Open

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Open

  • eye open
  • result open
  • wide open

  • Terms modified by Open

  • open access
  • open angle glaucoma
  • open angle glaucoma patient
  • open apex
  • open application test
  • open approach
  • open architecture
  • open area
  • open arm
  • open biopsy
  • open bite
  • open border
  • open canal
  • open canopy
  • open challenge
  • open channel
  • open channel flow
  • open cholecystectomy
  • open circuit
  • open circuit potential
  • open circuit voltage
  • open clinical trial
  • open cluster
  • open coast
  • open colectomy
  • open communication
  • open conformation
  • open conversion
  • open debridement
  • open dialogue
  • open discussion
  • open donor nephrectomy
  • open economy
  • open field
  • open field test
  • open flap debridement
  • open flower
  • open forest
  • open form
  • open fractures
  • open framework
  • open grassland
  • open group
  • open habitat
  • open heart surgery
  • open innovation
  • open interest
  • open issues
  • open label
  • open label study
  • open label trial
  • open landscapes
  • open letter
  • open literature
  • open loop
  • open lung biopsy
  • open market
  • open method
  • open mind
  • open model
  • open nissen fundoplication
  • open ocean
  • open operation
  • open part
  • open pollination
  • open population
  • open pore
  • open porosity
  • open probability
  • open problem
  • open procedure
  • open prostatectomy
  • open question
  • open radical prostatectomy
  • open reading frame
  • open reading frame encoding
  • open reduction
  • open repair
  • open resection
  • open sea
  • open set
  • open site
  • open source
  • open source software
  • open space
  • open state
  • open structure
  • open studies
  • open study
  • open surgery
  • open system
  • open technique
  • open techniques
  • open time
  • open top chamber
  • open treatment
  • open trial
  • open university
  • open water
  • open woodland
  • open wound

  • Selected Abstracts


    Atlas of Rhinoplasty: Open and Endonasal Approaches, 2nd Edition

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 9 2005
    Steven H. Dayan MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
    Sharon M. Hall
    ABSTRACT Aims Tobacco dependence treatments achieve abstinence rates of 25,30% at 1 year. Low rates may reflect failure to conceptualize tobacco dependence as a chronic disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers , 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed. Design Open randomized clinical trial. Setting A free-standing, smoking treatment research clinic. Participants A total of 402 smokers of , 10 cigarettes per day, all 50 years of age or older. Intervention Participants completed a 12-week treatment that included group counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion. Participants, independent of smoking status, were then assigned randomly to follow-up conditions: (i) standard treatment (ST; no further treatment); (ii) extended NRT (E-NRT; 40 weeks of nicotine gum availability); (iii) extended cognitive behavioral therapy (E-CBT; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions over a 40-week period); or (iv) E-CBT plus E-NRT (E-combined; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions plus 40 weeks nicotine gum availability). Measurements Primary outcome variable was 7-day point prevalence cigarette abstinence verified biochemically at weeks 24, 52, 64 and 104. Findings The most clinically important findings were significant main effects for treatment condition, time and the treatment time interaction. The E-CBT condition produced high cigarette abstinence rates that were maintained throughout the 2-year study period [(week 24 (58%), 52 (55%), 64 (55%) and 104 (55%)], and was significantly more effective than E-NRT and ST across that period. No other treatment condition was significantly different to ST. No effects for gender were found. Conclusions Extended cognitive behavioral treatments can produce high and stable cigarette abstinence rates for both men and women. NRT does not add to the efficacy of extended CBT, and may hamper its efficacy. Research is needed to determine if these results can be replicated in a sample with a greater range of ages, and improved upon with the addition of medications other than NRT. [source]


    Nicotine as an Antiepileptic Agent in ADNFLE: An N-of-One Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2003
    John O. Willoughby
    Summary:,Purpose: To test nicotine patch treatment for a patient with a defined mutation for autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) whose seizures were refractory to standard antiepileptic therapy. Methods: Open and double-blind trials of nicotine patches in an "n-of-one" study. The double-blind trial comprised periods during which either placebo or nicotine patches were each used for three periods of 2 weeks, randomized in a double-blind manner. Results: In an open study, nicotine patches reduced seizures from 1.65 2.36 to 0.01 0.0 seizures per day (p < 0.0001). In a double-blinded placebo-controlled phase, the average frequency of seizures on nicotine versus placebo was 0 0 versus 0.56 1.14 seizures per day (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Nicotine patches may be of benefit to some individuals with ADNFLE. [source]


    Mechanism of Selective and Unselective Enclathration by a Host Compound Possessing Open, Flexible Host Frameworks

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 13 2003
    Kazunori Nakano
    Abstract Molecular recognition of o -, m -, and p -xylenes (oX, mX, and pX) through enclathration of cholic acid (CA) is described. All of the xylenes give lattice inclusion crystals with CA, and crystallographic studies reveal that they are included in different open host frameworks. In particular, oX has two polymorphs, depending on the recrystallization temperatures. Competitive recrystallization from mixtures of xylenes resulted in selective enclathrations and the formation of racemic mixed crystals. In the presence of an equimolar amount of oX, CA selectively includes mX or pX in the host frameworks, which are identical to those obtained from the pure mX or pX, respectively. The low affinity of oX is explained in terms of a lower stability of CAoX than of the other two complexes, as judged from the low PCcavity, the volume ratio of the guest compound to the host cavity. Meanwhile, mixtures of mX and pX yield inclusion crystals that accommodate both of the guests. These have the same open host framework as obtained from pure mX, and the guest components are disordered statically in the host cavity. The ratios of the xylene mixtures in the single crystals are similar to those in the original recrystallization mixtures, and also in the bulk crystals, indicating that CA forms mixed crystals of mX and pX. This non-selectivity is attributed to the similar stabilities of CAmX and CApX, according to the moderate PCcavity. The inclusion behavior of CA from mixtures of xylenes is quite similar to chiral recognition by diastereomer-salt methods. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


    More Open but Not More Trusted?

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2010
    The Effect of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 on the United Kingdom Central Government
    This article examines the impact of Britain's Freedom of Information (FOI) Act 2000 on British central government. The article identifies six objectives for FOI in the United Kingdom and then examines to what extent FOI has met them, briefly comparing the United Kingdom with similar legislation in Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada. It concludes that FOI has achieved the core objectives of increasing transparency and accountability, though the latter only in particular circumstances, but not the four secondary objectives: improved decision-making by government, improved public understanding, increased participation, and trust in government. This is not because the Act has "failed" but because the objectives were overly ambitious and FOI is shaped by the political environment in which it is placed. [source]


    Characterization of a Multilayer Aquifer Using Open Well Dilution Tests

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2007
    L. Jared West
    An approach to characterization of multilayer aquifer systems using open well borehole dilution is described. The approach involves measuring observation well flow velocities while a nearby extraction well is pumped by introducing a saline tracer into observation wells and collecting dilution vs. depth profiles. Inspection of tracer profile evolution allows discrete permeable layers within the aquifer to be identified. Dilution profiles for well sections between permeable layers are then converted into vertical borehole flow velocities and their evolution, using an analytic solution to the advection-dispersion equation applied to borehole flow. The dilution approach is potentially able to measure much smaller flow velocities that would be detectable using flowmeters. Vertical flow velocity data from the observation wells are then matched to those generated using a hydraulic model of the aquifer system, "shorted" by the observation wells, to yield the hydraulic properties of the constituent layers. Observation well flow monitoring of pumping tests represents a cost-effective alternative or preliminary approach to pump testing each layer of a multilayer aquifer system separately using straddle packers or screened wells and requires no prior knowledge of permeable layer depths and thicknesses. The modification described here, of using tracer dilution rather than flowmeter logging to obtain well flow velocities, allows the approach to be extended to greater well separations, thus characterizing a larger volume of the aquifer. An example of the application of this approach to a multilayer Chalk Aquifer in Yorkshire, Northeast England, is presented. [source]


    Open versus laparoscopic resection for liver tumours

    HPB, Issue 6 2009
    Thomas Van Gulik
    Abstract Background:, The issue under debate is whether laparoscopic liver resections for malignant tumours produce outcomes which are comparable with conventional, open liver resections. Methods:, Literature review on liver resection and laparoscopy. Results:, There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published that provide any evidence for the benefits of laparoscopic liver resections for liver tumours. In case,control series reporting short-term outcomes, laparoscopic liver resection has been shown to have the advantage of a reduced length of hospital stay. There are as yet, however, no adequate long-term survival studies demonstrating that laparoscopic liver resection is oncologically equivalent to open resection. Discussion:, The challenge for the near future is to test the oncological integrity of laparoscopic liver resection in controlled trials in the same way that we have learned from the RCTs carried out in laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer. It is likely that laparoscopic liver resection will then have to compete with fast-track, open liver resection. Already, concerns have been raised regarding the learning curve required to master the techniques of laparoscopic liver resection. [source]


    LOVD: Easy creation of a locus-specific sequence variation database using an "LSDB-in-a-box" approach,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 2 2005
    Ivo F.A.C. Fokkema
    Abstract The completion of the human genome project has initiated, as well as provided the basis for, the collection and study of all sequence variation between individuals. Direct access to up-to-date information on sequence variation is currently provided most efficiently through web-based, gene-centered, locus-specific databases (LSDBs). We have developed the Leiden Open (source) Variation Database (LOVD) software approaching the "LSDB-in-a-Box" idea for the easy creation and maintenance of a fully web-based gene sequence variation database. LOVD is platform-independent and uses PHP and MySQL open source software only. The basic gene-centered and modular design of the database follows the recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) and focuses on the collection and display of DNA sequence variations. With minimal effort, the LOVD platform is extendable with clinical data. The open set-up should both facilitate and promote functional extension with scripts written by the community. The LOVD software is freely available from the Leiden Muscular Dystrophy pages (www.DMD.nl/LOVD/). To promote the use of LOVD, we currently offer curators the possibility to set up an LSDB on our Leiden server. Hum Mutat 26(2), 1,6, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Dramatic Influence of the Electronic Structure on the Conductivity through Open- and Closed-Shell Molecules

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 10-11 2009
    Nria Crivillers
    The conductivity through two self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold based on the closed-and open-shell form of a polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) derivative were investigated using 3D-mode conductive scanning force microscopy, and striking differences were observed, caused by their highly distinct electronic structure. [source]


    Porous Tin Oxides Prepared Using an Anodic Oxidation Process,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 3 2004
    H.-C. Shin
    Open, porous structures of tin oxides, fabricated by an anodic oxidation process, are characterized by irregular channels with diameters of several tens of nanometers, as shown in the Figure. The as-prepared amorphous tin oxides can be transformed by annealing to a crystalline stannic structure with very few micro-structural changes. The materials may find applications in batteries and chemical sensors. [source]


    Nursing Home Practitioner Survey of Diagnostic Criteria for Urinary Tract Infections

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2005
    Manisha Juthani-Mehta MD
    Objectives: To identify clinical and laboratory criteria used by nursing home practitioners for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in nursing home residents. To determine practitioner knowledge of the most commonly used consensus criteria (i.e., McGeer criteria) for UTIs. Design: Self-administered survey. Setting: Three New Haven,area nursing homes. Participants: Physicians (n=25), physician assistants (PAs, n=3), directors/assistant directors of nursing (n=8), charge nurses (n=37), and infection control practitioners (n=3). Measurements: Open- and closed-ended questions. Results: Nineteen physicians, three PAs, and 41 nurses completed 63 of 76 (83%) surveys. The five most commonly reported triggers for suspecting UTI in noncatheterized residents were change in mental status (57/63, 90%), fever (48/63, 76%), change in voiding pattern (44/63, 70%), dysuria (41/63, 65%), and change in character of urine (37/63, 59%). Asked to identify their first diagnostic step in the evaluation of UTIs, 48% (30/63) said urinary dipstick analysis, and 40% (25/63) said urinalysis and urine culture. Fourteen of 22 (64%) physicians and PAs versus 40 of 40 (100%) nurses were aware of the McGeer criteria for noncatheterized patients (P<.001); 12 of 22 (55%) physicians and PAs versus 38 of 39 (97%) nurses used them in clinical practice (P<.001). Conclusion: Although surveillance and treatment consensus criteria have been developed, there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria. This survey demonstrated a distinction between surveillance criteria and criteria practitioners used in clinical practice. Prospective data are needed to develop evidence-based clinical and laboratory criteria of UTIs in nursing home residents that can be used to identify prospectively tested treatment and prevention strategies. [source]


    Vital signs for vital people: an exploratory study into the role of the Healthcare Assistant in recognising, recording and responding to the acutely ill patient in the general ward setting

    JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 5 2010
    JAYNE JAMES RN., Ortho.
    james j., butler-williams c., hunt j. & cox h. (2010) Journal of Nursing Management18, 548,555 Vital signs for vital people: an exploratory study into the role of the Healthcare Assistant in recognising, recording and responding to the acutely ill patient in the general ward setting Aim, To examine the contribution of the Healthcare Assistant (HCA) as the recogniser, responder and recorder of acutely ill patients within the general ward setting. Background, Concerns have been highlighted regarding the recognition and management of the acutely ill patient within the general ward setting. The contribution of the HCA role to this process has been given limited attention. Methods, A postal survey of HCAs was piloted and conducted within two district general hospitals. Open and closed questions were used. Results, Results suggest that on a regular basis HCAs are caring for acutely ill patients. Contextual issues and inaccuracies in some aspects of patient assessment were highlighted. It would appear normal communication channels and hierarchies were bypassed when patients' safety was of concern. Educational needs were identified including scenario-based learning and the importance of ensuring mandatory training is current. Conclusions and implications for nursing management, HCAs play a significant role in the detection and monitoring of acutely ill patients. Acknowledgement is needed of the contextual factors in the general ward setting which may influence the quality of this process. The educational needs identified by this study can assist managers to improve clinical supervision and educational input in order to improve the quality of care for acutely ill patients. [source]


    Understanding and Responding to Patients' Requests for Assistance in Dying

    JOURNAL OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP, Issue 4 2003
    Judith Kennedy Schwarz
    Purpose: To explore how nurses experience and respond to patients' requests for assistance in dying (AID). Design and Methods: A phenomenological study of 10 self-selected nurses. Findings: Four major themes: Being Open to Hear and Hearing; Interpreting and Responding to the Meaning; Responding to Persistent Requests for AID, and Reflections. When faced with persistent requests for AID, participants provided a continuum of interventions: refusal, providing palliative care that might secondarily hasten dying, respecting and not interfering with patients' or families' plans to hasten dying, and providing varying types and degrees of direct AID. Their responses were context-driven rather than rule-mandated, and they drew a distinction between secondarily hastening and directly causing death. Conclusions: Few nurses in this study unequivocally agreed or refused to directly help a patient die. Most struggled alone and in silence to find a morally and legally acceptable way to help patients who persisted in requesting AID. Regardless of how they responded, many described feelings of conflict, guilt, and moral distress. [source]


    Treatment planning for replacing missing teeth in UK general dental practice: current trends

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 7 2010
    P. M. PATEL
    Summary, The aim of this study was to examine the confidence, barriers and attitudes towards the replacement of missing teeth by general dental practitioners (GDPs). The perceived impact of the recently introduced National Health Service (NHS) contract on the provision of prosthodontic treatments was also considered. Pre-piloted postal questionnaires were mailed to 500 GDPs in Wales. Open- and closed-ended questions were utilised to establish confidence, adequacy of training and attitudes towards treatments for replacing missing teeth. Two hundred and seventeen completed questionnaires were received (response rate = 434%). Many respondents described themselves as ,confident' or ,very confident' in the provision of removable partial dentures (RPDs) (acrylic = 100%, metal based = 995%), cantilever resin-bonded bridges (944%) and conventional bridgework (986%). GDPs were ,not confident' providing fixed-fixed resin-bonded bridges (211%) or implants (814%). Financial barriers were identified to the provision of prosthodontic treatments, including comments such as "the new [National Health Service] contract does limit the treatments available". Privately funded patients were more likely to be offered a fixed bridge or implant replacement of a missing upper first molar, whereas non-privately funded patients were more likely to be offered no treatment (P < 001). Most respondents reported confidence at providing more routine forms of prosthodontic care such as RPDs and bridges. It appears that funding arrangements may have an impact on treatments offered to replace missing teeth, particularly under the current NHS contract. [source]


    AWHONN Customer Service Center Now Open

    NURSING FOR WOMENS HEALTH, Issue 5 2003
    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Open comedones overlying granuloma annulare in a photoexposed area

    PHOTODERMATOLOGY, PHOTOIMMUNOLOGY & PHOTOMEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Emilio Sudy
    A 57-year-old, fair-skinned female patient with lesions of granuloma annulare located on her forearms , with signs of actinic damage , is described. No response was observed after successive treatments with topical corticosteroids and oral pentoxifylline. Four years later, the patient developed open comedones on the rim of granuloma annulare lesions. The loss of elastic fibers seen in both granuloma annulare and solar elastosis is presumed to have induced the appearance of open comedones, because of a loss of supporting properties of the dermis inducing a distension of the infundibular canal of the sebaceous follicle, as seen in the Favre,Racouchot disease and actinic comedonal plaque. Concomitantly, the patient developed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Treatment with insulin resulted in the disappearance of open comedones and notably regression of lesions of granuloma annulare. Response to insulin therapy in our case supports the hypothesis that insulinopenia could participate in the development of granuloma annulare in some cases. [source]


    Effect of die temperature on the morphology of microcellular foams

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 6 2003
    Xiangmin Han
    A study on the extrusion of microcellular polystyrene foams at different foaming temperatures was carried out using CO2 as the foaming agent. The contraction flow in the extrusion die was simulated with FLUENT computational fluid dynamics code at two temperatures (150C and 175C) to predict pressure and temperature profiles in the die. The location of nucleation onset was determined based on the pressure profile and equilibrium solubility. The relative importance of pressure and temperature in determining the nucleation rate was compared using calculations based on classical homogeneous nucleation theory. Experimentally, the effects of die temperature (i.e., the foaming temperature) on the pressure profile in the die, cell size, cell density, and cell morphology were investigated at different screw rotation speeds (10 , 30 rpm). Experimental results were compared with simulations to gain insight into the foaming process. Although the foaming temperature was found to be less significant than the pressure drop or the pressure drop rate in deciding the cell size and cell density, it affects the cell morphology dramatically. Open and closed cell structures can be generated by changing the foaming temperature. Microcellular foams of PS (with cell sizes smaller than 10 ,m and cell densities greater than 10 cells/cm3) are created experimentally when the die temperature is 160C, the pressure drop through the die is greater than 16 MPa, and the pressure drop rate is higher than 109 Pa/sec. [source]


    Eyes Wide Open: Looking for God in Popular Culture

    THE JOURNAL OF POPULAR CULTURE, Issue 3 2009
    Theodore A. Turnau
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Pain Treatment and Recovery After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2007
    Tatu P Kemppainen MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Early recovery and pain management after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are largely unexplored regardless of the large number of ESSs performed by otorhinolaryngologists. In the present study, we evaluated whether scheduled administration of acetaminophen (paracetamol) for pain management after ESS would allow faster recovery to normal daily activities compared with acetaminophen administered on an as needed basis. Study Design: Open, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial with two parallel groups. Methods: There were 78 patients who were undergoing ESS and were randomized into two groups. The "scheduled" group (n = 38) was instructed to take two acetaminophen 665 mg modified-release tablets three times a day during the first five postoperative days, whereas the "as needed" group (n = 40) was given instructions to use acetaminophen 665 mg tablets only on an as needed basis. Patients filled in a questionnaire at the follow-up visits on the 7th and 30th postoperative days. The main outcome measures were return to normal daily activities (primary endpoint) and pain during the first week after surgery and patients' satisfaction with pain management (secondary endpoints). Results: Patients returned to their normal daily activities in 8.8 (SD 4.8) days in the "scheduled" group versus in 10.3 (SD 7.0) days in the "as needed" group (mean difference 1.5; 95% CI of the difference ,1.3 to 4.2; P = .29). In the "scheduled" group, the mean of worst pain was 3.4 (2.9) compared with 5.2 (3.0) in the "as needed" group on an 11-point scale (mean difference 1.7; 95% CI of the difference 0.4,5.2; P = .019). The patients in both groups were equally satisfied with pain management. Conclusions: The present study suggests that patients recover in 9 to 10 days after ESS when provided with appropriate pain management. Our data indicate that by prescribing scheduled acetaminophen, postoperative pain after ESS can be controlled effectively without the need for opioid analgesics. [source]


    Laparoscopic (vs. Open) Live Donor Nephrectomy: A UNOS Database Analysis of Early Graft Function and Survival

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 10 2003
    Christoph Troppmann
    The impact of laparoscopic (lap) live donor nephrectomy on early graft function and survival remains controversial. We compared 2734 kidney transplants (tx) from lap donors and 2576 tx from open donors reported to the U.S. United Network for Organ Sharing from 11/1999 to 12/2000. Early function quality (>40 mL urine and/or serum creatinine [creat] decline >25% during the first 24 h post-tx) and delayed function incidence were similar for both groups. Significantly more lap (vs. open) txs, however, had discharge creats greater than 1.4 mg/dL (49.2% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.002) and 2.0 mg/dL (21.8% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.04). But all later creats, early and late rejection, as well as graft survival at 1 year (94.4%, lap tx vs. 94.1%, open tx) were similar for lap and open recipients. Our data suggests that lap nephrectomy is associated with slower early graft function. Rejection rates and short-term graft survival, however, were similar for lap and open graft recipients. Further prospective studies with longer follow up are necessary to assess the potential impact of the laparoscopic procurement mode on early graft function and long-term outcome. [source]


    An Open and Flexible Tradition

    ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Issue 5 2007
    Josep Maria Montaner
    Abstract There is a rich tradition of Rationalist architecture in Spain, dating back to the years immediately after the Spanish Civil War and then the period of postwar recovery in the 1950s. Josep Maria Montaner explains how this has developed across time into a contemporary interpretation of Rationalism that is versatile and inclusive, often combining Functionalist ideas with a stripped-back repertoire of materials and elements. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Revisiting the concept of lineage in prokaryotes: a phylogenetic perspective

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 5 2009
    Yan Boucher
    Abstract Mutation and lateral transfer are two categories of processes generating genetic diversity in prokaryotic genomes. Their relative importance varies between lineages, yet both are complementary rather than independent, separable evolutionary forces. The replication process inevitably merges together their effects on the genome. We develop the concept of "open lineages" to characterize evolutionary lineages that over time accumulate more changes in their genomes by lateral transfer than by mutation. They contrast with "closed lineages," in which most of the changes are caused by mutation. Open and closed lineages are interspersed along the branches of any tree of prokaryotes. This patchy distribution conflicts with the basic assumptions of traditional phylogenetic approaches. As a result, a tree representation including both open and closed lineages is a misrepresentation. The evolution of all prokaryotic lineages cannot be studied under a single model unless new phylogenetic approaches that are more pluralistic about lineage evolution are designed. [source]


    Treatment of massive hypertriglyceridemia resistant to PUFA and fibrates: A possible role for the coenzyme Q10?

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1 2005
    A.F.G. Cicero
    Abstract Objective: to describe the effect of CoQ10 (added to either a fibrate, or PUFA or association of both) in patients affected by massive hypertriglyceridemia (MHTG) resistant to fibrates and PUFA. Design: Open, sequential, comparative intervention study. Setting: Specialised centres for dyslipidemia management. Subjects: 15 subjects (mean age: 45.1 12.5 years) affected by MHTG and hyporesponsive to either fibrates, or PUFA, or fibrates-PUFA association, and 15 age-matched subjects regularly responders to PUFA and fenofibrate treatment. Interventions: Treatment for periods of 6 weeks each with the following consecutive treatments: CoQ10 150 mg/day, PUFA 3000 mg/day, fenofibrate 200 mg/day, PUFA 3000 mg/day + fenofibrate 200 mg/day, PUFA 3000 mg/day + CoQ10 150 mg/day, fenofibrate 200 mg/day + CoQ10 150 mg/day, and finally, fenofibrate 200 mg/day + PUFA 3000 mg/day + CoQ10 150 mg/day. Results: CoQ10 supplementation improved, in the control group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine and Lp(a) plasma levels, both during fenofibrate and/or PUFA treatment. In MHTG group, CoQ10 supplementation significantly improved TG, TC, Lp(a), uric acid and blood pressure during fenofibrate treatment, but only Lp(a) and blood pressure during PUFA treatment. Fenofibrate appeared to have better effect on hsCRP and ,-GT plasma levels than PUFA. No significant change was observed in any group and under any treatment in regards to homocysteinemia, PAI-1, or t-PA. Conclusion: Even though the mechanism of action through which the effects were obtained is yet to be elucidated, adding CoQ10 to fenofibrate could improve the drug's efficacy in MHTG patients not responding to fenofibrate alone. [source]


    Open and distance learning in the developing world , By Hilary Perraton

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Article first published online: 21 APR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    One-year survey of carcinoma of the oesophagus and stomach in Wales

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 2 2001
    J. K. Pye
    Background: The aim of the study was to identify all patients who presented with oesophagogastric malignancy within a single National Health Service region (Wales) over 1 year, and to follow the cohort for 5 years. Management and outcome were analysed to identify current practice and draft guidelines for Wales. Methods: Patients were identified from hospital records. Details were recorded in structured format for analysis. Results: Analysable data were obtained for 910 of 916 patients. The overall incidence was 314 per 100 000 population. Treatment was by resection 298 (33 per cent), palliation 397 (44 per cent) or no treatment 215 (24 per cent). The 30-day mortality rate was 12 per cent and the in-hospital mortality rate was 13 per cent. Some 226 patients (25 per cent) were alive at 2 years. Resection conferred a significant survival advantage over palliation (P < 0001) and no treatment. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 16 patients (5 per cent), of whom eight died in hospital. ,Open and close' operations were common (23 per cent), laparoscopy was infrequent (16 per cent), and many surgeons undertook small caseloads. Operating on fewer than six patients per year increased the mortality rate after partial gastrectomy (P < 005) and was associated with a trend to a higher mortality rate after mediastinal and cardia surgery. Operating on more than 70 per cent of patients seen resulted in a significantly higher mortality rate (P < 001) irrespective of case volume. Conclusion: Tumour resection conferred a survival advantage. Wider use of laparoscopy is advocated. Improved selection for surgery should result in a lower mortality rate. 2001 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]


    Chemoselective Capture of Glycans for Analysis on Gold Nanoparticles: Carbohydrate Oxime Tautomers Provide Functional Recognition by Proteins

    CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 7 2009
    Mikkel
    Abstract Open or closed: N -Glycosyl oxyamine versus open-chain glycosyl oxime is the key to protein recognition on glyconanoparticles. Unprotected glycans are captured by oxime formation with a novel bifunctional reagent and the resulting glycan-linker conjugates are anchored to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These glyconanoparticles maintain the structural integrity of glycans in the study of protein,carbohydrate interactions (see figure). Nanoparticles functionalized with glycans are emerging as powerful solid-phase chemical tools for the study of protein,carbohydrate interactions using nanoscale properties for detection of binding events. Methods or reagents that enable the assembly of glyconanoparticles from unprotected glycans in two consecutive chemoselective steps with meaningful display of the glycan are highly desirable. Here, we describe a novel bifunctional reagent that 1),couples to glycans by oxime formation in solution, 2),aids in purification through a lipophilic trityl tag, and 3),after deprotection then couples to gold nanoparticles through a thiol. NMR studies revealed that these oximes exist as both the open-chain and N -glycosyl oxy-amine tautomers. Glycan-linker conjugates were coupled through displacement of ligands from preformed, citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles. Recognition of these glycans by proteins was studied with a lectin, concanavalin A (ConA), in an aggregation assay and with a processing enzyme and glucoamylase (GA). We demonstrate that the presence of the N -glycosyl oxy-amines clearly enables functional recognition in sharp contrast to the corresponding reduced oxy-amines. This concept is then realized in a novel reagent, which should facilitate nanoglycobiology by enabling the operationally simple capture of glycans and their biologically meaningful display. [source]


    Open or laparoscopic appendicectomy?

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 2 2010
    A response
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Open or laparoscopic appendicectomy?

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 8 2009
    Lars Nannestad Jrgensen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Window of Opportunity Opens: Asian and American Views of the International Economic Architecture

    ASIAN ECONOMIC POLICY REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    Wendy DOBSON
    F02; F13; F33; F55; F59 This paper compares US and Asian views of the international economic architecture including Asia's evolving regional institutions. Lessons from the global financial crisis are used to assess reforms of the financial institutions better to prevent and manage future crises. While G-20 leaders have increased the resources of the International Monetary Fund, much work remains to restore its legitimacy and independence and to define clearly the Financial Stability Board's mandate to strengthen financial oversight and regulation. The paper critiques proposals for a global super-regulator and concludes that while the global architecture is important, the tests of its success will be fewer government actions to self-insure and the willingness to heed warnings of future problems and take timely corrective actions. [source]


    Histological evaluation of MTA as a root-end filling material

    INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 10 2007
    P. F. E. Bernab
    Abstract Aim, To assess the histological response associated with grey mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) as root-end filling materials in teeth where the root canals were not filled and the coronal access cavities were not restored. Methodology, Periapical lesions were developed in 24 premolar teeth in three dogs. The root canals were prepared and half of them were dried, filled and the coronal access restored (closed). The remaining teeth were not root filled and no coronal restoration was placed (open). Apical root-end resections were performed 3 mm from the apex, and root-end cavities were prepared with ultrasonic tips. These were randomly filled with either ZOE or GMTA in the same number of specimens using MAPSYSTEM device. After 180 days the animals were killed and blocks of tissues removed and processed for histological examination. Periradicular tissue reaction was evaluated, including severity of inflammation and cementum formation. Statistical analysis was performed using anova analysis and Tukey's test. Results, A significant difference was found between the levels of inflammation in the periradicular tissues of the GMTA/closed group, compared with the ZOE/open and ZOE/closed groups (P < 0.05) but not between GMTA/closed and GMTA/open groups. Cementum formation was not found over any ZOE specimens but over MTA in all specimens. No microorganisms were found in the interface between the material and the dentinal walls. Conclusions, GMTA was associated with less periapical inflammation and tissue response when used as a root-end filling material, even when no root filling or coronal restoration was present. [source]