Open Access (open + access)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Research Dissemination, Open Access, and the Cost of Doing Business

Louanne Lawson

An Economic Justification for Open Access to Essential Medicine Patents in Developing Countries

Sean Flynn
This paper offers an economic rationale for compulsory licensing of needed medicines in developing countries. The patent system is based on a trade-off between the "deadweight losses" caused by market power and the incentive to innovate created by increased profits from monopoly pricing during the period of the patent. However, markets for essential medicines under patent in developing countries with high income inequality are characterized by highly convex demand curves, producing large deadweight losses relative to potential profits when monopoly firms exercise profit-maximizing pricing strategies. As a result, these markets are systematically ill-suited to exclusive marketing rights, a problem which can be corrected through compulsory licensing. Open licenses that permit any qualified firm to supply the market on the same terms, such as may be available under licenses of right or essential facility legal standards, can be used to mitigate the negative effects of government-granted patents, thereby increasing overall social welfare. [source]

Twitter, Facebook und Open Access ,

Peter Gölitz
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Ecological, environmental and socioeconomic aspects of the Lake Victoria's introduced Nile perch fishery in relation to the native fisheries and the species culture potential: lessons to learn

John S. Balirwa
Abstract Inland fishery ecosystems in Africa are characterized by patterns of overexploitation, environmental degradation and exotic species introductions. Ecological complexity and diversity of aquatic habitats dictate that fishes in general are not evenly distributed in a water body. However, fisheries management regimes tend to ignore this basic principle, assume generalized conditions in a water body, and focus more on ,desired' objectives such as maximizing catch. The result is to disregard fish habitat boundaries and anthropogenic influences from the catchment that influence fish production. Overexploitation and environmental degradation disrupt sustainable socioeconomic benefits from the fisheries, create uncertainty among investors, but leave some managers calling for more information with the expectation that the fisheries will recover with time. Open access to the fisheries and full control of fishing effort remain challenges for managers. Exotic species introductions and fish farming can increase production, but such interventions require firm commitment to sound ecological principles and strict enforcement of recommended conservation and co-management measures in capture fisheries. The general tendency to downplay fishing effort issues, other ecosystem values and functions or rely on temperate fisheries models until a new cycle of overexploitation emerges, characterizes many management patterns in inland fisheries. Aquaculture is not an option to challenges in capture fisheries management. Aquaculture should be developed to increase fish production but even this practice may have negative environmental impacts depending on practice and scale. Decades of information on Lake Victoria fisheries trends and aquaculture development did not stop the collapse of native fisheries. The successfully introduced Nile perch (Lates niloticus) has shown signs of overexploitation and aquaculture has again been considered as the option. By reviewing significant trends associated with Nile perch and its feasibility in aquaculture this paper uses Lake Victoria to illustrate ,special interest management' targeting selected species of fish rather than the fisheries. Résumé Les écosystèmes africains où se pratique la pêche intérieure se caractérisent par des schémas de surexploitation, de dégradation environnementale et d'introductions d'espèces exotiques. La complexité et la diversité des habitats aquatiques impliquent que les poissons ne sont, en général, pas distribués de façon uniforme dans une entité aquatique. Pourtant, les divers régimes de gestion des pêcheries tendent à ignorer ce principe élémentaire, présument de conditions uniformes dans une entité aquatique et visent plus les objectifs « souhaités », comme des prises maximales. Le résultat, c'est que l'on ne tient pas compte des limites de l'habitat des poissons et des impacts anthropiques du bassin versant qui influencent la production de poisson. La surexploitation et la dégradation de l'environnement compromettent les bénéfices socio-économiques durables de la pêche, engendrent l'incertitude parmi les investisseurs et font que certains gestionnaires sollicitent plus d'informations dans l'attente que la pêche se redresse avec le temps. L'accès libre à la pêche et le contrôle total des efforts de pêche restent de vrais défis pour les gestionnaires. Les introductions d'espèces exotiques et les fermes piscicoles peuvent augmenter la production, mais ces interventions exigent un engagement solide vis-à-vis des principes écologiques responsables et l'application stricte des mesures de conservation et de co-gestion recommandées pour la pêche. La tendance générale à minimiser les problèmes des efforts de pêche et les autres valeurs et fonctions de l'écosystème, ou à se baser sur des modèles de pêche tempérés jusqu'à ce qu'un nouveau cycle de surexploitation émerge, caractérise de nombreux schémas de gestion de pêche intérieure. L'aquaculture n'est pas une option pour les défis auxquels fait face la gestion de la pêche. L'aquaculture devrait être développée pour augmenter la production de poisson, mais même cette pratique peut avoir des impacts environnementaux négatifs dus à l'échelle et à la façon dont on la pratique. Des décennies d'informations sur les tendances de la pêche et le développement de l'aquaculture dans le lac Victoria n'ont pas empêché l'effondrement de la pêche originale. La perche du Nil (Lates niloticus), introduite avec succès montre des signes de surexploitation et l'aquaculture a de nouveau été envisagée. En passant en revue les tendances significatives liées à la perche du Nil et la faisabilité de son aquaculture, cet article se sert du lac Victoria pour illustrer la « gestion d'intérêt spécial » qui vise des espèces de poissons sélectionnées plutôt que la pêche. [source]

Developing co-management in an artisanal gill net fishery of a deep hydro-electric reservoir in Sri Lanka

Abstract Victoria, is a recently (1984) impounded, deep, hydro-electric reservoir in Sri Lanka with an established commercial fishery. Participatory appraisal of the fishing community revealed decreasing reliance on fishing income with many fishermen moving away to supplementary occupations because of declining fish catches. Illegal fishing and theft of fishing gear resulting from open access, difficulties encountered in enforcing fisheries regulations and the need for fishermen to find alternative sources of income during low water levels are the major management problems. The top,down centralized management approach previously practised was ineffective in addressing any of these issues. Therefore, the possibilities and limitations for introducing co-management as an alternative management strategy were discussed. Financial hardship coupled with perceived benefits through state sponsored welfare schemes caused a positive attitude change among fishermen, making them respond favourably to fishery management. Establishing a licensing system for controlled access, ensuring greater user-group participation through equitable distribution of state sponsored benefits among members, attempting to enforce penalties for illegal fishing linked with surprise checks to enforce management regulations, and obtaining stakeholder perceptions regarding management issues are some of the recent steps taken by the Fishermen's Co-operative Society which would positively contribute towards developing effective co-management in this reservoir. [source]

Open access harvesting of wildlife: the poaching pit and conservation of endangered species

Erwin H. Bulte
Abstract We extend the traditional G,S model of open access by defining a non-concave harvesting function. We demonstrate the possible existence of multiple equilibria and perverse comparative statics and show that small changes in the underlying economic parameters may trigger large jumps in species' abundance. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for management. [source]


ABSTRACT. We examine the relationship between growth, resource abundance and trade when the natural resource is renewable and open access and there is inter-industry learning by doing. We find growth is not sustainable in the closed economy and can be sustained in the open economy only so long as the labor forced engaged in resource extraction shrinks over time. Comparisons of steady state welfare in autarky and free trade reveal that for very high or low world prices of the resource-based good, it is possible for the economy to gain from trade. However if the price is intermediate, it may instead lose. [source]

A case for the community college's open access mission

Henry D. Shannon
America's community colleges have a unique mission to provide open access and affordable education to all who desire to learn. Unfortunately, this core mission is being threatened by myriad economic, social, and political challenges that community college leaders must confront and overcome. [source]

File-sharing, Filtering and the Spectre of the Automated Censor

The European Parliament's Bono report is an example of how politicians can speak up for the interests of citizens against those of multi-national corporations. The report concerned the economic status of the cultural industries in Europe, but it has become known for one amendment, protecting citizens' rights on the Internet. The issue at stake is open access to the Internet, versus alleged copyright infringement through online file sharing. As the UK sets out its own policy proposals for copyright and the Internet, the Bono amendment invites us to consider the wider agenda for copyright enforcement, content filtering and the potential for industrial censorship. [source]

The open-access high-throughput crystallization facility at EMBL Hamburg

Jochen Mueller-Dieckmann
Here, the establishment of Europe's largest high-throughput crystallization facility with open access to the general user community is reported. The facility covers every step in the crystallization process from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or customized screens to the setup of hanging-drop vapour-diffusion experiments and their automatic imaging. In its first year of operation, 43 internal and 40 external users submitted over 500 samples for a total of 2985 crystallization plates. An electronic booking system for registration, the selection of experimental parameters (e.g. drop size, sample-to-reservoir ratio) and the reservation of time slots was developed. External users can choose from more than 1000 initial crystallization conditions. By default, experiments are kept for six months and are imaged 15 times during this time period. A remote viewing system is available to inspect experiments via the internet. Over 100 stock solutions are available for users wishing to design customized screens. [source]

The tragedy of the commons: property rights and markets as solutions to resource and environmental problems

Gary D. Libecap
In one way or another, all environmental and natural resource problems associated with overexploitation or under provision of public goods, arise from incompletely defined and enforced property rights. As a result private decision makers do not consider or internalize social benefits and costs in their production or investment actions. The gap between private and social net returns results in externalities , harmful effects on third parties: overfishing, excessive air pollution, unwarranted extraction or diversion of ground or surface water, extreme depletion of oil and gas reservoirs. These situations are all examples of the ,The Tragedy of the Commons'. In this paper, I consider options for mitigating the losses of open access: common or group property regimes, government tax and regulation policy, more formal private property rights. I briefly summarize the problems and advantages of each option and describe why there has been move toward rights-based instruments in recent years: ITQ (individual transferable quotas), tradable emission permits, and private water rights. Introductions to the papers in the special issue follow. [source]

The support of mobile internet applications in UMTS networks through the open service access

Musa R. Unmehopa
Third-generation wireless networks are expected to enable the mobile Internet to become a reality, offering fast Internet access and high-speed data services to mobile subscribers. For network operators to allow for the rapid development of innovative value-added applications on the scale seen in the Internet today, the wireless core network needs to be opened up for third-party applications provided by independent software vendors (ISVs). The Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is currently working on the production of technical specifications to provide a mechanism that would permit ISVs a standard interface to access network capabilities traditionally available to network operators. Within 3GPP, this mechanism is commonly referred to as the open service access (OSA). This open service access is predominantly targeted at Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) networks, allowing application developers to access the feature-rich core network capabilities. This open access enables network operators to offer innovative services to their subscribers allowing the ability to differentiate themselves in a competitive market. With the imminent commercial deployment of the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), existing fixed-line Internet service providers (ISPs) can now offer mobile Internet to end users in a UMTS environment where the responsibility of the network operator is reduced to providing IP connectivity. The increased competition from ISPs poses a big threat to the revenue stream of the network operator. This paper explores the possibilities of OSA to facilitate network operators in providing the mutual support of network capabilities and Internet content. These possibilities would allow the network operator to become a value-added mobile Internet service provider (VAM-ISP). © 2002 Lucent Technologies Inc. [source]