Opaque Fluids (opaque + fluid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hydrodynamic Cavitation to Improve Bulk Fluid to Surface Mass Transfer in a Nonimmersed Ultraviolet System for Minimal Processing of Opaque and Transparent Fluid Foods

P.J. Milly
ABSTRACT:, Ultraviolet (UV)-induced chemical reactions and inactivation of microorganisms in transparent and opaque fluids are strongly dependent upon the homogenous exposure of the target species to the UV irradiation. Current UV technologies used in water disinfection and food preservation applications have limited efficacy due to suspended particles shading target species. An Ultraviolet-Shockwave PowerÔ Reactor (UV-SPR) consisting of an inner rotating rotor and a stationary quartz housing and 2 end plates was used to induce ,controlled cavitation.' Eight UV low-pressure mercury lamps spaced uniformly were installed lengthwise around the quartz housing periphery. A KI to I3,chemical dosimeter for UV was used to quantify photons received by fluid in the annular space of the SPR. UV dose (J/m2) increased from 97 J/m2 at 0 rpm to over 700 J/m2 for SPR speeds above 2400 rpm. Inactivation of E. coli 25922 in apple juice and skim milk in the UV-SPR at exit temperatures below 45 °C was greater than 4.5 and 3 logs, respectively. The UV-SPR system proved successful in increasing the mass transfer of transparent and opaque fluid to the UV irradiated surface. [source]

Techniques for visualization of cavern boundaries in opaque industrial mixing systems

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2009
M. J. H. Simmons
Abstract In the agitation of complex fluids, the avoidance of caverns is essential for successful blending. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and positron emission projection imaging, which can both image within opaque fluids, have been assessed for visualization of cavern boundaries. A vessel of diameter, T = 154 mm, equipped with a single 57 mm diameter six bladed 45° down pumping pitched blade disc turbine formed the test system. The fluid used was aqueous solution of carbopol 940. Both techniques were used to detect and image caverns at Re from 20,86.6 and compared with optical images. Reasonable agreement on the maximum cavern heights and widths were obtained, with the taller and narrower caverns obtained via 3D ERT measurements being attributed to artifacts of the method and interactions between the polymer and tracer. Caverns were also detectable using a robust linear ERT array, which has potential for use within industrial systems. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Measuring velocity distributions of viscous fluids using positron emission particle tracking (PEPT)

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2004
S. Bakalis
Abstract Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) can be used to trace the path of a radioactive particle within opaque fluids in pilot-scale equipment; the method can track particles through several centimeters of metal. PEPT has been successfully used to follow isokinetic tracers in viscous fluids and thus to measure velocity distributions under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions in pipe flow. The accuracy of the method decreased as the measured velocities increased; the faster the particle traveled, the less accurate its detection. For velocities of up to 0.5 m/s the accuracy of the method was acceptable. Agreement between experimentally measured and theoretical velocity distributions was very good, for a range of fluids and process conditions. As tracer particles are used, there were problems ensuring that all parts of the measurement volume were sampled. This is possible to overcome to an extent by adjusting particle size; 600-,m tracers did not pass within 1 mm from the tube wall, whereas 240-,m particles passed much closer to the boundaries of the flow. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 50: 1606,1613, 2004 [source]