Opacity

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Opacity

  • corneal opacity
  • ground-glass opacity
  • otolith opacity


  • Selected Abstracts


    Social Opacity and the Dynamics of Empathic In-Sight among the Tzotzil Maya of Chiapas, Mexico

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2008
    Kevin P. Groark
    I argue that a pervasive sense of social opacity,a presumed inability to accurately know the motivations, potencies, and identities of social others,gives rise to a moral-interpretive dilemma centering on the degree of concordance between the publicly presented self and the subjective or "private" self. I introduce the phrase "empathic in-sight" to refer to those processes,both real and fantasy based,intended to produce an understanding of the inner states of others (in terms of underlying emotions, feelings, motivations, thoughts, and desires), thereby restoring a degree of transparency to everyday social interactions. The phrase is meant to suggest a dynamic and active process of "seeing within," through which one attempts to gain access to, and understanding of, otherwise occluded conative and cognitive states,particularly those dimensions of the self that are actively hidden from view. [Chiapas, Tzotzil Maya, empathy, emotion, ethnopsychology] [source]


    Opacity and Lucency Sign of the Seventh Lumbar Vertebra in Dogs

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 5 2010
    S. Kneissl
    With 2 figures Summary A curvilinear opacity of the seventh vertebral arch and an adjacent focal lucency of the seventh lumbar vertebral body were incidentally noted in routine radiographs. The aim of this study was to analyze this radiographic absorption pattern using a sample of 51 dogs. Images of the bony surface of three macerated lumbosacral junctions were compared to their laterolateral radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans. Additional 48 lateral radiographic projections were reviewed for presence or absence of L7 opacity and lucency, length of the L6 and L7 vertebral bodies, vertebral disc disease, osteochondrosis, or spondylosis. Retrieved data were compiled and statistically analyzed. Radiographs and CT scans of the macerated bones revealed that the L7 pedicle had thickened layers of compact bone and the adjacent vertebral notch varying depth and extension. Superimposition of the pedicle on the vertebral body resulted in a curvilinear opacity (L7 opacity), the vertebral notch caused the focal lucency (L7 lucency). These findings were present in 69% of the reviewed radiographs and were found to be significantly associated with L6,L7 length ratios of less than 0.86 (P = 0.003). It is hypothesized that the changes correspond with normal anatomic morphology of the seventh lumbar vertebra plus adaptive bone remodelling. The importance of this study is that it could help avoid misinterpretation of this appearance as a pathologic condition. [source]


    Fulminant bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia following 2 d of treatment with hydroxyurea, interferon- , and oral cytarabine ocfosfate for chronic myelogenous leukemia

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Georgios Kalambokis
    Abstract:, A 65-yr-old man developed increasing dyspnea and fulminant respiratory failure 48 h after introduction of hydroxyurea, oral cytarabine ocfosfate (YNK01) and interferon- , for treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. The chest radiograph showed bilateral patchy infiltrates while computed tomography revealed multiple bullas, ground glass opacities, and patchy consolidations with possible cavitation. Bronchoscopic examination was normal and microbiological tests performed on all biologic fluids were negative. The patient did not respond to multiple antibiotic treatment and corticosteroid administration and died of progressive respiratory failure 5 d after chemotherapy introduction. The postmortem lung examination was consistent with the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). [source]


    The oral health needs of children after treatment for a solid tumour or lymphoma

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 1 2010
    ALISON HUTTON
    Background., With increasing survival rates for childhood cancer, late effects are of growing importance. Oral health is central to general health, level of nutrition, quality of life, and is significant in the holistic care of children during cancer therapy. Hypothesis., The oral health needs of children treated for solid tumours/lymphoma will be greater than the general population, groups will differ according to tumour and treatment. Design., One hundred and twenty patients, 0,17 years, under follow-up from 01/07/06 to 07/02/07 were investigated for caries, opacities, microdontia, and gingivitis. Analysis was performed with stratification according to tumour and treatment. Comparisons made with the UK 2003 Child Dental Health Survey. Results., The neuroblastoma group and high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue (HDCSCR) therapy group had increased caries of the primary teeth. Chi-squared analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.03) between the age at receipt of chemotherapy (<3.5 years) and the presence of microdont teeth. Conclusion., Oral health care is important for all patients particularly those with a neuroblastoma, or who received HDCSCR. Patients should be advised about the possibility of microdontia in the permanent dentition following chemotherapy under 3.5 years. [source]


    Scanning electron micrograph analysis of hypomineralized enamel in permanent first molars

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 4 2005
    B. JÄLEVIK
    Summary. First molars with cream- to yellow-coloured demarcated opacities of the enamel, often in combination with severe loss of substance, are common in many child populations. The aetiology is obscure. Aim and Method., The aim of this study was to study the ultrastructure of the enamel of 10 affected teeth by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to gain a better understanding of the clinical appearance and treatment problems of this condition, and to find some clues to its aetiology. Results., The basic enamel structure with enamel rods and interrod zones was found in porous parts of the enamel, as well as in normal parts, but the packing of the hydroxylapatite crystals seemed to be looser and less well organized in the porous parts. The border between normal and hypomineralized enamel was usually distinct, and followed the direction of the rods. The preserved basic structure indicates normal function of the ameloblasts during their secretion phase, but impaired function during their maturation stage. Conclusion., Considering the poor etch profile, it seems reasonable to recommend removal of all affected enamel surrounding the cavity, if possible, and to use a glass ionomer filling with its chemical bonding to tooth substrate, when restoring first molars with remaining affected enamel. [source]


    Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (Anderson,Fabry's disease): a case report

    JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Daniela Massi
    Abstract We report on a 14-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of acral pains and febrile episodes. On physical examination, numerous small reddish papules were present on his abdomen, located predominantly on the periumbelical region. Renal function was within normal limits. Ophthalmological examination revealed whorled opacities of the cornea (cornea verticillata) and dilated tortuous conjunctival vessels. Histopathological examination of one of the cutaneous papules showed several dilated blood vessels in the superficial dermis surrounded by collarettes of thickened rete ridges, consistent with a diagnosis of angiokeratoma. The electron-microscopic study of a skin specimen demonstrated the presence of dilated lysosomes with deposition of electron-dense bodies, some of which with laminated structure, in endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These findings were regarded as indicative of Fabry's disease. Subsequent biochemical analysis confirmed the presence of a ,-galactosidase A deficiency in leukocytes. In conclusion, we described the clinical, histopathological and submicroscopic findings of a case of Fabry's disease, in which the combination of electron microscopic and biochemical approaches allowed the correct diagnosis. [source]


    Radiative transfer in disc galaxies , IV.

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2010
    The effects of dust attenuation on bulge, disc structural parameters
    ABSTRACT Combining Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations and accurate 2D bulge/disc decompositions, we present a new study to investigate the effects of dust attenuation on the apparent structural properties of the disc and bulge of spiral galaxies. We find that dust affects the results from such decompositions in ways which cannot be identified when one studies dust effects on bulge and disc components separately. In particular, the effects of dust in galaxies hosting pseudo-bulges might be different from those in galaxies hosting classical bulges, even if their dust content is identical. Confirming previous results, we find that disc scalelengths are overestimated when dust effects are important. In addition, we also find that bulge effective radii and Sérsic indices are underestimated. Furthermore, the apparent attenuation of the integrated disc light is underestimated, whereas the corresponding attenuation of bulge light is overestimated. Dust effects are more significant for the bulge parameters, and, combined, they lead to a strong underestimation of the bulge-to-disc ratio, which can reach a factor of 2 in the V band, even at relatively low galaxy inclinations and dust opacities. Nevertheless, it never reaches factors larger than about 3, which corresponds to a factor of 2 in bulge-to-total ratio. Such effect can have an impact on studies of the black hole/bulge scaling relations. [source]


    Testing the accuracy of synthetic stellar libraries

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
    Lucimara P. Martins
    ABSTRACT One of the main ingredients of stellar population synthesis models is a library of stellar spectra. Both empirical and theoretical libraries are used for this purpose, and the question about which one is preferable is still debated in the literature. Empirical and theoretical libraries are being improved significantly over the years, and many libraries have become available lately. However, it is not clear in the literature what are the advantages of using each of these new libraries, and how far behind models are compared to observations. Here we compare in detail some of the major theoretical libraries available in the literature with observations, aiming at detecting weaknesses and strengths from the stellar population modelling point of view. Our test is twofold: we compared model predictions and observations for broad-band colours and for high-resolution spectral features. Concerning the broad-band colours, we measured the stellar colour given by three recent sets of model atmospheres and flux distributions, and compared them with a recent UBVRIJHK calibration which is mostly based on empirical data. We found that the models can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the stellar colours for a fair interval in effective temperatures and gravities. The exceptions are (1) the U,B colour, where the models are typically redder than the observations, and (2) the very cool stars in general (V,K, 3). Castelli & Kurucz is the set of models that best reproduce the bluest colours (U,B, B,V) while Gustafsson et al. and Brott & Hauschildt more accurately predict the visual colours. The three sets of models perform in a similar way for the infrared colours. Concerning the high-resolution spectral features, we measured 35 spectral indices defined in the literature on three high-resolution synthetic libraries, and compared them with the observed measurements given by three empirical libraries. The measured indices cover the wavelength range from ,3500 to ,8700 Å. We found that the direct comparison between models and observations is not a simple task, given the uncertainties in parameter determinations of empirical libraries. Taking that aside, we found that in general the three libraries present similar behaviours and systematic deviations. For stars with Teff, 7000 K, the library by Coelho et al.is the one with best average performance. We detect that lists of atomic and molecular line opacities still need improvement, specially in the blue region of the spectrum, and for the cool stars (Teff, 4500 K). [source]


    On the atmospheric limitations of ground-based submillimetre astronomy using array receivers

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2002
    E. N. Archibald
    Abstract The calibration of ground-based submillimetre observations has always been a difficult process. We discuss how to overcome the limitations imposed by the submillimetre atmosphere. Novel ways to improve line-of-sight opacity estimates are presented, resulting in tight relations between opacities at different wavelengths. The submillimetre camera SCUBA, mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), is the first large-scale submillimetre array, and as such is ideal for combating the effects of the atmosphere. For example, we find that the off-source pixels are crucial for removing sky noise. Benefiting from several years of SCUBA operation, a data base of deep SCUBA observations has been constructed to help us understand better the nature of sky noise and the effects of the atmosphere on instrument sensitivity. This has revealed several results. First, there is evidence for positive correlations between sky noise and seeing and sky noise and sky opacity. Furthermore, 850-,m and 450-,m sky noise are clearly correlated, suggesting that 450-,m data may be used to correct 850-,m observations for sky noise. Perhaps most important of all: if off-source bolometers are used for sky noise removal, there is no correlation between instrument sensitivity and chop throw, for chop throws out to 180 arcsec. Understanding the effects of submillimetre seeing is also important, and we find that the JCMT beam is not significantly broadened by seeing, nor is there an obvious correlation between seeing and pointing excursions. [source]


    The frequency of occurrence of abnormal frenal attachment of lips and enamel defects in Turner syndrome

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2 2008
    A Kusiak
    Objective:, The aim of the work was to register the frequency of occurrence of abnormal frenal attachment of lips and enamel defects and find the correlation between these anomalies and three types of Turner syndrome. Materials and methods:, Fifty patients (aged 20,40 years) were clinically and cytogenetically diagnosed and divided into three groups, according to karyotype: 45,X (17 cases), with structural aberrations of chromosome X (12 cases) and with mosaic karyotype (21 cases). The control group consisted of 51 healthy woman aged 21,40 years. Subjects were screened for developmental anomalies in the labial frenula and enamel defects in three groups of Turner syndrome. Results:, Some significant anomalies of soft and hard tissues were found in studied patients: abnormal frenal attachments (42% of cases), enamel opacities (58% of cases) and enamel hypoplasia (38% of cases). Differences in the occurrence of these anomaly in all group with Turner syndrome in comparison with the control group were significantly different. Enamel defects were prevalent in the patients with karyotype 45,X and patients with structural aberrations of chromosome X in comparison with the mosaic karyotype. Conclusion:, The results of the present study have shown, that abnormal attachment of lips and enamel defects were more frequent in Turner syndrome patients than in the control group. Enamel defects were correlated with the karyotypes of Turner syndrome and abnormal attachment of lips was not correlated with the karyotypes of Turner syndrome. [source]


    Pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma presenting with pulmonary nodules and leukemoid reaction,

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 1 2010
    Manas Kalra MD
    Abstract An 8-year-old female presented with fever and severe pain in the hipbones and legs for 2½ months. Investigations revealed a leukemoid reaction and bilateral diffuse nodular opacities on chest X-ray. Supraclavicular lymph node biopsy was diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), mixed cellularity. Both pulmonary nodules and leukemoid reaction being present in the same patient with HL has not been reported. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55:193,195. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Early Onset Childhood Cicatricial Pemphigoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Monia Kharfi M.D.
    We describe a new case in a 20-month-old boy, who is to our knowledge the youngest patient reported yet. The disorder had begun 10 months before he was referred to our department by mucosal crusted erosions of the oral and nasal cavities and conjunctivae. Cutaneous examination showed buccal erosions with limited mouth opening, entropion of the lower eyelids, trichiasis, cicatricial cornea, synechia of the nasal cavities and hypopigmented lesions of the abdomen. There were no anal or genital lesions. Cicatricial pemphigoid was confirmed by positive direct and indirect immunofluorescence on mucous biopsy. Systemic corticosteroids (2 mg/kg/day), maintained for 12 months, had led to complete healing of lesions. But due to cicatrization, synechia of the nasal cavities and corneal opacities, leading to a dramatic visual loss, have occurred. Dapsone 25 mg/day and topical ocular cyclosporine are now maintained to avoid relapse. Our review of the literature of all cases of CP showed that ocular and to a less degree, vulvar lesions are the most severe ones, due to the serious complications with scar formation. [source]


    Surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) mutation-associated lung disease: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings and its relation to histological analysis,,

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    M. Mechri MD
    Abstract Aim of the Study Determine high-resolution tomography (HRCT) scan characteristics in children with SFTPC mutation and correlate them to histological findings. Patients and Methods This retrospective multicenter study included 15 children (7 females and 8 males) with SFTPC mutations. HRCT scans have been performed in all the children and lung biopsies in 8 children. Results From all signs assessed on initial HRCT scans, ground-glass opacities (n,=,14, 93%) and lung cysts (n,=,6, 40%) were predominant. Interlobular septal thickening (n,=,1, 7%), air space consolidation (n,=,1, 7%), paraseptal emphysema (n,=,2, 13%), and pulmonary nodules (n,=,1, 7%) were also found. Histological analysis revealed accumulation of macrophages in the alveolar lumen, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and alveolar septal thickening. Dilatation of the respiratory bronchiole and alveolar duct associated with muscular hyperplasia were also described. Interestingly, lung cysts on HRCT scans were associated with dilatation of terminal bronchioli and alveolar duct in lung biopsies. Conclusion In children with SFTPC mutations, HRCT scan finding was highly correlated to the histological findings and, as such, represent a useful tool to identify patients that may require SFTPC gene sequencing. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010; 45:1021,1029. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The use of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation in cystic fibrosis lung disease,

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Samya Z. Nasr MD
    Abstract Objectives To compare the usefulness of HRCT of the chest versus spirometric measures (PFTs) in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI) in cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Thirty-two CF patients with mostly mild lung disease age ,6 years, were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients were chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for at least 6 months prior to and at enrollment. If patients were on TSI, they were taken off for at least 3 months prior to enrollment. Duration was 6 months; 31 subjects completed the study. HRCT and PFTs were evaluated at baseline, after 28 days of treatment and at the end of the study. Study medication was administered as 5,ml nebulized treatment twice a day for 28 days followed by 28 days off (one cycle). Study consisted of three cycles. Two radiologists scored all films using a validated system. A total HRCT score consists of the sum of subscores: linear opacities, hyperinflation, nodular opacities, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging, and bronchiectasis; each subscore could range from 0 to 80, with potential total scores varying from 0 to 480. The percent of the maximum possible HRCT score was then calculated and used for all comparisons. Results Using two tailed paired t -test, the percent maximum HRCT score decreased by 1.4,±,2.6% (mean,±,SD) (P,=,0.049) and 0.3,±,2.8% (P,=,0.63) for the TSI group and decreased by 0.1,±,1.5% (P,=,0.74) and increased by 0.6,±,1.8% (P,=,0.23) for the placebo group between visits 1 and 2, and visits 1 and 3, respectively. The data were then analyzed using a mixed model utilizing changes in scores over the durations of the study for each group. The change of HRCT score for the TSI group was ,0.24/day (P,=,0.02) and ,0.03/day (P,=,0.22), and for the control group the change was ,0.01 (P,=,0.93) and 0.02 (P,=,0.29) between visits 1 and 2, and visits 1 and 3 respectively. FEF25,75% and FEV1% changes were not statistically significant using both analyses. Conclusion HRCT seems to be more sensitive in detecting treatment effect than PFT in CF patients with mild lung disease, especially following the first treatment period (visit 2). Total HRCT score showed some improvement at the end of the study, though not statistically significant. This is probably due to obtaining the HRCT an average of 30 days after completion of the TSI treatment, and selection of study population with mostly mild lung disease. This could indicate that the most significant improvement in the total HRCT score in this patient population occurs after the first treatment period with TSI. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010; 45:440,449. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Continued exposure to silica after diagnosis of silicosis in Brazilian gold miners,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 10 2006
    Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro PhD
    Abstract Background There is a paucity of studies analyzing the effect of continued silica exposure after the onset of silicosis with regard to disease progression. The present study investigates differences in clinical and radiological presentation of silicosis among former workers with a diagnosis of silicosis, and compares workers who continued to be exposed to silica with those who stopped silica exposure after having received their diagnosis. Methods A sample of 83 former gold miners with a median of 21 years from the first diagnoses of silicosis, had their clinical and occupational histories taken and underwent both chest radiography (International Labor Organization standards) and spirometry. Their silica exposure was assessed and an exposure index was created. The main outcome was the radiological severity of silicosis and tuberculosis (TB). The statistical analysis was done by multiple logistic regression. Results Among the 83 miners, 44 had continued exposed to silica after being diagnosed with silicosis. Continuation of silica exposure was associated with advanced radiological images of silicosis (X-ray classification in category 3, OR,=,6.42, 95% CI,=,1.20,34.27), presence of coalescence and/or large opacities (OR,=,3.85, CI,=,1.07,13.93), and TB (OR,=,4.61, 95% CI,=,1.14,18.71). Conclusions Differential survival is unlikely to explain observed differences in silicosis progression. Results reinforce the recommendation that silica exposure should be halted at an early stage whenever X-ray is suggestive of the disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 49:811,818, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Respiratory health in Turkish asbestos cement workers: The role of environmental exposure

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 8 2006
    brahim Akkurt MD
    Abstract Aim Benign and malignant pleural and lung diseases due to environmental asbestos exposure constitute an important health problem in Turkey. The country has widespread natural deposits of asbestos in rural parts of central and eastern regions. Few data exists about the respiratory health effects of occupational asbestos exposure in Turkey. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate respiratory health effects of occupational asbestos exposure and the contribution of environmental asbestos exposure. Methods Investigations included asbestos dust measurements in the workplace and application of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a standard posteroanterior chest X-ray and spirometry. Information on birthplace of the workers was obtained in 406 workers and used to identify environmental exposure to asbestos, through a map of geographic locations with known asbestos exposure. Results Asbestos dust concentration in the ambient air of the work sites (fiber/ml) ranged between 0.2 and 0.76 (mean: 0.25, median: 0.22). Environmental exposure to asbestos was determined in 24.4% of the workers. After the adjustment for age, smoking, occupational asbestos exposure, and potential risk factors environmental asbestos exposure was associated with small irregular opacities grade ,1/0 (44.2% vs. 26.6%, P,<,0.01), FVC% (97.8 vs. 104.5, P,<,0.0001), and FEV1% (92.4 vs. 99.9, P,<,.0001). Occupational exposure to asbestos was associated with small irregular opacities grade ,1/0 (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3,3.1, per 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of fiber/ml) and FEV1/FVC% (beta: 1.1, SEM: 0.54; P,<,0.05, per 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of fiber/ml). Conclusions Environmental exposure to asbestos could increase the risk of asbestosis and lung function impairment in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos, independent from occupational exposure and smoking. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Lung cyst: An unusual manifestation of Niemann,Pick disease

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Bruno G. BALDI
    Abstract: Niemann,Pick disease is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder, currently classified into six subtypes and characterized by the intracellular accumulation of sphingomyelin in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow or brain. The main pulmonary abnormalities described in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest consist of thickening of the interlobular septa and ground-glass opacities. This case report describes a patient with subtype B Niemann,Pick disease characterized by cysts and ground-glass opacities that were detected on HRCT of the chest. [source]


    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with diffuse pulmonary infiltration and an increase in serum KL-6 level

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Tomoyuki FUJISAWA
    Abstract: Peripheral T-cell lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma showing diffuse pulmonary involvement together with a marked increase in the level of serum KL-6 is presented. CXR and CT revealed reticular and ground-glass opacities, which mimicked interstitial pneumonia. Immunopathological findings and an analysis of T-cell receptor gene rearrangements of the lung biopsy specimen led to a definite diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. In addition, the extensive proliferation of type II pneumocytes, which stained strongly positive for anti-KL-6 antibody suggested that the pneumocytes were the source of serum KL-6. [source]


    Ocular alterations in patients of alopecia areata

    THE JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Deepika PANDHI
    ABSTRACT There is paucity of published work on ocular alterations in patients of alopecia areata (AA), especially from the Asian continent. We studied the clinical profile of 83 patients of AA and 80 sex- and age-matched controls to assess and compare the ocular changes, namely punctate opacities, cataract, intraocular tension and retinal changes. The outcome was analyzed with respect to prevalence of atopy, concomitant personal or family history of autoimmune diseases and nail changes in both the groups. The prevalence of atopy and family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher in the patient group. Lenticular changes were observed in 40.9% patients (including cataract in 16.9%) and 11.2% controls (P < 0.005). Within the patient group, lenticular involvement occurred with increased frequency in atopics (P = 0.034) and in the presence of family history of autoimmune diseases (P < 0.05). Retinal changes in the form of degenerative changes, pigmentary clumping and abnormal vascular changes were more prevalent (P < 0.001) in the study group. As the ocular changes were not found to correlate with the age, severity or extent of the disease, an initial ophthalmological screening of all patients is suggested. [source]


    3142: Radiation-induced lens opacities: towards a new strategy to address the low dose risk research with the European network DoReMi

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
    P GOURMELON
    In 2010, a Network of Excellence called DoReMi was launched by the EURATOM FP7 programme. DoReMi will act during the next six years as an operational tool for the development of a research platform devoted to low dose risk research in Europe. The research activities of DoReMi are implemented within three work packages: WP5, WP6, and WP7, which are respectively concerned with the shape of the dose effect relationship, individual radiation sensitivity and non-cancer effects. The overarching objective of WP7 is to implement a long-term, integrated approach involving several disciplines, namely, epidemiology, radiobiology and toxicology, for the purpose of risk evaluation for radiation-induced non-cancer effects. One of the operational objectives of the DoReMi WP7 consists of undertaking feasibility studies addressing the issues of vascular effects, lens opacities and cognitive effects. The presentation to be given will provide the assembly with (i) information about the European low dose risk research strategy; (ii) latest knowledge about the epidemiological evidence of radiation-induced lens opacities; (iii) information about the feasibility study of lens opacities to be launched in a group of interventional cardiologists (iv) most promising mechanistic hypotheses for the development of radiation-induced lens opacities recognizing that while posterior subcapsular cataracts are characteristic of an exposure to ionizing radiation, several sets of data suggest that the broader category of posterior cortical cataracts may also be regarded as radiation-associated. Eventually the presentation will discuss the issue of a threshold for the development of radiation-induced lens opacities and list the scientific questions raised by the radiation protection community to the vision and eye research community. [source]


    3144: Cataract formation after incorporation of radioactive iodine

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
    C DALKE
    Purpose The ocular lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs in mammals and a pathological sign after exposure to ionising radiation is the formation of cataracts. We generated a mouse model to mimic the situation after the accident in the Chernobyl power plant. Methods Pregnant and nursing FBV-mice were treated with iodine131 for diaplacentar and galactogen transfer to the litter. The offspring which incorporated the radioiodine were examined for lens opacities at the age of 6 and 12 months. Iodine131 is a beta radiation emitting nuclide with a short half live of 8 days. Mothers were injected twice with 100 kBq I-131, on day 14 post conception and day 6 post natal. Cataracts were investigated at 6 and 12 months of age using a slit lamp. Results Depending on the litter size and weight, a single progeny incorporates between 8 to 14 % of entire activity. More than 50% of the injected activity is transmitted from the mother to the entire offspring. Iodine is accumulated in the thyroid and an average thyroid dose of 3.7 Gy was calculated. Because of the short distance between the thyroid and the eye, a lens dose of 0.5 Gy was estimated. In the FBV mice, we observed at the age of 6 months two cataracts among 15 irradiated lenses (13%), but none among 7 unirradiated controls. At the age of 12 months, almost all lenses showed cortical cataracts in both groups. However, there were 17 nuclear cataracts among 66 irradiated lenses (25%), but only 1 among 16 controls (6%). Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that this method is sensitive enough to detect the cataract-causing potential of low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse. However, for detailed analysis larger cohorts and quantification of the data are necessary. [source]


    4143: The German Mouse Clinic: recent findings from the Eye Screen

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
    O PUK
    Purpose The purpose of this study was the large-scale screening of different mouse mutant lines in order to detect novel models for eye disorders. Methods The eyes of the mouse mutants were analyzed by slit lamp biomicroscopy, funduscopy, laser interference biometry, optokinetic drum, and histology. Results In the past 12 months, 46 mouse mutant lines were investigated in the primary Eye Screen of the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). These included Csemp1 and Aey69 that exhibited irregular eye development. All tested mice of the mutant line Csemp1 unexpectedly showed white fundus flecks and significantly reduced axial eye lengths. Moreover, we additionally found strong opacities in a least a portion of the Csemp1 mutant lenses. Aey69 mice are severely microphthalmic due to a yet undefined ENU-induced mutation. The rudimentary eyes completely lack ocular structures as iris or lens. Further significant irregularities in fat metabolism, immunology, and behaviour were detected in the GMC-wide primary screen. Linkage studies mapped the mutated site on chromosome 3 within a 0.78 Mb spanning region between the flanking microsatellite markers D3Mit188 and D3Mit76. Among the 34 positional candidate genes, Tnrc4 (elav-like family member 3) and Selenbp1 (selenium binding protein 1) are expressed in the eye. Sequencing studies in order to detect the causative mutation of Aey69 are in process. Conclusion Two novel mouse models for microphthalmia were detected in the primary Eye Screen of the GMC. These mutant lines will provide further insights into molecular mechanisms behind this kind of eye disease. [source]


    4131: Pathologic epithelial and anterior corneal nerve morphology in congenital aniridic keratopathy

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
    P FAGERHOLM
    Purpose To document corneal morphology in Swedish families with congenital aniridia. Methods Detailed ophthalmic examinations were conducted in a number of affected and unaffected members. Digital slit lamp photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) and in-vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) examinations were performed bilaterally to document corneal morphology. Results Affected family members presented with different stages of aniridic keratopathy, with a corneal appearance varying from totally transparent to opaque and highly vascularised. Increased corneal thickness in affected members, particularly those with severe keratopathy, was noted by ASOCT. By IVCM, opaque corneas were characterized by active vessels and dense inflammatory cell infiltration. In corneas with milder keratopathy, pathologic epithelial findings included epithelial pleomorphism, focal epithelial opacities, and an absence of limbal epithelial crypts and focal stromal projections at the limbus. Nerves of the anterior cornea exhibited several distinct features, including an unusually close association of subbasal nerves with epithelial cells, an unusually high subbasal nerve density with highly branched nerves, and a prominent whorl region. Additionally, abnormally dense and tortuous anterior stromal nerves, attached to stromal keratocytes, were noted in unaffected members. Conclusion Altered epithelial morphology and a vigorous innervation of the anterior cornea were the most pronounced corneal findings in family members with milder forms of aniridic keratopathy. Further findings confirmed the known increase in corneal thickness and limbal stem cell abnormality in aniridia. [source]


    Dystrophia Smolandiensis: a novel morphological picture of recurrent corneal erosions

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    Björn Hammar
    Abstract. Purpose:, The aim of this study was to describe morphological changes in Dystrophia Smolandiensis, a corneal disease that is characterized by recurrent corneal erosive episodes and the formation of central corneal keloid-like opacities in approximately half of those affected. Methods:, The corneas of seven affected individuals were examined using in-vivo confocal microscopy. Specimens of one primary corneal graft, one regraft and one biopsied keloid-like region , all obtained from members of a large family with the disease , were re-examined with a light microscope. Sections were stained with Congo red and analysed immunohistochemically for fibronectin and S100A4. Results:, Light microscopic examination revealed epithelial hyperplasia, absence of Bowman's layer and subepithelial fibrosis. Fibronectin was expressed in the area of subepithelial fibrosis, and the keratocytes in this area generally expressed S100A4. The biopsy specimen stained positive for Congo red, suggesting an amyloid deposit. In-vivo confocal microscopy confirmed epithelial abnormalities, loss of Bowman's layer and significant alterations of the subbasal nerve plexus in affected individuals. Conclusion:, The morphological picture in Dystrophia Smolandiensis is novel for a condition dominated by recurrent corneal erosions at the clinical level. Although no single morphological feature unique to the disease could be found, the general morphological pattern of pathology (true keloid formation, absence of Bowman's layer, subepithelial fibrosis and abnormal subbasal nerves) probably reflects a novel phenotypic expression of the healing response to recurrent erosion of the corneal epithelium. However, the pathogenesis of Dystrophia Smolandiensis remains to be elucidated fully. [source]


    Early cortical lens opacities: a short overview

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 6 2009
    Gijs F.J.M. Vrensen
    Abstract. Cataract is still the dominant cause of blindness worldwide. Cortical cataract is the most prevalent of the age-related changes in the human lenses that require surgical intervention to restore vision. The absence of adequate cataract surgery in most developing countries is the main cause of the high prevalence of cataract blindness worldwide. Lens ageing is accompanied by dramatic increases in stiffness, light scattering and coloration of the lens nucleus. These changes start to become manifest as early as the fourth or fifth decade of life and lead to nuclear cataract in old age. In the same period the equatorial deep lens cortex starts to show small opaque shades, which eventually grow out to segmental and annular opacities. These opaque shades are filled with small vesicles and contain abnormal amounts of cross-linked proteins, cholesterol and phospholipids. They are bordered by membranes that are rich in square arrays, have ,degenerate' gap junctions and have few intramembranous particles. It has been shown that the opaque shades represent cohorts of locally affected fibres segregated from unaffected neighbouring fibres by ,non-leaky' membranes. This segregation is an effective mechanism delaying the outgrowth of these opacities to cuneiform cataracts entering the pupillary space and thus leading to blinding cortical cataracts. Although cataract formation is mostly considered to be a multi-factorial disease, oxidative stress might be one of the leading causes for both nuclear and cortical cataract. In cortical cataracts shear stress between cortex and nucleus during accommodation may also play a significant role. [source]


    Association of lens opacities, intraocular straylight, contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in European drivers

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 6 2009
    Ralph Michael
    Abstract. Purpose:, To study the relationship between lens opacity and intraocular straylight, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Methods:, We investigated 2422 drivers in five clinics in different European Union (EU) member states aged between 20 and 89 years as part of a European study into the prevalence of visual function disorders in drivers. We measured visual acuity [Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart], contrast sensitivity (Pelli,Robson chart) and intraocular straylight (computerized straylight meter). Lens opacities were graded with the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS) without pupillary dilation. Participants answered the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire , 25. Results:, Intraocular straylight was related more strongly to LOCS score than to both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were correlated to each other well, but to intraocular straylight to a much lesser extent. Self-reported visual quality was best related to contrast sensitivity; night driving difficulty was best related to visual acuity. Conclusion:, Straylight is found to have added value for visual function assessment in drivers, whereas if visual acuity is known contrast sensitivity has limited added value. [source]


    Overview of the TGFBI corneal dystrophies

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    GK KLINTWORTH
    Several phenotypically distinct clinicopathologic entities involving the cornea are caused by mutations in the transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) gene. These disorders include different types of granular corneal dystrophy (GCD): GCD type 1, GCD type 2 (Avellino corneal dystrophy), GCD type 3 (Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy) as well variants of lattice corneal dystrophy type 1 and Thiel-Benhke corneal dystrophy. Investigations of these inherited corneal diseases throughout the world strongly suggest that specific mutations in the TGFBI gene account for the specific phenotypes and that the corneal opacities that account for the clinical features of the different phenotypes result from the deposition of all or part of the mutated encoded protein. To date the mutated protein is only known to accumulate in the cornea eventhough the TGFBI is widely expressed throughout the body in experimental animals. This presentation will provide an overview of the TGFBI corneal dystrophies and offer a hypothesis to explain the different phenotypes caused by different mutations in TGFBI. [source]


    Boston type I in pediatric patients

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    J AQUAVELLA
    Purpose To present a retrospective review of keratoprosthetic implantation and retention in patients with congenital corneal opacities. Methods Pediatric patients younger than seven years old, the average age of permanent visual loss from understimulation of the visual cortex, were selected from a single center Boston Type I keratoprosthesis database and categorized by 1) primary diagnosis, 2) short-term visual outcome, and 3) post-operative complications. Results Seventeen patients, with an age range of 41 days up to 6 years, were selected from a database of over one hundred and forty patients. Six had a primary diagnosis of sclerocornea and eleven had Peter's anomaly. Visual outcome after one year improved in fourteen of the patients, with patients who previously could not detect light to subsequently being able to fixate and follow or even read allen cards. The remaining three patients showed no improvement in visual acuity but also no worsening from their baseline condition. In terms of post-operative complications of the optic, two had retroprosthetic membrane formation, and another patient required replacement of the keratoprosthesis due to phthisis and optic melting. From a retinal standpoint, four patients had retinal detachments. There were no cases of choroidal hemorrhaging or hypotony in these patients. Conclusion Based on visual outcome, the Boston Type I keratoprosthesis is a safe and effective procedure for patients with congenital corneal opacities. With great retention, the artificial cornea is a viable option for prevention of amblyopia. Due to comorbidities such as congenital cataracts, congenital glaucoma, and retinal detachments, it is crucial to have glaucoma and vitreo-retinal surgeons on hand when managing and implanting keratoprosthesis in a pediatric population. [source]


    Multivitamin-mineral supplementation and age-related cataract.

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2008
    The Italian-American controlled clinical trial
    Purpose To evaluate if a multivitamin-mineral supplement at RDI dosage can prevent incidence and progression of age-related cataract. Methods Randomized, double blind, single centre clinical trial. 1020 participants of Italian descent living in Parma, 55 to 75 years old, were assigned to placebo or to a daily tablet of Centrum. Lens status was assessed at baseline and at yearly follow-up visits by lens photography.Primary outcome was a prespecified increase from baseline in N, C, or PSC opacity grades or cataract surgery. Secondary outcomes were increase in type-specific opacity grades, cataract surgery, and visual acuity loss > 15 letters. Results After an average follow-up of 9 +- 2.4 years there was a decrease in total lens events in participants assigned to Centrum (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98, P = 0.03). Nuclear events were significantly less common (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.88, P = 0.004) and PSC events significantly more common (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.35-2.98, P =< 0.001) in participants taking Centrum. No statistically significant treatment effects were seen for cortical opacities, moderate visual acuity loss, or cataract surgery. Conclusion Lens events were less common in participants who took Centrum, but treatment had opposite effects on the development or progression of N and PSC opacities. This and the absence of effect on a functional outcome does not allow us to recommend the use of RDI nutritional supplement to affect the risk of cataract development (Ophthalmology 115;599,2008). [source]


    Ocular manifestations in liver transplant recipients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 5 2008
    Ola Sandgren
    Abstract. Purpose:, To evaluate postoperative ocular involvement in Swedish liver transplant (LT) recipients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Methods:, Routine ophthalmological examinations were performed in 48 LT recipients, with particular attention given to amyloid deposition in the anterior segment and the vitreous body. Medical records were scrutinized for information regarding neurological impairment at the time of the LT. The diagnosis was secured in all cases by examining for amyloid deposits in biopsy specimens and positive genetic testing for amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) Val30Met mutation. Results:, Six patients (12.5%) developed vitreous opacities within the post-LT observation period. The first opacities were seen 40 months after transplantation, 8 years after the onset of systemic disease. Four patients (8%) developed secondary glaucoma, the first of which was observed 18 months after the procedure and 6.5 years after the onset of disease. Sixteen patients (33%) developed deposits on the anterior surface of the lens. Scalloped pupillary margins were noted in 10 patients (21%). Conclusion:, The prevalence of eye complications increases with time after LT and regular follow-up is necessary, especially to disclose the development of glaucoma , a complication with insidious symptoms of which patients are normally unaware. [source]