstract , Warm stream temperatures may effectively limit the distribution and abundance of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in streams. The role of cold thermal refugia created by upwelling groundwater in mediating this effect has been hypothesized but not quantitatively described. Between June 21 and September 15, 1994, rainbow trout O. mykiss abundance within 12 northeast Oregon (USA) stream reaches was inversely correlated with mean ambient maximum stream temperatures (r=,0.7, P<0.05). Some rainbow trout used thermal refugia (1,10 m2 surface area) that were on average 3,8°C colder than ambient stream temperatures. Within the warmest reaches, high ambient stream temperatures (>22°C) persisted from mid-June through August, and on average 10,40% of rainbow trout were observed within thermal refugia during periods of midday maximum stream temperatures. Frequency of cold-water patches within reaches was not significantly associated with rainbow trout density after accounting for the influence of ambient stream temperature (P=0.06; extra sum of squares F -test). Given prolonged high ambient stream temperatures in some reaches, the thermal refugia available in the streams we examined may be too small and too infrequent to sustain high densities of rainbow trout. However, these refugia could allow some rainbow trout to persist, although at low densities, in warm stream reaches. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2007
    This article exploits a natural experiment initiated by Oregon and Washington voter referendums to show that the minimum wage is a blunt instrument that differentially affects low-wage workers within and across industries. Specifically, employment growth specifications indicate that the minimum wage generates consistently negative employment effects for eating and drinking workers where the minimum is shown to be relatively binding, but not for hotel and lodging workers where the minimum is less binding. Regressions using job-specific want-ad data from Portland and Seattle newspapers also indicate a reduction in hiring solicitation relating to the extent that the minimum wage binds. (JEL J31, J38) [source]

    The spatial epidemiology of cocaine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use: a demonstration using a population measure of community drug load derived from municipal wastewater

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    Caleb J. Banta-Green
    ABSTRACT Aims To determine the utility of community-wide drug testing with wastewater samples as a population measure of community drug use and to test the hypothesis that the association with urbanicity would vary for three different stimulant drugs of abuse. Design and participants Single-day samples were obtained from a convenience sample of 96 municipalities representing 65% of the population of the State of Oregon. Measurements Chemical analysis of 24-hour composite influent samples for benzoylecgonine (BZE, a cocaine metabolite), methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The distribution of community index drug loads accounting for total wastewater flow (i.e. dilution) and population are reported. Findings The distribution of wastewater-derived drug index loads was found to correspond with expected epidemiological drug patterns. Index loads of BZE were significantly higher in urban areas and below detection in many rural areas. Conversely, methamphetamine was present in all municipalities, with no significant differences in index loads by urbanicity. MDMA was at quantifiable levels in fewer than half the communities, with a significant trend towards higher index loads in more urban areas. Conclusion This demonstration provides the first evidence of the utility of wastewater-derived community drug loads for spatial analyses. Such data have the potential to improve dramatically the measurement of the true level and distribution of a range of drugs. Drug index load data provide information for all people in a community and are potentially applicable to a much larger proportion of the total population than existing measures. [source]

    Using a Geographic Information System to identify areas with potential for off-target pesticide exposure

    Thomas G. Pfleeger
    Abstract In many countries, numerous tests are required as part of the risk assessment process before chemical registration to protect human health and the environment from unintended effects of chemical releases. Most of these tests are not based on ecological or environmental relevance but, rather, on consistent performance in the laboratory. A conceptual approach based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been developed to identify areas that are vulnerable to nontarget chemical exposure. This GIS-based approach uses wind speed, frequency of those winds, pesticide application rates, and spatial location of agricultural crops to identify areas with the highest potential for pesticide exposure. A test scenario based on an incident in Idaho (USA) was used to identify the relative magnitude of risk from off-target movement of herbicides to plants in the conterminous United States. This analysis indicated that the western portion of the Corn Belt, the central California valley, southeastern Washington, the Willamette Valley of Oregon, and agricultural areas bordering the Great Lakes are among those areas in the United States that appear to have the greatest potential for off-target movement of herbicides via drift. Agricultural areas, such as the Mississippi River Valley and the southeastern United States, appears to have less potential, possibly due to lower average wind speeds. Ecological risk assessments developed for pesticide registration would be improved by using response data from species common to high-risk areas instead of extrapolating test data from species unrelated to those areas with the highest potential for exposure. [source]

    A test system to evaluate the susceptibility of Oregon, USA, native stream invertebrates to triclopyr and carbaryl

    Jennifer L. Peterson
    Abstract The susceptibility of six indigenous macroinvertebrate species representative of U.S. Pacific Northwest streams (Ameletus sp., Brachycentrus americanus, Calineuria californica, Cinygma sp., Lepidostoma unicolor, Psychoglypha sp. early and late instar) to formulated triclopyr ester (herbicide) and carbaryl (insecticide) was determined using laboratory bioassays. Acute toxicity was expressed as the lethal concentration to 50% (LC50) and 1% (LC1) of the test population based on a 96-h exposure duration. Carbaryl was found to be 1,000 times more toxic than triclopyr for all the organisms tested. The LC1 values (7.5, 28.8, 9.0, 3.0, 9.5, 14.8, 33.8 ,g/L, respectively, for carbaryl and 1.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.2, 29.0, 16.1 mg/L, respectively, for triclopyr) were used in the calculation of hazardous concentration to 5% of the stream macroinvertebrate community (HC5) based on the lower 95% confidence limit (HC5/95). The hazardous concentration (HC5/95) for triclopyr was 0.11 mg/L and for carbaryl ranged from 0.43 to 0.66 ,g/L, respectively. Triclopyr and carbaryl symptomology were analyzed for two organisms, C. californica and Cinygma sp. Carbaryl symptomology included knockdown and moribund states with severity and time of appearance being a function of dose. In triclopyr poisoning, death occurred suddenly with little or no symptomology. Time to 50% mortality (LT50) values were consistently higher for C. californica than for Cinygma sp. exposed to both chemicals at similar concentrations. [source]

    Predicting the probability of detecting organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in stream systems on the basis of land use in the Pacific Northwest, USA,

    Robert W. Black
    Abstract We analyzed streambed sediment and fish tissue (Cottus sp.) at 30 sites in the Puget Sound and Willamette basins in Washington and Oregon, USA, respectively, for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was designed to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish tissue and sediment by land use within these basins and to develop an empirical relation between land use and the probability of detecting these compounds in fish tissue or sediment. We identified 14 organochlorines in fish tissue and sediment; three compounds were unique to either fish tissue or sediment samples. The highest number of organochlorines detected in both fish tissue and streambed sediment was at those sites located in watersheds dominated by urban land uses. Using logistic regression, we found a significant relation between percentage agriculture and urban land use and organochlorines in fish tissue. The results of this study indicate that organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are still found in fish tissues and bed sediments in these two basins. In addition, we produced statistically significant models capable of predicting the probability of detecting specific organochlorines in fish on the basis of land use. Although the presented models are specific to the two study basins, the modeling approach could be applied to other basins as well. [source]

    Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    Jennifer C. Pierson
    Abstract We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define population structure and movement patterns of both sexes among populations. Three genetic groups were identified, a large, genetically continuous population that spans from the Rocky Mountains to Quebec, a small isolated population in South Dakota and a separate population in the western portion of their distribution (Oregon). Patterns of genetic diversity suggest extensive gene flow mediated by both males and females within the continuous boreal forest. However, male-mediated gene flow is the main form of connectivity between the continuously distributed group and the smaller populations of South Dakota and Oregon that are separated by large areas of unforested habitat, which apparently serves as a barrier to movement of female woodpeckers. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    William J. Howe
    This article explores ethical and practical issues facing attorneys in representing parents in a contested custody matter. The article traces the history of the way this matter has been handled historically and presents the latest thinking reflected by the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in their most recent publication of ethical guidelines for attorneys. The article also presents perspectives from several jurisdictions including Australia and Oregon. [source]

    Botryozyma mucatilis sp. nov., an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast associated with nematodes in poplar slime flux

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 8 2004
    Julia Kerrigan
    Abstract A new species of Botryozyma, Botryozyma mucatilis, was isolated from the surface of free-living nematodes, Panagrellus dubius, inhabiting slime flux from hybrid poplars, Populus deltoides×trichocarpa, in Oregon, USA. This species was discovered in relatively close proximity to the teleomorphic species Ascobotryozyma americana and Ascobotryozyma cognata, both collected from P. dubius nematodes inhabiting beetle galleries in Populus spp. and Populus and Salix spp., respectively. B. mucatilis is recognized as a distinct species based on molecular and morphological data. Sequence divergence in both the D1/D2 domain of the nuclear large-subunit rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region rDNA, low DNA reassociation values, notably different amplified fragment-length polymorphic fingerprints, and significantly longer cells all support the designation of a novel species. [source]

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations in the abundance and biomass of Neocalanus plumchrus in continental slope waters off Oregon

    Abstract Seasonal and inter-annual variability in the abundance and biomass of copepodid stages of the sub-arctic oceanic copepod, Neocalanus plumchrus, was studied during the January,May growth season, using an 11-yr time series of zooplankton samples collected over the upper 100 m of the water column. Abundance and biomass peaks occur in March/April. Abundance and biomass of N. plumchrus were significantly negatively correlated with sea surface temperature and significantly positively correlated with sea surface chlorophyll a, salinity, and density above the pycnocline. The seasonal integrated abundance and biomass of N. plumchrus declined during the warm years (2003,05), and increased during the cold years (2006,08). The date when 50% of the population had passed through stage C5 was significantly negatively correlated with temperature , earlier in warm years and later in cold years. In 3 yr (2003, 2007 and 2008), a second cohort appeared in mid-May, as indicated by the presence of stages C1 and C2 in the samples. Unusually high abundances of N. plumchrus in the spring of 2007 and 2008 were associated with cool ocean temperatures and an early spring transition in the NCC ecosystem, suggesting that the NCC ecosystem has returned to a cold phase. We discuss the merits of a hypothesis that the N. plumchrus population observed off Oregon is a local population as opposed to one that is expatriated from the Gulf of Alaska. [source]

    High abundance of larval rockfish over Cobb Seamount, an isolated seamount in the Northeast Pacific

    John F. Dower
    The larval fish community in the region of Cobb Seamount (500 km west of Oregon) is dominated by myctophid species commonly encountered in the subarctic North Pacific. However, during a survey in June 1992, the ichthyoplankton community within 30 km of the seamount summit was almost completely dominated by larvae of various rockfish (Sebastes) species. Given their very small size (and hence very young age) and the fact that they occurred only rarely in samples collected > 30 km from the seamount summit, we conclude that these Sebastes larvae were produced locally over Cobb Seamount. Previous studies have shown that the Cobb fish fauna is dominated by various Sebastes spp. and that, unlike other fish present on the seamount, the rockfish populations may be self-recruiting. We suggest that a persistent clockwise (i.e. downwelling) eddy, consistent with a stratified Taylor cone, plays a critical role in retaining larval rockfish over Cobb Seamount and may contribute to the process of self-recruitment. The key to the success of rockfish on Cobb and other shallow Northeast Pacific seamounts seems to be linked to their viviparous life history. [source]

    Mid-latitude wind stress: the energy source for climatic shifts in the North Pacific Ocean

    Analyses of atmospheric observations in the North Pacific demonstrate extensive decadal-scale variations in the mid-latitude winter surface wind stress. In the decade after 1976 winter, eastward wind stress doubled over a broad area in the central North Pacific and the winter zero wind stress curl line was displaced about 6° southward. This resulted in increased southward Ekman transport, increased oceanic upwelling, and increased turbulent mixing as well as a southward expansion of the area of surface divergence. All these factors contributed to a decadal winter cold anomaly along the subtropical side of the North Pacific Current. In summer the cold anomaly extended eastward, almost reaching the coast of Oregon. The increased gradient in wind stress curl and southward displacement of the zero curl line also resulted in an increase in total North Pacific Current transport, primarily on the Equator side of this Current. Thus, surface water entering the California Current was of more subtropical origin in the post-1976 decade. Southward (upwelling favourable) wind stress and sea surface temperature (SST) in the area off San Francisco exhibit at least three different types of decadal departures from mean conditions. In association with the 1976 climatic shift, marine fishery production in the Oyashio, California and Alaska Currents altered dramatically, suggesting that these natural environmental variations significantly alter the long-term yields of major North Pacific fisheries. [source]

    Temporal and spatial responses of British Columbia steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations to ocean climate shifts

    The pattern of temporal change in recruitment of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) entering the ocean between 1963 and 1990 was geographically coherent in all regions of British Columbia. A major increase in recruitment was evident for smolts entering the ocean after 1977. Subsequently, an out-of-phase response occurred after 1990, indicating that the effect of a possible 1990 regime shift had both temporal and geographical structure. Steelhead entering northern regions had increasing recruitment, while steelhead entering southern BC coastal regions had sharply decreasing recruitment. The evidence clearly indicates that the overall recruitment response since 1977 was primarily shaped by changes in marine (not freshwater) survival. Similar sudden changes in adult recruitment also appear to be occurring for other species of Pacific salmon in BC and Oregon, such as coho (O. kisutch), which appear to occur suddenly and show considerable persistence. A possible explanation for the change is that ocean productivity declined in coastal regions of southern BC after 1990, reducing the marine growth of juvenile salmon. The Bakun upwelling index shows a pattern of geographical coherence along the west coast of North America that could in principle explain the observed pattern of changes in recruitment. However, no evidence for a temporal shift in this index occurring around 1977 and 1990 is apparent. The reason for the sudden and persistent decline in ocean survival is therefore uncertain. [source]

    Absence of residual effects of a defeated resistance gene in poplar

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    K.-S. Woo
    Summary In a few plant pathosystems, defeated major genes have been shown to contribute to partial resistance to disease. This hypothesis has never been tested before in a forest tree, but pathogenic variation associated with recent hybridization in poplar rust in the Pacific northwest provided an opportunity. An F2 progeny of 256 poplar clones in the field near Corvallis, Oregon, USA, has been monitored for rust severity and infection type since the advent of the new hybrid rust, Melampsora × columbiana, in the mid-1990s. All 256 clones displayed a susceptible infection type in 1997 and again in 2000, and yet variation in uredinial density (i.e. partial resistance) was still observed. To determine which clones possessed a defeated resistance gene, a greenhouse inoculation was performed with an isolate of M. medusae, one of the parents of M. × columbiana. Clones that would have been resistant to M. medusae, prior to the advent of M. × columbiana, were thus identified. The inoculation resulted in a 1 : 1 segregation (,2=0.772; p=0.38) for resistance, indicating the presence of a major gene. However, the F2 clones possessing the defeated resistance gene displayed the same level of partial resistance in the field in both 1997 and 2000 as their full siblings lacking the gene. Résumé Chez quelques pathosystèmes végétaux, il a été montré que le contournement de gènes majeurs de résistance contribue à une résistance partielle envers la maladie. Cette hypothèse n'a encore jamais été testée chez un arbre forestier, mais le changement de pouvoir pathogène associéà l'hybridation récente de la rouille du peuplier dans le nord-ouest des USA en a fourni l'occasion. Une descendance F2 de 256 clones de peuplier a été suivie au champ près de Corvallis, Oregon, USA, pour la gravité de la rouille et le type d'infection, depuis l'apparition du nouvel hybride Melampsora x columbiana, dans les années 1990. Tous les 256 clones se sont montrés sensibles en 1997 et à nouveau en 2000, et une variation dans la densité des urédies (résistance partielle) a aussi été observée. Pour déterminer quels clones présentaient une résistance contournée, des inoculations ont été réalisées en serre avec un isolat de Melampsora medusae originaire du Kentucky. Des clones qui étaient résistants àM. medusae avant l'apparition de M. x columbiana ont ainsi été identifiés. Les inoculations ont abouti à une ségrégation 1 :1 (,2 = 0,772; P = 0,38) pour la résistance, ce qui indique la présence d'un gène majeur. Cependant, les clones F2 possédant le gène de résistance contourné montraient le même niveau de résistance partielle au champ en 1997 et 2000 que leurs plein-frères qui n'avaient pas ce gène. Zusammenfassung Für einige Pflanzen-Pathosysteme wurde gezeigt, dass unwirksam gewordene Haupt-Resistenzgene immer noch zu einer teilweisen Resistenz beitragen. Für Waldbäume wurde diese Hypothese bisher nie überprüft. Dies wurde jetzt im pazifischen Nordwesten möglich, wo der Pappelrost nach einem rezenten Hybridisierungsereignis stark variierte. An den F2-Nachkommenschaften von 256 Pappelklonen, die unter Freilandbedingungen in der Nähe von Corvallis, Oregon, USA wuchsen, wurde nach dem Auftreten des neuen Hybridrostes (Melampsora × columbiana) ab ca. 1990 die Krankheitsintensität und der Infektionstyp registriert. Alle 256 Klone zeigten einen anfälligen Infektionstyp im Jahre 1997 und dann wieder im Jahre 2000. Dabei wurde eine Variation in der Urediendichte (d.h. partielle Resistenz) beobachtet. Um zu bestimmen, welche Klone ein unwirksam gewordenes Resistenzgen besitzen, wurden Inokulationen im Gewächshaus mit einem Isolat von M. medusae, einem Elter von M. × columbiana, durchgeführt. Damit wurden Klone identifiziert, die vor dem Auftreten von M. × columbiana gegen M. medusae resistent waren. Der Infektionsversuch führte zu einer 1:1 Segregation (,2=0,772; P=0,38) für die Resistenz, was auf das Vorliegen eines Hauptgens hinweist. Die F2-Klone, welche dieses überwundene Resistenzgen besitzen, zeigten jedoch unter Feldbedingungen in den Jahren 1997 und 2000 den gleichen Grad einer Teilresistenz wie ihre Vollgeschwister, welchen dieses Gen fehlt. [source]

    Stream food web response to a salmon carcass analogue addition in two central Idaho, U.S.A. streams

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Summary 1. Pacific salmon and steelhead once contributed large amounts of marine-derived carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America (California, Oregon, Washington and Idaho). Declines in historically abundant anadromous salmonid populations represent a significant loss of returning nutrients across a large spatial scale. Recently, a manufactured salmon carcass analogue was developed and tested as a safe and effective method of delivering nutrients to freshwater and linked riparian ecosystems where marine-derived nutrients have been reduced or eliminated. 2. We compared four streams: two reference and two treatment streams using salmon carcass analogue(s) (SCA) as a treatment. Response variables measured included: surface streamwater chemistry; nutrient limitation status; carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes; periphyton chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass (AFDM); macroinvertebrate density and biomass; and leaf litter decomposition rates. Within each stream, upstream reference and downstream treatment reaches were sampled 1 year before, during, and 1 year after the addition of SCA. 3. Periphyton chlorophyll a and AFDM and macroinvertebrate biomass were significantly higher in stream reaches treated with SCA. Enriched stable isotope (,15N) signatures were observed in periphyton and macroinvertebrate samples collected from treatment reaches in both treatment streams, indicating trophic transfer from SCA to consumers. Densities of Ephemerellidae, Elmidae and Brachycentridae were significantly higher in treatment reaches. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure, as measured by taxonomic richness and diversity, did not appear to respond significantly to SCA treatment. Leaf breakdown rates were variable among treatment streams: significantly higher in one stream treatment reach but not the other. Salmon carcass analogue treatments had no detectable effect on measured water chemistry variables. 4. Our results suggest that SCA addition successfully increased periphyton and macroinvertebrate biomass with no detectable response in streamwater nutrient concentrations. Correspondingly, no change in nutrient limitation status was detected based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus ratios (DIN/SRP) and nutrient-diffusing substrata experiments. Salmon carcass analogues appear to increase freshwater productivity. 5. Salmon carcass analogues represent a pathogen-free nutrient enhancement tool that mimics natural trophic transfer pathways, can be manufactured using recycled fish products, and is easily transported; however, salmon carcass analogues should not be viewed as a replacement for naturally spawning salmon and the important ecological processes they provide. [source]

    Selecting discriminant function models for predicting the expected richness of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Summary 1. The predictive modelling approach to bioassessment estimates the macroinvertebrate assemblage expected at a stream site if it were in a minimally disturbed reference condition. The difference between expected and observed assemblages then measures the departure of the site from reference condition. 2. Most predictive models employ site classification, followed by discriminant function (DF) modelling, to predict the expected assemblage from a suite of environmental variables. Stepwise DF analysis is normally used to choose a single subset of DF predictor variables with a high accuracy for classifying sites. An alternative is to screen all possible combinations of predictor variables, in order to identify several ,best' subsets that yield good overall performance of the predictive model. 3. We applied best-subsets DF analysis to assemblage and environmental data from 199 reference sites in Oregon, U.S.A. Two sets of 66 best DF models containing between one and 14 predictor variables (that is, having model orders from one to 14) were developed, for five-group and 11-group site classifications. 4. Resubstitution classification accuracy of the DF models increased consistently with model order, but cross-validated classification accuracy did not improve beyond seventh or eighth-order models, suggesting that the larger models were overfitted. 5. Overall predictive model performance at model training sites, measured by the root-mean-squared error of the observed/expected species richness ratio, also improved steadily with DF model order. But high-order DF models usually performed poorly at an independent set of validation sites, another sign of model overfitting. 6. Models selected by stepwise DF analysis showed evidence of overfitting and were outperformed by several of the best-subsets models. 7. The group separation strength of a DF model, as measured by Wilks',, was more strongly correlated with overall predictive model performance at training sites than was DF classification accuracy. 8. Our results suggest improved strategies for developing reliable, parsimonious predictive models. We emphasise the value of independent validation data for obtaining a realistic picture of model performance. We also recommend assessing not just one or two, but several, candidate models based on their overall performance as well as the performance of their DF component. 9. We provide links to our free software for stepwise and best-subsets DF analysis. [source]

    Effect of Small-World Networks on Epidemic Propagation and Intervention

    Zengwang Xu
    The small-world network, characterized by special structural properties of high connectivity and clustering, is one of the highlights in recent advances in network science and has the potential to model a variety of social contact networks. In an attempt to better understand how these structural properties of small-world networks affect epidemic propagation and intervention, this article uses an agent-based approach to investigate the interplay between an epidemic process and its underlying network structure. Small-world networks are derived from a network "rewiring" process, which readjusts edges in a completely regular two-dimensional network by different rewiring probabilities (0,1) to produce a spectrum of modified networks on which an agent-based simulation of epidemic propagation can be conducted. A comparison of simulated epidemics discloses the effect of small-world networks on epidemic propagation as well as the effectiveness of different intervention strategies, including mass vaccination, acquaintance vaccination, targeted vaccination, and contact tracing. Epidemics taking place on small-world networks tend to reach large-scale epidemic peaks within a short time period. Among the four intervention strategies tested, only one strategy,the targeted vaccination,proves to be effective for containing epidemics, a finding supported by a simulation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in a large-scale realistic social contact network in Portland, OR. Las redes de mundo de pequeño (,small-world networks'), caracterizadas por sus propiedades estructurales especiales de alta conectividad y aglomeración (,clustering') son uno de los ejemplos más destacados de los avances más recientes de la ciencia de redes, y tiene el potencial de modelar una gran variedad de redes sociales de contacto. En un intento de comprender mejor como estas propiedades estructurales de redes ,small-world' afectan la propagación e intervención de epidemias, el estudio presente emplea un enfoque basado en modelos multi-agente (,agent based') para investigar la interacción entre el proceso epidémico y la estructura de redes en la que estan integrados. Las redes de mundo pequeño se derivan del proceso de recableado (,rewiring') el cual reajusta los límites en una red 2-D de acuerdo a varias probabilidades de reconexión (0-1) para producir un abanico de posibles de redes modificadas sobre los cuales se condujo una simulación multi-agente de la propagación de la epidemia. El efecto de las redes ,small world' y de las diferentes estrategias de intervención (por ejemplo, diferentes estrategias de vacunación) son evidenciadas mediante la comparación entre varias simulaciones de la epidemia. Las epidemias que ocurren en redes de tipo ,small-world' tienden a alcanzar picos de gran escala epidémica en un corto periodo de tiempo. Entre las estrategias evaluadas, sólo una ,vacunación dirigida a una población objetivo (,targeted vaccination')- demostró ser efectiva en la contención de la epidemia. Dicho resultado se obtuvo vía la simulación de la epidemia de SRAS (Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo ,SARS') realiada en Portland, Oregon (EEUU). [source]


    ABSTRACT. Wilbur Zelinsky's classic 1977 account of the Pennsylvania town as a cultural place type,the urban component of the nationally influential Pennsylvanian culture region,acknowledged that it was not exported intact across the successive western frontiers of the United States. But, aside from Edward Price's specialized study of courthouse squares, we know little that is systematic about how town-planning ideas diffused across the continent. This investigation offers evidence from the Willamette Valley in Oregon of the eventual variety and geographical distribution of town-platting conventions that developed in this Pacific Coast "destination' setting and the possible provenance in the Ohio Valley of certain early Oregonian town-plan features. The evidence raises questions about the resilience of town-planning conventions in light of the distance carried, cultural time lags, and changing ideas about best practice and local suitability. [source]


    ABSTRACT. The residential patterns, adaptation experiences, and impacts of immigrants on North American cities have been well documented in the geographical literature. In this article, we build on prior work by testing the theories of Gaim Kibreab, who identified three factors that shape the experiences of recent refugees: attitudes of the receiving society; current policy environments; and employment opportunities in local communities. We analyze some of the ways in which these factors operate as interrelated systems for two comparative groups of foreign-born migrants in Portland, Oregon: sub-Saharan Africans; and Russians and Ukrainians. Using a mixed-methods approach, we triangulate data from a blend of in-depth interviews, participant observation in the community and at refugee and immigrant social service agencies, census and other statistical records, and cartographic analyses to report on the findings of our work. Data suggest that the residential, economic, and social spaces of new refugees are constructed as a complex multiplicity of networks and relationships that link time and place [source]

    Adaptation to host plants may prevent rapid insect responses to climate change

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2010
    Abstract We must consider the role of multitrophic interactions when examining species' responses to climate change. Many plant species, particularly trees, are limited in their ability to shift their geographic ranges quickly under climate change. Consequently, for herbivorous insects, geographic mosaics of host plant specialization could prohibit range shifts and adaptation when insects become separated from suitable host plants. In this study, we examined larval growth and survival of an oak specialist butterfly (Erynnis propertius) on different oaks (Quercus spp.) that occur across its range to determine if individuals can switch host plants if they move into new areas under climate change. Individuals from Oregon and northern California, USA that feed on Q. garryana and Q. kelloggii in the field experienced increased mortality on Q. agrifolia, a southern species with low nutrient content. In contrast, populations from southern California that normally feed on Q. agrifolia performed well on Q. agrifolia and Q. garryana and poorly on the northern, high elevation Q. kelloggii. Therefore, colonization of southern E. propertius in higher elevations and some northern locales may be prohibited under climate change but latitudinal shifts to Q. garryana may be possible. Where shifts are precluded due to maladaptation to hosts, populations may not accrue warm-adapted genotypes. Our study suggests that, when interacting species experience asynchronous range shifts, historical local adaptation may preclude populations from colonizing new locales under climate change. [source]

    Associations between carbon isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration, water availability and canopy conductance

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
    N. G. McDowell
    Abstract We tested the hypothesis that the stable carbon isotope signature of ecosystem respiration (,13CR) was regulated by canopy conductance (Gc) using weekly Keeling plots (n=51) from a semiarid old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in Oregon, USA. For a comparison of forests in two contrasting climates we also evaluated trends in ,13CR from a wet 20-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) plantation located near the Pacific Ocean. Intraannual variability in ,13CR was greater than 8.0, at both sites, was highest during autumn, winter, and spring when rainfall was abundant, and lowest during summer drought. The ,13CR of the dry pine forest was consistently more positive than the wetter Douglas-fir forest (mean annual ,13CR: ,25.41, vs. ,26.23,, respectively, P=0.07). At the Douglas-fir forest, ,13CR,climate relationships were consistent with predictions based on stomatal regulation of carbon isotope discrimination (,). Soil water content (SWC) and vapor pressure deficit (vpd) were the most important factors governing ,13CR in this forest throughout the year. In contrast, ,13CR at the pine forest was relatively insensitive to SWC or vpd, and exhibited a smaller drought-related enrichment (,2,) than the enrichment observed during drought at the Douglas-fir forest (,5,). Groundwater access at the pine forest may buffer canopy,gas exchange from drought. Despite this potential buffering, ,13CR at the pine forest was significantly but weakly related to canopy conductance (Gc), suggesting that ,13CR remains coupled to canopy,gas exchange despite groundwater access. During drought, ,13CR was strongly correlated with soil temperature at both forests. The hypothesis that canopy-level physiology is a critical regulator of ,13CR was supported; however, belowground respiration may become more important during rain-free periods. [source]