Open Cholecystectomy (open + cholecystectomy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Role of hepatectomy in the management of bile duct injuries

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 3 2001
C. H. Wakefield
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with bile duct injuries of a more severe nature than open cholecystectomy. This study examined the emerging role of hepatectomy in the management of major iatrogenic bile duct injuries in the laparoscopic era. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients referred to a tertiary hepatobiliary unit with bile duct injuries over a 16-year period until April 2000. Data are expressed as median (range). Results: Eighty-eight patients (34 men, 54 women) were referred during this interval; their median age was 55 (19,83) years. Injuries resulted from 50 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 35 open cholecystectomies, with three occurring during gastroduodenal procedures. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with injuries of greater severity than open cholecystectomy: Bismuth type I,II, 32 per cent versus 69 per cent for the open operation; type III,IV, 66 per cent versus 31 per cent for the open procedure (P = 0·02, ,2 test). After referral 73 patients underwent definitive surgical interventions: 57 hepaticojejunostomies, 11 revisions of hepaticojejunostomy, two orthotopic liver transplants and three right hepatectomies. Two patients had subsequent hepatectomy following initial hepaticojejunostomy. Four of the five hepatectomies were for the management of injuries perpetrated at laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Criteria necessitating hepatectomy were liver atrophy on computed tomography (80 versus 11 per cent; P = 0·0001, ,2 test) and a greater incidence of angiographically proven vascular injury (40 versus 6 per cent; P = 0·006, ,2 test); in addition, type III,IV injuries were more frequent (60 versus 42 per cent) in the hepatectomy group. There were no procedure-related deaths. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 13 per cent. Median hospital stay was 10 days. Conclusion: Major hepatectomy allows the successful and safe repair of cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries complicated by concomitant vascular injury, unilateral lobar atrophy and destruction of the biliary confluence. © 2001 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]


Extraskeletal osteosarcoma located to the gallbladder

HPB, Issue 1 2006
GÁBOR OLGYAI
Abstract Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue tumour. At open cholecystectomy performed for gallstones, a 61-year-old woman was found to have osseous tissue in the wall of the gallbladder. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a focus of extraskeletal osteosarcoma. The patient developed widespread intra-abdominal metastases 5 months after the operation, and died of pulmonary deposits at 9 months. Although osteosarcoma has rarely been reported at other extraskeletal sites, this appears to be the first case of a primary tumour in the gallbladder. [source]


Handling of biliary complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the setting of Tripoli Central Hospital

HPB, Issue 3 2002
A Elhamel
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has an increased incidence of bile duct injury and bile leak when compared with open cholecystectomy. This study reviews management of these complications in a general hospital setting. Data collected from patients diagnosed and treated in one surgical unit for biliary complications after LC between 1992 and 1996 were analysed. Method A total of 14 patients were examined. Diagnosis was defined mainly by Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and undetected choledocholitiasis was discovered in association with two of these complications. 43% of patients presented after LC with early postoperative bile leak or jaundice due to partial or complete bile duct excision or slippage of clips from the cystic duct. 57% presented with late biliary strictures. Thirteen patients were treated surgically, with biliary reconstruction (11 patients), direct repair (one) and cystic duct ligation in combination with clearance of bile duct from large multiple stones (one). One patient, who had clip displacement from cystic duct in combination with misplaced clip on right hepatic duct, was treated elsewhere. Postoperatively, one patient developed anastomotic leak and another died from sequellaie of bile duct transection requiring staged operations. Conclusions It is concluded that, in an environment similar to that where the authors had to work, LC should be performed in hospitals with facility to perform ERCP or when access for this technique is available in a nearby institution. Early recognition and immediate management of biliary injuries is dependent on individual resources and circumstances but, if required, consultation with colleagues or referral of patients with suspected or established biliary complications should not be delayed. [source]


Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Troublesome cases

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Gaku Kawabata
Among 143 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy carried out from 1993 to the present, 13 patients in whom the surgical manipulation presented problems were examined. Problems occurred due to the condition of the adrenal tumors themselves in six patients, whereas problems occurred due to the operative history in four patients. There were three patients with no operative history but with strong intraperitoneal adhesion. In patients with a history of laparotomy in other fields such as open cholecystectomy, gastrectomy or colostomy, operations were possible in most patients by examining the trocar site preoperatively. Patients with strong adhesion even without a history of surgery could be handled by full separation of the adhesion during surgery. In patients with bleeding in the adrenal tumors, large adrenal tumors, or tumors impacted in the liver, methods such as changing the sequence of separation procedures were required. In patients with a history of renal subcapsular hematomas due to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), it was not possible to understand the conditions of adrenal or perinephritic adhesion in preoperative imaging diagnosis, but resection was possible by changing the order of separation procedures and by using optimal instruments and devices. As with any surgery, including open surgeries, it is necessary to obtain knowledge on how to deal with variations in laparoscopic adrenalectomy to assure safe outcomes and to always consider effective methods for coping with unexpected difficulties. [source]


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gallbladder cancer

JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 8 2006
Ralf Steinert MD
Abstract Heightened awareness of the possible presence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and the knowledge of appropriate management are important for surgeons practising laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Long-term effects of initial LC versus open cholecystectomy (OC) on the prognosis of patients with GBC remain undefined. Patients who are suspected to have GBC should not undergo LC, since it is advantageous to perform the en-bloc radical surgery at the initial operation. Since preoperative diagnosis of early GBC is difficult, preventive measures, such as preventing bile spillage and bagging the gallbladder should be applied for every LC. Many port-site recurrences (PSR) have been reported after LC, but the incidence of wound recurrence is not higher than after OC. No radical procedure is required after postoperative diagnosis of incidental pT1a GBC. It is unclear if patients with pT1b GBC require extended cholecystectomy. In pT2 GBC, patients should have radical surgery (atypical or segmental liver resection and lymphadenectomy). In advanced GBC (pT3 and pT4), radical surgery can cure only a small subset of patients, if any. Additional port-site excision is recommended, but the effectiveness of such measure is debated. J. Surg. Oncol. 2006;93:682,689. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Systematic review: open, small-incision or laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 4 2009
F. KEUS
Summary Background, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the method of choice for gallbladder removal, although evidence of superiority over open and small-incision cholecystectomy is lacking. Aim, To compare the effects of open, small-incision and laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques for patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Methods, We conducted updated searches until January 2007 in multiple databases. We assessed bias risk. Results, Fifty-nine trials randomized 5556 patients. No significant differences in primary outcomes (mortality and complications) were found among all three techniques. Both minimal invasive techniques show advantages over open cholecystectomy in terms of convalescence. Small-incision cholecystectomy showed shorter operative time compared with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (random effects, weighted mean difference, 16.4 min; 95% confidence interval, 8.9,23.8), but the two techniques did not differ regarding hospital stay and conversions. Conclusions, No significant differences in mortality and complications were found among all three techniques. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and small-incision cholecystectomy are preferred over open cholecystectomy for quicker convalescence. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and small-incision cholecystectomy show no clear differences on patient outcomes. [source]


Cholelithiasis in infant and pediatric heart transplant patients

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2002
Andreas G. Sakopoulos
Abstract: There have been numerous studies which demonstrate a relatively high incidence of gallstones in adult solid-organ transplant recipients receiving cyclosporin A (CsA) immunosuppression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate our experience with cholelithiasis in babies and children undergoing heart transplant (HTx). From May 1985 to December 1998, 311 neonatal and pediatric cardiac transplants were performed at our institution. Routine abdominal ultrasound was performed at 3 months, 1 yr, and bi-annually thereafter on all transplant recipients. Asymptomatic or symptomatic gallstone development was detected during abdominal ultrasound in 10 of 311 patients (3.2%). Eight of these 10 patients (80%) were transplanted when younger than 3 months of age. Eight per cent of all infants transplanted at < 3 months of age developed cholelithiasis (p < 0.05 compared to older age at HTx). Fifty per cent of gallstones were detected and treated within 6 months post-HTx, while the remaining 50% of patients with gallstones underwent cholecystectomy 3,6 yr later. Only 20% (two of 10) had symptoms of cholelithiasis/cholecystitis. Five patients (50%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Only one patient older than 1 yr of age, who was symptomatic, underwent open cholecystectomy. There were no complications from surgery. There were no differences in liver function tests or cholesterol levels in transplant recipients with or without gallstones, and all mean values were within normal limits. Hence, although the incidence of pediatric post-transplant cholelithiasis in infant and pediatric heart transplant recipients is low, almost all occurrences are associated with HTx during early infancy and, because of this, patients in this group should be routinely screened. Laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy are extremely well tolerated and we recommend that surgery be performed when cholelithiasis is found in pediatric heart treatment patients. [source]


Surgical strategies in the laparoscopic therapy of cholecystolithiasis and common duct stones

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 8 2002
Kaja Ludwig
Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the current approach and different strategies adopted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Germany. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted at 859 (n = 1200; 67.6%) hospitals in Germany. Data from 123 090 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were analysed. Results: 71.9% of the operations were finished laparoscopically (n= 88 537) whereas 22.5% were carried out using the open technique. Conversion to open surgery was required in 7.1% of the laparoscopically started operations. When common bile duct stones were diagnosed preoperatively, 74.4% of the participants favoured the primary endoscopic extraction, following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In cases of intraoperative diagnoses, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was finished and postoperative primary endoscopic extraction was carried out in more than half of the hospitals (58.4%). Sixteen per cent converted to an open operation with simultaneous exploration of the common duct. Laparoscopic desobstruction of the common bile duct was extremely rare (4.4%). Compared with open cholecystectomy, the results show a lower incidence of postoperative reinterventions (0.9 vs 1.8%) and fatal outcomes (0.04 vs 0.53%) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In contrast, common bile duct injuries were more frequent in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group (0.32 vs 0.12%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6.1 days (range: 2.8,12) in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group compared with 10.4 days (range: 3,28) in the open cholecystectomy group. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard procedure for the treatment of uncomplicated gallstone disease. There are reasonable differences between the hospitals in type of cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, management of common duct stones and intraoperative diagnostics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, even after adjustment for differences in patient comorbidities. [source]


Role of hepatectomy in the management of bile duct injuries

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 3 2001
C. H. Wakefield
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with bile duct injuries of a more severe nature than open cholecystectomy. This study examined the emerging role of hepatectomy in the management of major iatrogenic bile duct injuries in the laparoscopic era. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients referred to a tertiary hepatobiliary unit with bile duct injuries over a 16-year period until April 2000. Data are expressed as median (range). Results: Eighty-eight patients (34 men, 54 women) were referred during this interval; their median age was 55 (19,83) years. Injuries resulted from 50 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 35 open cholecystectomies, with three occurring during gastroduodenal procedures. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with injuries of greater severity than open cholecystectomy: Bismuth type I,II, 32 per cent versus 69 per cent for the open operation; type III,IV, 66 per cent versus 31 per cent for the open procedure (P = 0·02, ,2 test). After referral 73 patients underwent definitive surgical interventions: 57 hepaticojejunostomies, 11 revisions of hepaticojejunostomy, two orthotopic liver transplants and three right hepatectomies. Two patients had subsequent hepatectomy following initial hepaticojejunostomy. Four of the five hepatectomies were for the management of injuries perpetrated at laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Criteria necessitating hepatectomy were liver atrophy on computed tomography (80 versus 11 per cent; P = 0·0001, ,2 test) and a greater incidence of angiographically proven vascular injury (40 versus 6 per cent; P = 0·006, ,2 test); in addition, type III,IV injuries were more frequent (60 versus 42 per cent) in the hepatectomy group. There were no procedure-related deaths. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 13 per cent. Median hospital stay was 10 days. Conclusion: Major hepatectomy allows the successful and safe repair of cholecystectomy-related bile duct injuries complicated by concomitant vascular injury, unilateral lobar atrophy and destruction of the biliary confluence. © 2001 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]