Ordinal Logistic Regression (ordinal + logistic_regression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Ordinal Logistic Regression

  • ordinal logistic regression analysis

  • Selected Abstracts


    Level of purposeful hand function as a marker of clinical severity in Rett syndrome

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 9 2010
    JENNY DOWNS
    Aim, We investigated relationships between hand function and genotype and aspects of phenotype in Rett syndrome. Method, Video assessment in naturalistic settings was supplemented by parent-reported data in a cross-sectional study of 144 females with a mean age of 14 years 10 months (SD 7y 10mo; range 2y,31y 10mo), 110 of whom had a mutation of the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess relationships between hand function and MECP2 mutation, age, a modified Kerr score, Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), ambulation level, and frequency of hand stereotypies. Results, Approximately two-thirds of participants demonstrated purposeful hand function, ranging from simple grasping skills to picking up and manipulating small objects. In participants with a confirmed MECP2 mutation, those with the p.R168X mutation had the poorest hand function on multivariate analysis with C-terminal deletion as the baseline (odds ratio [OR] 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04,0.95), whereas those with the p.R133C or p.R294X mutation had better hand function. Participants aged 19 years or older had lower hand function than those aged less than 8 years (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14,0.92). Factors that were associated with better hand function were lower Kerr scores for a 1-point increase in score (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.69,0.86), higher WeeFIM scores for a 1-point increase in score (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04,1.12), and greater ambulation than those completely dependent on carers for mobility (OR 22.64; 95% CI 7.02,73.08). The results for participants with a confirmed pathogenic mutation were similar to results obtained when participants without a mutation were also included. Interpretation, Our novel assessment of hand function in Rett syndrome correlated well with known profiles of common MECP2 mutations and overall clinical severity. This promising assessment could measure clinical responses to therapy. [source]


    Assessment of postoperative nausea using a visual analogue scale

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2000
    J. G. Boogaerts
    Background: Assessment of postoperative nausea intensity is difficult because nausea is a subjective and unpleasant sensation. We propose using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) device to increase the efficiency and precision in the assessment of nausea. We carried out a pilot study on postoperative patients suffering from nausea to measure the degree of agreement between the VAS scores and those given on a 4-point verbal descriptive scale (VDS). Methods: Postoperative nausea was evaluated by means of a classical VAS (0,10 cm) device and a 4-point VDS (0=no nausea, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe) in 128 surgical spontaneously complaining patients. Evaluation was repeated 45 min after rescue medication given if nausea was intractable, lasted more than 10 min or at the request of the patient. Ordinal logistic regression was used to measure the association between VAS and VDS and to determine cut-off points on the VAS. Results: The VAS device was easily understood and used by patients. VAS scores decreased significantly from 5.5±2.3 to 1.4±1.8 after rescue medication (P=0.002). Application of ordinal logistic regression to pre- and post-medication data combined yielded an agreement of 86% between VAS and VDS and the cut-off points on the VAS were estimated as follows: 0,1 (no nausea), 1+,4 (mild), 4+,7 (moderate) and 7+,10 (severe). Conclusion: The VAS method proved to be useful for assessing quantitative nausea intensity and for testing the efficacy of rescue medication. It was found that a cut-off value of 4 on the VAS may be considered as a critical threshold triggering anaesthesiologists or nurses to administer rescue medication. [source]


    Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    James D. Sargent
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11,15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be emphasized in programs aimed at preventing onset, and both exposures should be emphasized in programs aimed at experimental smokers. [source]


    Heart changes in 17-day-old fetuses of diabetic ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mothers: Improvement with maternal immune stimulation

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 1 2009
    Juan Claudio Gutierrez
    ABSTRACT Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with increased fetal teratogenesis, including cardiovascular defects. Non-specific maternal immune stimulation with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) or interferon gamma (IFN,) has been associated with protection against birth malformations. Using a diabetic mouse model, late-gestation fetal heart and great vessel morphology were analyzed. Four groups of mice were used: non-diabetic females as a control group, hyperglycemic females induced by streptozotocin as a diabetic group, and diabetic females injected either with FCA or IFN,. At day 17 of gestation, females were euthanized and one fetus was arbitrarily selected per litter for fixation and sectioning. Treatment-induced changes in cardiac development were assessed from digital images of serial sections taken at standardized levels in the thorax. One-way parametric and non-parametric ANOVA and ordinal logistic regression were performed to compare the difference among groups (P < 0.05). Maternal hyperglycemia altered morphology of the late-gestation fetal mouse heart by causing ventricular chamber dilation, sectional myocardial reduction, and an increase in transversal aortic area. FCA protected the fetal heart from cavitary dilation in diabetic mothers. FCA and IFN, protected the fetal heart against reduction of myocardial area, and ascending thoracic aorta dilation. Consequences of late gestation heart chamber dilation and myocardial reduction are not yet known. Maternal immune stimulation partially protected against these developmental defects by mechanisms that remain unclear. [source]


    Aquifer vulnerability assessment to heavy metals using ordinal logistic regression

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2005
    Navin K.C. Twarakavi
    A methodology using ordinal logistic regression is proposed to predict the probability of occurrence of heavy metals in ground water. The predicted probabilities are defined with reference to the background concentration and the maximum contaminant level. The model is able to predict the occurrence due to different influencing variables such as the land use, soil hydrologic group (SHG), and surface elevation. The methodology was applied to the Sumas-Blaine Aquifer located in Washington State to predict the occurrence of five heavy metals. The influencing variables considered were (1) SHG; (2) land use; (3) elevation; (4) clay content; (5) hydraulic conductivity; and (6) well depth. The predicted probabilities were in agreement with the observed probabilities under existing conditions. The results showed that aquifer vulnerability to each heavy metal was related to different sets of influencing variables. However, all heavy metals had a strong influence from land use and SHG. The model results also provided good insight into the influence of various hydrogeochemical factors and land uses on the presence of each heavy metal. A simple economic analysis was proposed and demonstrated to evaluate the cost effects of changing the land use on heavy metal occurrence. [source]


    Allostatic Load and Frailty in Older Adults

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 9 2009
    Tara L. Gruenewald PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between allostatic load (AL), an index of multisystem physiological dysregulation, and frailty development over a 3-year follow-up in a sample of older adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: High-functioning men and women aged 70 to 79 at study entry. MEASUREMENTS: Multisystem physiological dysregulation, or AL, was assessed according to 13 biomarkers of cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and metabolic function. An AL score was computed as the total number of biomarkers for which participant values fell into high-risk biomarker quartiles. Frailty status (not frail, intermediate frail, frail) was determined according to the total number of five indicators of frailty: weight loss, exhaustion, weak grip, slow gait, and low physical activity. The association between level of AL at baseline and frailty status 3 years later was examined using ordinal logistic regression in 803 participants not frail at baseline. RESULTS: In a multivariable model adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and behavioral characteristics, each 1-unit increase in AL at baseline was associated with a 10% greater likelihood of frailty at the 3-year follow-up (cumulative adjusted odds ratio=1.10, 95% confidence interval=1.03,1.19). CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation across multiple physiological systems is associated with greater risk of frailty. Greater levels of multisystem physiological dysregulation may serve as a warning sign of frailty development in later life. [source]


    ARSENIC IN THE SHALLOW GROUND WATERS OF CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES: ASSESSMENT, HEALTH RISKS, AND COSTS FOR MCL COMPLIANCE,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 2 2006
    Navin Kumar C. Twarakavi
    ABSTRACT: A methodology consisting of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) is used to predict the probability of occurrence of arsenic concentrations in different threshold limits in shallow ground waters of the conterminous United States (CONUS) subject to a set of influencing variables. The analysis considered a number of maximum contaminant level (MCL) options as threshold values to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of arsenic in ranges defined by a given MCL of 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ,g/l and a detection limit of 1 ,g/l. The fit between the observed and predicted probability of occurrence was around 83 percent for all MCL options. The estimated probabilities were used to estimate the median background concentration of arsenic in the CONUS. The shallow ground water of the western United States is more vulnerable than the eastern United States. Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California in particular are hotspots for arsenic contamination. The risk assessment showed that counties in southern California, Arizona, Florida, and Washington and a few others scattered throughout the CONUS face a high risk from arsenic exposure through untreated ground water consumption. A simple cost effectiveness analysis was performed to understand the household costs for MCL compliance in using arsenic contaminated ground water. The results showed that the current MCL of 10 ,g/l is a good compromise based on existing treatment technologies. [source]


    Third molar position following Bionator treatment

    ORTHODONTICS & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2000
    Calogero Dolce
    Third molar eruption is an unpredictable event. The position of the third molar continuously changes during development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Bionator treatment on third molar position against an untreated control group. A Bionator is a loose-fitting intra-oral appliance that postures the mandible forward, thereby producing skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. Data were obtained from direct measurements of existing longitudinal panoramic radiographs taken during the course of a randomized study investigating Class II malocclusion treatment options. The following variables were analyzed: mandibular third molar depth in relation to the cemento-enamel junction of the second molar; anterior,posterior (A,P) position in relation to the anterior border of the ramus; and angulation registered at the functional occlusal plane. Analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression were used to investigate relationships between the variables. Angulation of the third molars changed substantially with varying depths (p<0.0008) and A,P positions (p<0.0001), but did not appear to relate appreciably to dental age (p>0.5) or treatment condition (p>0.4). The A,P position was significantly correlated to dental age (p>0.004) and Bionator treatment (p<0.0001), whereas depth was marginally associated with dental age (p<0.07) and not influenced by Bionator treatment (p>0.5). Third molars adopt a position further anterior in relation to the ramus with Bionator treatment than they do in controls. As dental age increases, Bionator use appears to positively influence third molar position. [source]


    Assessment of postoperative nausea using a visual analogue scale

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2000
    J. G. Boogaerts
    Background: Assessment of postoperative nausea intensity is difficult because nausea is a subjective and unpleasant sensation. We propose using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) device to increase the efficiency and precision in the assessment of nausea. We carried out a pilot study on postoperative patients suffering from nausea to measure the degree of agreement between the VAS scores and those given on a 4-point verbal descriptive scale (VDS). Methods: Postoperative nausea was evaluated by means of a classical VAS (0,10 cm) device and a 4-point VDS (0=no nausea, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe) in 128 surgical spontaneously complaining patients. Evaluation was repeated 45 min after rescue medication given if nausea was intractable, lasted more than 10 min or at the request of the patient. Ordinal logistic regression was used to measure the association between VAS and VDS and to determine cut-off points on the VAS. Results: The VAS device was easily understood and used by patients. VAS scores decreased significantly from 5.5±2.3 to 1.4±1.8 after rescue medication (P=0.002). Application of ordinal logistic regression to pre- and post-medication data combined yielded an agreement of 86% between VAS and VDS and the cut-off points on the VAS were estimated as follows: 0,1 (no nausea), 1+,4 (mild), 4+,7 (moderate) and 7+,10 (severe). Conclusion: The VAS method proved to be useful for assessing quantitative nausea intensity and for testing the efficacy of rescue medication. It was found that a cut-off value of 4 on the VAS may be considered as a critical threshold triggering anaesthesiologists or nurses to administer rescue medication. [source]


    A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick parameters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d'Ivoire

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Siv Aina J. Leendertz
    Abstract We performed 796 dip-stick tests on urine from 100 wild West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from 4 habituated groups in the tropical rain forest of Taï National Park, Cote d'Ivoire, to establish reference values for health monitoring. Specific gravity was also measured on 359 urine samples from 62 chimpanzees. The effect of age, sex, group, month, estrus, pregnancy, meat consumption, and acute respiratory disease on pH, leucocytes, protein, blood, hemoglobin, and glucose was examined using ordinal logistic regression. The presence of nitrite, ketones, bilirubin, and urobilinogen in urine was also recorded. Outbreak of acute respiratory disease did not influence any of the urinary parameters. Thirty-seven percent of the samples had a pH <7 and the whole range of pH was found through the year, in all age groups, and in both sexes. Meat consumption lowered the urinary pH. Our results show that all pH levels must be considered normal for the West African chimpanzee subspecies P. troglodytes verus living in the rainforest. We also found a cluster of glucose-positive samples at a specific point in time which was not attributed to diabetes mellitus. These findings highlight that there are differences in normal physiological parameters among wild chimpanzees living in different habitats. Am. J. Primatol. 72:689,698, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    British isles lupus assessment group 2004 index is valid for assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 12 2007
    Chee-Seng Yee
    Objective To determine the construct and criterion validity of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 (BILAG-2004) index for assessing disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients with SLE were recruited into a multicenter cross-sectional study. Data on SLE disease activity (scores on the BILAG-2004 index, Classic BILAG index, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), investigations, and therapy were collected. Overall BILAG-2004 and overall Classic BILAG scores were determined by the highest score achieved in any of the individual systems in the respective index. Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESRs), C3 levels, C4 levels, anti,double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) levels, and SLEDAI-2K scores were used in the analysis of construct validity, and increase in therapy was used as the criterion for active disease in the analysis of criterion validity. Statistical analyses were performed using ordinal logistic regression for construct validity and logistic regression for criterion validity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Of the 369 patients with SLE, 92.7% were women, 59.9% were white, 18.4% were Afro-Caribbean and 18.4% were South Asian. Their mean ± SD age was 41.6 ± 13.2 years and mean disease duration was 8.8 ± 7.7 years. More than 1 assessment was obtained on 88.6% of the patients, and a total of 1,510 assessments were obtained. Increasing overall scores on the BILAG-2004 index were associated with increasing ESRs, decreasing C3 levels, decreasing C4 levels, elevated anti-dsDNA levels, and increasing SLEDAI-2K scores (all P < 0.01). Increase in therapy was observed more frequently in patients with overall BILAG-2004 scores reflecting higher disease activity. Scores indicating active disease (overall BILAG-2004 scores of A and B) were significantly associated with increase in therapy (odds ratio [OR] 19.3, P < 0.01). The BILAG-2004 and Classic BILAG indices had comparable sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. Conclusion These findings show that the BILAG-2004 index has construct and criterion validity. [source]


    Effects of new adhesive resin root canal filling materials on vertical root fractures

    AUSTRALIAN ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
    Takahiro Hanada dds
    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of roots following root canal therapy using the RC Sealer system, the Epiphany system and the conventional system of gutta-percha and Sealapex. Fifty-six maxillary central incisors were divided into eight groups of seven teeth each, according to master apical file size and obturation systems. Obturation materials in the root canal were vertically loaded using a universal testing machine. Fracture loads were analysed by anova and Tukey comparison, and fracture patterns were analysed with ordinal logistic regression. Master apical file size 80 had a significantly lower fracture load than size 40 (P < 0.05). The groups obturated using the Resilon Cone and the Epiphany Sealer had significantly lower fracture loads than the other groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant improvement in resistance to vertical root fractures using the examined adhesive resin root canal filling systems, compared with conventional gutta-percha and sealer. [source]