Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Online

  • article online
  • available online
  • information online
  • published online

  • Terms modified by Online

  • online access
  • online application
  • online auctions
  • online communication
  • online community
  • online control
  • online course
  • online database
  • online databases
  • online discussion
  • online education
  • online environment
  • online estimation
  • online implementation
  • online information
  • online instruction
  • online learning
  • online learning environment
  • online library
  • online material
  • online measurement
  • online mendelian inheritance
  • online monitoring
  • online news
  • online panel
  • online privacy
  • online production tracking
  • online publication
  • online questionnaire
  • online resource
  • online search
  • online services
  • online shopping
  • online submission
  • online survey
  • online teaching
  • online technology
  • online tool
  • online training
  • online version

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT:,Building on a national study that showed that concentrated poverty matters for the "digital divide," this research compares the influence of the neighborhood-level context in three cities that vary in racial composition and income. We use a 2005 random digit-dialed survey of respondents in Northeast Ohio communities, and find unexpectedly that residents in areas of concentrated poverty demonstrate efforts to go online despite lacking home or work access. We analyze the results using regression models that include contextual "buffers" that create a unique geography for each respondent within a half-kilometer radius. Respondents who live in areas with a high percentage of African Americans or college graduates are more likely to go online even if they lack convenient Internet access, although the percentage of college graduates has a greater effect. At the neighborhood level, race and education influence the context for technology use. [source]

    Titelbild: Bautechnik 12/2009

    BAUTECHNIK, Issue 12 2009
    Article first published online: 11 DEC 200
    Ulrich Winkler, Inhaber eines Ingenieurbüros, Medienberater und Mitbetreiber des Internetportals "Grundstücksentwässerung ONLINE" ist jüngst eine besondere Ehre zuteil geworden: Er gewann den Fotowettbewerb "Grabenlos-Foto des Jahres", den die Österreichische Gesellschaft für Grabenlosen Leitungsbau (ÖGL) alljährlich ausrichtet. Winklers Schwarzweiß-Foto "Rothebach-Düker" wählten die Besucher des Grabenlos-Symposiums 2009 der ÖGL in Loipersdorf aus zehn "Grabenlos" - Monatssiegerfotos. Winkler betrachtet die Auszeichnung als Ermutigung für seine Arbeit, die auch das Ziel hat, unterirdische Infrastruktur, insbesondere Abwasserkanäle und zugehörige Bauwerke, als Objekte der Fotokunst in einen anderen Wahrnehmungs-Zusammenhang als den rein technischen zu rücken. (© Dipl.-Ing. Ulrich Winkler, Lage) [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    Book reviewed in this article: Pediatric Resuscitation: A Practical Approach. Edited by Mark G. Roback, Stephen J. Teach. Anyone, Anything, Anytime (A History of Emergency Medicine) By Brian J. Zink. Emergency Medicine Decision Making: Critical Choices in Chaotic Environments By Scott Weingart, Peter Wyer. Cardiology Clinics: Chest Pain Units issue Edited by Ezra A. Amsterdam, J. Douglas Kirk MD. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Quick Glance Edited by Ghazala Q. Sharieff, Madeline Matar Joseph, Todd W. Wylie. Emergency Medicine Written Board Review. By Scott H. Plantz, Dwight Collman. Emergency Medicine Oral Board Review. By William Gossman, Scott H. Plantz. Emergency Medicine Q & A. By Joseph Lex, Lance W. Kreplick, Scott H. Plantz, Daniel Girazadas Jr. [source]

    The Phenomenology of Space in Writing Online

    Max Van Manen
    Abstract In this paper we explore the phenomenon of writing online. We ask, ,Is writing by means of online technologies affected in a manner that differs significantly from the older technologies of pen on paper, typewriter, or even the word processor in an off-line environment?' In writing online, the author is engaged in a spatial complexity of physical, temporal, imaginal, and virtual experience: the writing space, the space of the text, cyber space, etc. At times, these may provide a conduit to a writerly understanding of human phenomena. We propose that an examination of the phenomenological features of online writing may contribute to a more pedagogically sensitive understanding of the experiences of online seminars, teaching and learning. [source]

    A web-based decision support system for integrated management of weeds in cereals and sugarbeet,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 3 2003
    P. Rydahl
    A Danish decision support system (DSS) named Crop Protection Online (CPO) for integrated management of weeds in cereals and beet has been developed during the past 20 years. CPO is based on a model that runs in three main steps: model step 1 quantifies the level of weed control needed on a field level, model step 2 selects candidate herbicides and calculates dose rates to meet the need, and model step 3 calculates tank mixtures of herbicides with two to four mixing components, if advantageous. CPO has been developed in cereals and beet, and various prototype versions have been validated in 1679 field tests. CPO secured yield potentials, and the level of residual weeds was not increased when compared with reference treatments. The potential of CPO to reduce herbicide use has been observed in all model crops, but the potential was greatest in cereals. In spring cereal field trials highly infested with weeds, the present version of CPO suggested 35% of one full herbicide dose on average and in winter cereals CPO suggested 44% on average of one full dose. The results from validation trials demonstrate that CPO is capable of suggesting robust treatment options with a low input of herbicides. The system architecture of CPO has been exported to Poland and the Baltic countries, and the system is expected to be suitable for export to other countries too. [source]

    Don't Leave Me Hanging on the Anglophone: The Potential for Online Distance Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Simon MarginsonArticle first published online: 9 DEC 200
    Abstract In the last decade there have been many attempts to mount online distance higher education programs on a global scale, led by the e-learning industry and university companies and consortia, some with government support: e.g. Universitas21 Global, Cardean University, Fathom, NYUOnline and the UKe-University. A primary commercial objective has been student markets in the Asia-Pacific nations, especially China, given unmet domestic demand and the growth of cross-border education. However while for-profit providers such as the University of Phoenix Online have shown mass online programs are viable in targeted markets, albeit more expensive than face-to-face programs, would-be global ventures have faltered or collapsed. The paper reviews the failure of English language global e-learning in the light of industry marketing strategies, the economics of online education, and the specifics of Asia-Pacific nations including unmet demand for education. It argues that for exporter universities, the potential of cross-border online education can only be realised if communications capacity in the Asia-Pacific nations is enhanced; and online programs are teaching-intensive, and customised for cultural and linguistic variations. Long-term equal partnerships with local and system providers are essential. For policy makers, the implosion of global e-learning points to the need to use expert judgment in relation to the different options for enhancing the capacity of higher education at home and abroad. It also suggests the need for greater scepticism about commercially driven scenarios and claims of company prospectuses, and about the viability of market-controlled paths of development. [source]

    Online trained support vector machines-based generalized predictive control of non-linear systems

    S. Iplikci
    Abstract In this work, an online support vector machines (SVM) training method (Neural Comput. 2003; 15: 2683,2703), referred to as the accurate online support vector regression (AOSVR) algorithm, is embedded in the previously proposed support vector machines-based generalized predictive control (SVM-Based GPC) architecture (Support vector machines based generalized predictive control, under review), thereby obtaining a powerful scheme for controlling non-linear systems adaptively. Starting with an initially empty SVM model of the unknown plant, the proposed online SVM-based GPC method performs the modelling and control tasks simultaneously. At each iteration, if the SVM model is not accurate enough to represent the plant dynamics at the current operating point, it is updated with the training data formed by persistently exciting random input signal applied to the plant, otherwise, if the model is accepted as accurate, a generalized predictive control signal based on the obtained SVM model is applied to the plant. After a short transient time, the model can satisfactorily reflect the behaviour of the plant in the whole phase space or operation region. The incremental algorithm of AOSVR enables the SVM model to learn the new training data pair, while the decremental algorithm allows the SVM model to forget the oldest training point. Thus, the SVM model can adapt the changes in the plant and also in the operating conditions. The simulation results on non-linear systems have revealed that the proposed method provides an excellent control quality. Furthermore, it maintains its performance when a measurement noise is added to the output of the underlying system. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Online and off-line travel packages preferences: a conjoint analysis

    Michael Chiam
    Abstract Past research has suggested that a number of travel package attributes impact on people's choices. In the present study the impacts of a number of these elements (price, package characteristics, travel agents and a seal of approval) in online and off-line environments were examined using conjoint analysis. It was found that price had the biggest impact, although travel agent and airline reputation and trustworthiness also impacted on people's preferences. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the attributes' impacts in the online and off-line environments. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A cyberenvironment for crystallography and materials science and an integrated user interface to the Crystallography Open Database and Predicted Crystallography Open Database

    Jacob R. Fennick
    With the advent and subsequent evolution of the Internet the ways in which computational crystallographic research is conducted have dramatically changed. Consequently, secure, robust and efficient means of accessing remote data and computational resources have become a necessity. At present scientists in computational crystallography access remote data and resources via separate technologies, namely SSH and Web services. Computational Science and Engineering Online (CSE-Online) combines these two methods into a single seamless environment while simultaneously addressing issues such as stability with regard to Internet interruption. Presently CSE-Online contains several applications which are useful to crystallographers; however, continued development of new tools is necessary. Toward this end a Java application capable of running in CSE-Online, namely the Crystallography Open Database User Interface (CODUI), has been developed, which allows users to search for crystal structures stored in the Crystallography Open Database and Predicted Crystallography Open Database, to export structural data for visualization, or to input structural data in other CSE-Online applications. [source]

    Looking for Gender: Gender Roles and Behaviors Among Online Gamers

    Dmitri Williams
    Several hypotheses regarding the importance of gender and relationships were tested by combining a large survey dataset with unobtrusive behavioral data from 1 year of play. Consistent with expectations, males played for achievement-oriented reasons and were more aggressive, especially within romantic relationships where both partners played. Female players in such relationships had higher general happiness than their male counterparts. Contrary to stereotypes and current hypotheses, it was the female players who played the most. Female players were also healthier than male players or females in the general population. The findings have implications for gender theory and communication-oriented methods in games and online research,most notably for the use of self-reported time spent, which was systematically incorrect and different by gender. Looking for Gender: Gender Roles and Behaviors Among Online Gamers Several hypotheses regarding the importance of gender and relationships were tested by combining a large survey dataset with unobtrusive behavioral data from 1 year of play. Consistent with expectations,males played for achievement-oriented reasons and weremore aggressive, especially within romantic relationships where both partners played. Female players in such relationships had higher general happiness than their male counterparts. Contrary to stereotypes and current hypotheses, it was the female players who played the most. Female players were also healthier than male players or females in the general population. The findings have implications for gender theory and communication-oriented methods in games and online research,most notably for the use of self-reported time spent, which was systematically incorrect and different by gender. Die Suche nach dem Geschlecht: Geschlechterrollen und Verhaltensweisen von Online-Spielern Mittels der Kombination von großen Umfragedatensets und unauffälligen Verhaltensdaten über ein Jahr Spielzeit wurden mehrere Hypothesen zu Geschlecht und Beziehungen getestet. Konsistent mit den Erwartungen spielen Männer aus Leistungsgründen und waren außerdem aggressiver, besonders in romantischen Beziehungen, in denen beide Partner spielten. Weibliche Spieler in solchen Beziehungen waren glücklicher als ihre männlichen Gegenüber. Entgegen der Stereotype und aktuellen Hypothesen spielten Frauen am meisten. Spielerinnen waren außerdem gesünder als männliche Spieler oder Frauen in der allgemeinen Bevölkerung. Diese Ergebnisse haben Implikationen für die Geschlechtertheorie und kommunikationsorientierte Methoden in Spiele- und Online-Forschung , insbesondere was selbstberichtete Spielzeit angeht, die systematisch falsch und nach Geschlecht verschieden war. Buscando el Género: Los Roles de Género y los Comportamientos entre los Jugadores Online Dmitri Williams1, Mia Consalvo2, Scott Caplan3, & Nick Yee4 Resumen Varias hipótesis acerca de la importancia del género y las relaciones fueron puestas a prueba mediante la combinación de un grupo de datos de una encuesta extensa de comportamientos discretos de un año de juego. Consistentes con las expectaciones, los hombres jugaron por razones orientadas al éxito y fueron más agresivos, especialmente dentro de las relaciones románticas donde ambas partes jugaron. Las jugadoras mujeres en esas relaciones tenían mayor felicidad que sus contrincantes hombres. Contrario a los estereotipos y las hipótesis corrientes, las mujeres jugadoras fueron las que jugaron más. Las jugadoras mujeres fueron también más saludables que los jugadores hombres o la población femenina en general. Los hallazgos tienen implicancias para la teoría de género y los métodos orientados a la comunicación en los juegos y la investigación online,más notable por su uso de los auto-reportes del tiempo empleado, los cuales fueron sistemáticamente incorrectos y diferentes para cada género. [source]

    The Internet and Anti-War Activism: A Case Study of Information, Expression, and Action

    Seungahn Nah
    This case study examines how traditional and Internet news use, as well as face-to-face and online political discussion, contributed to political participation during the period leading up to the Iraq War. A Web-based survey of political dissenters (N = 307) conducted at the start of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq provides the data used to examine the relationships among informational media use, online and face-to-face political discussion, and political participation among the respondents, who were recruited through blogs, discussion boards, and listservs opposing the Iraq war. Analyses reveal that among these respondents, Internet news use contributed to both face-to-face and online discussion about the situation in Iraq. Online and face-to-face political discussion mediated certain news media effects on anti-war political participation. The study stresses the complementary role of Web news use and online political discussion relative to traditional modes of political communication in spurring political participation. [source]

    Managing Impressions Online: Self-Presentation Processes in the Online Dating Environment

    Nicole Ellison
    This study investigates self-presentation strategies among online dating participants, exploring how participants manage their online presentation of self in order to accomplish the goal of finding a romantic partner. Thirty-four individuals active on a large online dating site participated in telephone interviews about their online dating experiences and perceptions. Qualitative data analysis suggests that participants attended to small cues online, mediated the tension between impression management pressures and the desire to present an authentic sense of self through tactics such as creating a profile that reflected their "ideal self," and attempted to establish the veracity of their identity claims. This study provides empirical support for Social Information Processing theory in a naturalistic context while offering insight into the complicated way in which "honesty" is enacted online. [source]

    Collaboration Online: The Example of Distributed Computing

    Anne Holohan
    Distributed Computing is a new form of online collaboration; such projects divide a large computational problem into small tasks that are sent out over the Internet to be completed on personal computers. Millions of people all over the world participate voluntarily in such projects, providing computing resources that would otherwise cost millions of dollars. However, Distributed Computing only works if many people participate. The technical challenge is to slice a problem into thousands of tiny pieces that can be solved independently, and then to reassemble the solutions. The social problem is how to find all those widely dispersed computers and persuade their owners to participate. This article examines what makes a collaborative Distributed Computing project successful. We report on data from a quantitative survey and a qualitative study of participants on several online forums, and discuss and analyze Distributed Computing using Arquilla and Ronfeldt's (2001) five-level network organization framework. [source]

    Language Choice Online: Globalization and Identity in Egypt

    Mark Warschauer
    The dominance of English on the Internet in the medium's early years caused great consternation about a possible threat to local languages and cultures. Though the hegemony of English online has since weakened, there is still concern about how English and other languages interact online, but there has been almost no research on this issue. This paper combines linguistic analysis, a survey, and interviews to examine English and Arabic language use in online communications by a group of young professionals in Egypt. The study indicates that, among this group, English is used overwhelmingly in Web use and in formal e-mail communication, but that a Romanized version of Egyptian Arabic is used extensively in informal e-mail messages and online chats. This online use of English and Arabic is analyzed in relation to broader social trends of language, technology, globalization, and identity. [source]

    This Isn't Kansas Anymore, Toto: Team Teaching Online

    Gabriele Strohschen
    Collaborative teaching in an online environment offers unique opportunities and challenges for creative curriculum design and student learning. [source]

    Psychometric Properties of Student Ratings of Instruction in Online and On-Campus Courses

    Debbie E. McGhee
    This study compares mean ratings, inter-rater reliabilities, and the factor structure of items for online and paper student-rating forms from the University of Washington's Instructional Assessment System. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 1 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 11 2008
    Article first published online: 18 JUN 200
    New asthma guideline The BTS/SIGN guideline for the management of asthma has been updated. The diagnosis section has been rewritten, there is a new section on difficult asthma and the treatment sections have been updated. A new option at Step 3 (initial add-on therapy) is now the use of a combined budesonide/formoterol inhaler (Symbicort) as a reliever in addition to regular use as a preventer. This reflects evidence from the SMART trials, which showed that an average of one extra puff per day significantly reduced exacerbations and admissions (Br Med J 2007;335:513). Metformin matches insulin in pregnancy Metformin does not worsen perinatal outcomes compared with insulin in gestational diabetes and mothers prefer it, a study from Australia and New Zealand shows (N Engl J Med 2008;358:2003,15). Of the women randomised to metformin treatment, 93 per cent were still taking it at term and 46 had supplemental insulin. The combined incidence of neonatal hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress, need for phototherapy, birth trauma, five-minute Apgar score less than 7 or prematurity was 32 per cent with both treatments. There were no serious adverse events. More women said they would choose the same treatment again for metformin than insulin (77 vs 27 per cent). Same CV protection with antihypertensives There is no difference in protection against major cardiovascular events between different types of antihypertensives in young or older (65 or over) adults, according to the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Its meta-analysis of 31 trials involving over 190 000 patients (BMJ Online 2008; doi:10.1136/bmj.39548.738 368.BE) found no significant difference by age on blood pressure reduction or risk reduction. Treatment may be chosen according to tolerability and cost as long as effective blood pressure reduction is achieved, the authors conclude. Older people are at greater absolute risk and treatment therefore offers larger reductions in serious vascular events. HPV vaccination starts in September Vaccination against human papilloma virus will be part of the national immunisation programme from the start of the new school year in September. The vaccine, administered as three doses over six months, will initially be offered to girls aged 12,13 (school year 8) to reduce their risk of cervical cancer. A two-year catch-up campaign for all girls up to 18 years old will begin in 2009. MHRA: pancreatitis with exenatide warning The incretin mimetic exenatide (Byetta), licensed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, may rarely be associated with pancreatitis, warns the MHRA (Drug Safety Update 2008;1:Issue 10). One case has been reported in the UK and 89 in the USA and Germany. The MHRA advises that patients should be warned of the symptoms of pancreatitis (severe abdominal pain, back pain). Treatment should be discontinued if pancreatitis is suspected and the case reported on a yellow card. 2007 prescribing bill Primary-care expenditure on drugs in England in 2007 totalled £8.37 billion, only 2 per cent more than in 2006, according to the latest statistics from the Information Centre ( Prescription numbers increased by almost 6 per cent. Prescribing increased in most BNF categories but changed little in musculoskeletal drugs and immunological products and vaccines. Calceos: calcium/ vitamin D3 price match Manufacturer Galen has pledged to continue to price-match its calcium/vitamin D3 supplement Calceos with Adcal-D3 or Calcichew D3 Forte. If the price of either product falls below that of Calceos chewable tablets, Galen will match it within six months. The company says it will honour the pledge until at least 2011. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    The Laryngoscope Goes Online

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 10 2000
    Byron J. Bailey MD, Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Political Quarterly,Complete and Online

    Article first published online: 5 SEP 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Celebrations and gaps: The launch of the Fürer-Haimendorf Archive Online (Respond to this article at

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 1 2010
    Daniel Rycroft
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 28 JUL 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Canadian Prehospital Evidence-based Protocols Project: Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medical Services Care

    Jan L. Jensen ACP
    Abstract Objectives:, The principles of evidence-based medicine are applicable to all areas and professionals in health care. The care provided by paramedics in the prehospital setting is no exception. The Prehospital Evidence-based Protocols Project Online (PEP) is a repository of appraised research evidence that is applicable to interventions performed in the prehospital setting and is openly available online. This article describes the history, current status, and potential future of the project. Methods:, The primary objective of the PEP is to catalog and grade emergency medical services (EMS) studies with a level of evidence (LOE). Subsequently, each prehospital intervention is assigned a class of recommendation (COR) based on all the appraised articles on that intervention, in an effort to organize the evidence so it may be put into practice efficiently. An LOE is assigned to each article by the section editor, based on the study rigor and applicability to EMS. The section editor committee consists of EMS physicians and paramedics from across Canada, and two from Ireland and a paramedic coordinator. The evidence evaluation cycle is continuous; as the section editors send back appraisals, the coordinator updates the database and sends out another article for review. Results:, The database currently has 182 individual interventions organized under 103 protocols, with 933 citations. Conclusions:, This project directly meets recent recommendations to improve EMS by using evidence to support interventions and incorporating it into protocols. Organizing and grading the evidence allows medical directors and paramedics to incorporate research findings into their daily practice. As such, this project demonstrates how knowledge translation can be conducted in EMS. [source]

    Arthritis & Rheumatism 2009 Abstract Supplement Available Online

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2010
    You have free access to this content
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 6 APR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 4 FEB 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    Book reviewed in this article: Blueprints Clinical Cases Emergency Medicine, Second Edition. Edited by Christine Tsien Silvers, Michael R. Filbin, and Aaron B. Caughey. Reviewed by Jennifer M. George. Emergency Orthopedics,The Extremities. Fifth Edition. Edited by R. Simon, S. Sherman, and S. Koenigsknecht. Reviewed by Ryan Murphy and Michelle Marie McLean. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2007. Forty-sixth Edition. Edited by Lawrence M. Tierney Jr., Stephen J. McPhee, and Maxine A. Papadakis. Reviewed by Eric C. Bruno. Bouncebacks! Emergency Department Cases: ED Returns. Edited by Michael B. Weinstock, Ryan Longstreth, and Gregory L. Henry. Reviewed by Jeffrey R. Suchard. Evidence-based to Value-based Medicine. Edited by Melissa M. Brown, Gary C. Brown, and Sanjay Sharma. Reviewed by William Bond. NMS Emergency Medicine, Second Edition (National Medical Series for Independent Study). Edited by S. H. Plantz and E. J. Wipfler. Reviewed by Michael A. Bohrn. The Guide to Intubation and Practical Emergency Airway Management. By Richard M. Levitan. Reviewed by Jill Corbo. [source]

    The Rhetorical Construction of Trust Online

    Josh Boyd
    The antidote to perceived risk is trust, and transactions on the Internet are rife with perceived risk. This article establishes a need for trust messages online in a broader context of declining social trust, reviews trust literature, and then provides four tenets of trust that provide a basis for such rhetorically constructed messages. In addition to offering foundations for the rhetorical construction of trust online, the article presents 2 rhetorical paradoxes of trust that contain both opportunity and danger for scholars and netizens alike. [source]

    Food Safety and Regulation: Evaluation of an Online Multimedia Course

    Stephen J. Pintauro
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of, and student attitudes toward, an online Food Safety and Regulation course (WEB) were compared with lecture (LECTURE) and combined lecture/online (COMBINED) courses. All students took identical pre-tests, post-tests, and attitude assessments. No significant differences were detected in pre-test scores. Post-test results for WEB, LECTURE, and COMBINED groups were 65.9±3.02, 67.1±2.62, and 73.5±2.59 (mean±SEM), respectively. After controlling for the pretest, the COMBINED score was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the LECTURE and WEB scores. Some student attitude scores in the LECTURE and COMBINED groups were better than the WEB group. The results indicate that students perform as well in the Web-based course as the lecture-based course and that student performance is maximized by combining online and lecture methods. [source]