One Patient (one + patient)

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  • Selected Abstracts

    A Novel Finding,Isolated Marshall's Ligament Rhythm After Catheter Ablation and Reconnection of the Marshall's Ligament with the Left Atrium After an Adenosine Bolus in One Patient with Atrial Fibrillation

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Unusual ECG Pattern of Right Atrial Appendage Atrial Tachycardia in One Patient with Right Pneumonectomy

    The right atrial appendage atrial tachycardia (RAA AT) has been previously reported as a rare site in focal AT. We report a patient with a history of a right pneumonectomy who underwent catheter ablation of the AT originating from the RAA. This RAA AT showed unusual P-wave morphology compared with previous reports. We describe the RAA AT following right pneumonectomy using a NavX system (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA). (PACE 2010; e46,e48) [source]

    Neurological features in Gaucher's disease during enzyme replacement therapy

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    H Ono
    This report describes two patients with Gaucher's disease who had unusual clinical symptoms during enzyme replacement therapy. One patient was a female with type 3 Gaucher's disease. She developed a pericardial effusion at 7 y of age, which contained many Gaucher cells despite enzyme replacement therapy. She died from neurological deterioration during enzyme replacement therapy, despite an improvement in her visceral manifestations. The other patient is a male with type 2 Gaucher's disease, who has achieved long-term survival after being supported by mechanical ventilation and enzyme replacement therapy. While on enzyme replacement therapy at the age of 4y, he suffered a generalized cutaneous disease which was clinically diagnosed as ichthyosis. Conclusion: These cases suggest that ordinary enzyme replacement therapy is insufficient for some of the non-neurological manifestations of severe types of Gaucher's disease. [source]

    Female Gender and the Risk of Rupture of Congenital Aneurysmal Fistula in Adults

    Salah A.M. Said MD
    ABSTRACT Aims., To delineate the risk factors for rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in adult patients. Methods., We conducted a literature search of the Medline database using Pubmed search interface to identify reports dealing with rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in an adult population. The search included the English and non-English languages between 1963 and 2005. Results., Fourteen adult patients (12 females) with serious and life-threatening complications secondary to aneurysmal fistulas were reported. Mean age was 62.9 years. The ethnic origins of these 14 patients were 9 Asian and 5 Caucasian. Most patients have had no other cardiac malformations. Five patients had a history of hypertension. One patient was asymptomatic. In 13 symptomatic patients, the clinical presentation was cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion, syncope, heart failure, chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue, distal thromboembolic events with infarction, shock, and/or sudden death. Aneurysmal fistulas were identified in 10 patients; of these 6 were of the saccular type. Rupture occurred in 9 patients (8 females and 1 male). Eleven patients were treated surgically with 1 late death. Two male subjects experienced sudden unexpected cardiac death. Conclusion., Rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas occurred more often in females. Identified risk factors for rupture, hemopericardium, tamponade, and death were among others saccular aneurysm, Asian ethnic race, origin of the aneurysmal fistulas from the left coronary artery and a history of hypertension may play a role. In this article, we present a literature review of congenital aneurysmal fistulas associated with or without rupture and a case report of a woman with unruptured aneurysmal fistula. [source]

    To Explant or Not to Explant: An Invasive and Noninvasive Monitoring Protocol to Determine the Need of Continued Ventricular Assist Device Support

    Satoru Osaki MD
    Predictors of myocardial recovery after ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation are not well defined. The authors report their current VAD weaning protocol. Between 2003 and 2006, 38 patients received VAD implants. The authors performed 5 tests in 4 patients in whom echocardiography findings suggested myocardial recovery after implant. The protocol consists of assessing symptoms, electrocardiographic findings, hemodynamics, and cardiac function at baseline and as VAD support is weaned. As a result, 3 patients passed the weaning protocol and were explanted. There has been no recurrence of heart failure 667, 752, and 1007 days after explant, respectively. One patient failed the protocol after 151 days of support because of low cardiac index during the protocol. This patient was transplanted. This current experience of VAD weaning protocol is a novel tool to identify candidates for successful VAD explantation. [source]

    The use of cytospin monolayer technique in the cytological diagnosis of vulval and anal disease

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    T. S. Levine
    The use of cytospin monolayer technique in the cytological diagnosis of vulval and anal disease This pilot study investigated the use of the non-invasive cytospin monolayer technique in the diagnosis and screening of neoplastic and non-neoplastic vulval disease. Twenty-three patients (age range 34,86 years) attending a vulval disease clinic had brush cytology performed. The samples were prepared with a cytospin monolayer technique and the slides Papanicolaou-stained. Subsequent cytological interpretation and diagnosis were performed without knowledge of the clinical history and correlated with follow-up biopsy histopathology from each patient. Twenty-eight cytospin samples were analysed in total, of which 11 (39%) contained dyskaryotic cells which were assessed and a predicted VIN/AIN grade given. Ten of 11 samples (91%) reported as dyskaryotic had VIN/AIN on biopsy histology. One of 11 samples (9%) was reported as containing occasional squamous cells with borderline nuclear features and, although the corresponding biopsy did not show VIN, basal atypia was reported. One patient had features suggesting invasive carcinoma on cytology which was verified on subsequent biopsy. The 15 cases in which no dyskaryotic cells were identified did not show VIN or AIN on subsequent histology. Two cases were acellular and considered inadequate for cytological interpretation. The cytospin monolayer technique allows the diagnosis of neoplastic from non-neoplastic vulval disease. It is a quick, inexpensive and non-invasive method that may have a role in diagnosis, screening and surveillance of patients. [source]

    Treatment of Lentigo Maligna with Imiquimod before Staged Excision

    BACKGROUND Imiquimod 5% cream has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM) in several small studies. None of the studies to date have included posttreatment surgical removal to confirm negative histologic margins. OBJECTIVE The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess the efficacy of topical imiquimod in LM by circumferentially examining vertically oriented sections from a geometrically designed "picture frame" margin as well as bread-loafed sections of the central portion after staged excisions of imiquimod-treated lesions of LM. METHODS Forty patients with biopsy-confirmed LM were treated five times a week for 3 months with 5% imiquimod cream before staged excision. Tazarotene 0.1% gel was added when no clinical signs of erythema developed with imiquimod alone after 1 month (10 patients). After the course of topical therapy, patients were assessed for clinical and complete histologic clearance after staged excision. RESULTS A total of 33 of 40 patients had a complete clinical response as determined by the absence of remaining clinical lesion on physical examination. Upon histologic review, 30 of 40 patients had no evidence of LM whereas 10 of 40 harbored residual disease. One patient was found to have histologic evidence of invasion after completing the topical protocol. After a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 12,34 months) and after complete surgical excision of the treatment site, none of the imiquimod-treated patients had evidence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS Imiquimod appears to be an effective adjunctive treatment for LM but does not qualify as a replacement therapy for surgery. [source]

    Cryosurgery in the Treatment of Earlobe Keloids: Report of Seven Cases

    Tomas Fikrle MD
    Background. Keloids are benign cutaneous lesions that result from excessive collagen synthesis and deposition. Earlobe keloids in particular are seen as a complication of plastic surgery or piercing. Many different treatment modalities have been used, often with unsatisfactory results. Methods. We have made a retrospective analysis of seven young patients (ages 9 to 22 years) with earlobe keloids. Scarring followed plastic surgery in six cases and piercing in one case. All patients were treated with cryosurgery as the monotherapy. The freeze time and the number of sessions varied depending on the clinical findings, the effect of the treatment, and the patients' tolerance. Cryotherapy was started 6 to 24 months after keloid development. Results. Scar volume was reduced in all cases. Complete flattening in five patients and a pronounced reduction to a maximum of 25% of the previous thickness in one other patient were achieved. One patient discontinued the therapy because of soreness after only partial improvement. The procedure was painful for all patients; no further side effects were noticed. No recurrence was observed within 1 to 4.5 years of follow-up. Conclusion. We present an excellent effect of cryosurgery as the monotherapy for the treatment of earlobe keloid scars of young patients. TOMAS FIKRLE, MD, AND KAREL PIZINGER, MD, PHD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Axillary Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Benjamin W. LeSueur MD
    Background. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) rarely occurs in the axilla. Only 18 cases have been reported in the world literature. Objectives. To report our institution's 11-year experience with axillary BCC. Methods. A review of patient charts and biopsy specimens is given. Results. We report 14 patients with 15 axillary BCCs. The average patient age was 65.6. The average lesion size was 10.8 mm. Nine patients had a personal history of skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. One patient had basal cell nevus syndrome. A history of ionizing radiation and severe sunburn involving the axilla was each seen in separate patients. No other predisposing factors for developing BCC were identified, such as immune suppression or a history of other malignancies. Histologic subtypes of all tumors were considered less aggressive, and only one tumor recurred. Conclusions. Axillary BCC is rare. Factors other than ultraviolet radiation likely contribute to the development of BCC, especially at sun-protected sites. Performing a periodic and complete cutaneous examination that includes sun-protected sites is important, especially in patients who have a history of skin cancer. [source]

    Recurrent Ingrown Big Toenails Are Efficiently Treated by CO2 Laser

    Francis Serour MD
    background. Surgery for onychocryptosis has a high rate of recurrence. objective. To evaluate CO2 laser partial matricectomy for recurrent onychocryptosis. methods. One hundred ninety-six consecutive patients (predominantly teenagers) previously unsuccessfully treated by surgery underwent CO2 laser for recurrent onychocryptosis. After a digital nerve block and a simple partial nail plate avulsion, the laser was used (5 W, defocused 2 mm beam in continuous mode) to vaporize the matrix, the lateral horn, and the lateral nail groove, including local granulation tissue if present. Follow-up was at least 12 months. results. Three hundred forty-four matricectomies were performed. Disease was mostly at stage II and III, with severe local infection in 24 cases (12.2%). All wounds healed in 21.9 ± 3.2 days, with no postoperative local infection or prolonged exudative drainage. Onychocryptosis reoccurred in 5 of 344 treated margins (1.45%, average 15 months), all after primary bilateral matricectomy. Spicules in the lateral nail groove occurred in 14 of 344 treated margins (4%, average 5.9 months), mostly after primary bilateral matricectomy (7 cases) and in infected margins (8 cases). One patient developed a neuroma in the lateral nail groove. conclusion. CO2 laser is effective for the treatment of recurrent onychocryptosis. Bilateral matricectomy and local infection seem to be the predisposing factors for recurrence and postoperative spicule growth. [source]

    Resurfacing of Pitted Facial Acne Scars with a Long-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser

    Jeung-Tae Jeong MD
    Background. Conventional short-pulsed Er:YAG lasers show less effective hemostasis and weak photothermal damage on papillary dermis. Recently, newer long-pulsed Er:YAG laser systems has been developed. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of long-pulsed Er:YAG laser resurfacing for pitted facial acne scars. Methods. Thirty-five patients with pitted facial acne scars were treated with a long-pulsed Er:YAG laser. All patients had Fitzpatrick skin phototypes III,V. A pulsed Er:YAG laser with a 5 mm handpiece at a setting of 7.0,7.5 J/cm2 with a 10-msec pulse duration was used. The laser was fired at 5 Hz, with four to five passes. In 28 patients, the results of laser treatment were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement, duration of erythema, pigmentary change, and any adverse events at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months. In seven patients, skin biopsy specimens were obtained at the following intervals: immediately, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postoperatively for histologic examination. Results. The results of long-pulsed Er:YAG laser resurfacing for pitted facial acne scars were excellent in 10 patients (36%), good in 16 patients (57%), and fair in 2 patients (7%). Erythema occurred in all patients after laser treatment and lasted longer than 3 months in 15 patients (54%). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation occurred in 8 patients (29%). But the pigmentation faded or disappeared within 3 months. One patient (4%) experienced mild hypopigmentation. Pruritic symptoms that required medical intervention occurred in 16 patients (57%). Mild to moderate postoperative acne flare-up occurred in 8 patients (29%). No other adverse effects such as scarring, bacterial infection, or contact dermatitis were observed. Conclusion. In conclusion, resurfacing with a long-pulsed Er:YAG laser is a safe and very effective treatment modality for pitted facial acne scars. [source]

    Decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in non-mitochondrial respiratory chain diseases

    Joannie Hui MBBS
    The aim of this study was to illustrate the difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) disorders based on clinical grounds in combination with intermediate activities of the MRC enzyme complexes. We reviewed retrospectively all medical and laboratory records of patients initially considered likely to have MRC disorders on clinical grounds, and subsequently diagnosed with other disorders (n=20; 11 males, 9 females). Data were retrieved from hospital records, referral letters, and results of enzymatic analysis at a reference laboratory. Clinical symptoms included developmental delay, epilepsy, hypotonia, movement disorder, spastic quadriplegia, tetany, microcephaly, visual problems, carpopedal spasms, dysmorphism, hearing loss, muscle weakness and rhabdomyolysis, and fulminant hepatitis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels were elevated in 13/20 and 9/20 respectively. One or more MRC complex activities (expressed as ratios relative to citrate synthase and/or complex II activity) were less than 50% of control mean activity in 11/20 patients (including patients with deficiencies of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, pantothenate kinase, holocarboxylase synthetase, long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, molybdenum co-factor, and neonatal haemochromatosis). One patient had a pattern suggestive of mitochondrial proliferation. We conclude that intermediate results of MRC enzymes should be interpreted with caution and clinicians should be actively looking for other underlying diagnoses. [source]

    Esophageal manometry in 28 systemic sclerosis Brazilian patients: findings and correlations

    D. C. Calderaro
    SUMMARY Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology. Esophageal involvement affects 50,90% of patients and is characterized by abnormal motility and hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter. Data on the association of esophageal abnormalities and age, gender, SSc subset or duration, autoantibody profile, esophageal symptoms, and medication are lacking or conflicting. The aim of this study was the evaluation of these associations in Brazilian sclerodermic patients from the Rheumatology Division, Clinics Hospital, Federal University, Minas Gerais. They underwent medical records review, clinical interview, and esophageal manometry. The normal cutoff level for lower esophageal sphincter pressure was 14 mmHg. Abnormal peristalsis occurred when less than 80% of peristaltic waves were propagated. P -values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Twenty-eight patients were included: 71% were women. The population presented medium age and disease duration of 46 years and 12 years, respectively. Cutaneous diffuse SSc occurred in 39% and its limited form in 61%. Dysphagia, pyrosis, and regurgitation occurred, respectively, in 71%, 43%, and 61% of patients. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure and number of peristaltic waves-propagated medias were, respectively, 17.2 mmHg and 2.3. SSc-related manometric abnormalities were present in 86% of patients. Manometry revealed distal esophageal body hypomotility, hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter, or both, respectively, in 82%, 39%, and 36% of patients. One patient presented the manometric pattern of esophageal achalasia. Male patients more frequently presented hypotonic inferior esophageal sphincter. Manometric findings have had no relationship with the other variables. Nifedipine use did not influence manometric findings. [source]

    Anastomotic dilatation after repair of esophageal atresia with distal fistula.

    Comparison of results after routine versus selective dilatation
    SUMMARY After repair of esophageal atresia with distal fistula (EADF), anastomotic dilatations are often required. We abandoned routine dilatations (RD), in 2002, for selective dilatations (SD) only when the symptoms arose. We compared the number of dilatations and long-term results after RD and SD. Eighty-one successive EADF patients from 1989 to 2007 (RD 46, SD 35), with primary anastomosis, native esophagus, and peroral feeding, were included. Spitz classification, birth weight, gestational age, incidence of gastroesphageal reflux, tracheomalacia, and postoperative complications did not differ statistically significantly between the groups whereas the total incidence of associated anomalies in RD group was higher than in SD (P < 0.05) In RD group, anastomotic dilatations were begun 3 weeks postoperatively and repeated until the anastomotic diameter was 10 mm. In SD group, dilatations were performed only in symptomatic patients. The number of dilatations, dilatation-related complications, nutritional status, and outcome up to 3 years after repair were compared. The median number of dilatations was seven (2,23) in RD and two (0,16) in SD group (P < 0.01). Sixteen (46%) patients in SD group had no dilatations during the first 6 months. The incidence of dysphagia, bolus obstructions, and development of nutritional status were similar between the groups. The incidence of complications/dilatation was 0.6% in RD and 1.0% in SD group. One patient in RD group underwent resection for a recalcitrant anastomotic stricture. After repair, EADF policy of SD resulted in significantly less dilatations than RD with equal long-term results. [source]

    Short-term symptom and quality-of-life comparison between laparoscopic Nissen and Toupet fundoplications

    R. Radajewski
    SUMMARY Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is an established method of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluates the efficacy of Nissen versus Toupet fundoplication in alleviating the symptoms of GERD and compares the two techniques for the development of post-fundoplication symptoms and quality of life (QOL) at 12 months post-surgery. In this prospective consecutive cohort study, 94 patients presenting for laparoscopic antireflux surgery underwent either laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LN) (n = 51) from February 2002 to February 2004 or a laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LT) (n = 43) from March 2004 to March 2006, performed by a single surgeon (G. S. S.). Symptom assessment, a QOL scoring instrument, and dysphagia questionnaires were applied pre- and postoperatively. At 12 months post-surgery, patient satisfaction levels in both groups were high and similar (LT: 98%, LN: 90%; P = 0.21). The proportion of patients reporting improvement in their reflux symptoms was similar in both groups (LT: 95%, LN: 92%; P = 0.68), as were post-fundoplication symptoms (LT: 30%, LN: 37%; P = 0.52). Six patients in the Nissen group required dilatation for dysphagia compared with one in the Toupet group (LT: 2%, LN: 12%; P = 0.12). One patient in the Nissen group required conversion to Toupet for persistent dysphagia (P = 0.54). In this series, overall symptom improvement, QOL, and patient satisfaction were equivalent 12 months following laparoscopic Nissen or Toupet fundoplication. There was no difference in post-fundoplication symptoms between the two groups, although there was a trend toward a higher dilatation requirement and reoperation after Nissen fundoplication. [source]

    Side-to-side stapled intra-thoracic esophagogastric anastomosis reduces the incidence of leaks and stenosis

    D. J. Raz
    SUMMARY. Trans-hiatal esophagectomy with a hand-sewn anastomosis was for 2 decades the preferred approach in our institution for patients with esophageal cancer. In our experience, this anastomotic technique was associated with a 12% leak rate and a 48% rate of stricture requiring dilatation. We sought to determine if a side-to-side intra-thoracic anastomosis was associated with a lower rate of anastomotic stricture and leak. Thirty-three consecutive patients with distal esophageal cancer or Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia underwent a trans-thoracic esophagectomy with a side-to-side stapled intra-thoracic anastomosis. The overall morbidity was 27%, with no anastomotic stricture or leaks. One patient died (3%). The median time to the resumption of an oral diet was 7 days (range 5,28), and the median length of stay in hospital was 9 days (range 6,45). Trans-thoracic esophagectomy with a side-to-side stapled anastomosis is safe and it is associated with a very low rate of anastomotic complications. We consider this to be the procedure of choice for patients with distal esophageal cancers. [source]

    Epiphrenic diverticula: minimal invasive approach and repair in five patients

    D. L. Van Der Peet
    Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula are rare and often asymptomatic. If surgery is mandatory, a thoracotomy is used to resect the diverticulum. The results of a minimal invasive approach and repair in five patients are presented. These patients, who all presented with an epiphrenic diverticulum, were evaluated using barium swallow study, esophagoscopy, and manometry. The diverticula were approached by thoracoscopy in all patients and a description of the surgical technique is given. The diverticula were resected using a right-sided approach in four patients. One patient with a diverticulum in the distal esophagus required conversion to laparoscopy. A myotomy was performed in two patients because of high pressures in the lower esophageal sphincter. The postoperative course was uncomplicated in four patients. One patient with Ehlers,Danlos disease had a complicated course owing to leakage, resulting in two re-operations by means of thoracotomy. There was no mortality. The minimal invasive approach of epiphrenic diverticula is feasible. The long-term results are awaited. [source]

    Esophageal motility changes after endoscopic intravariceal sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol

    Endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) leads to structural and motility changes in the esophagus; the former are thought to be commoner after EST with absolute alcohol (AA), which is a commonly used sclerosant in India as it is cheap and effective. There are no previous studies on changes in esophageal motility after EST with AA. Accordingly, we studied patients with portal hypertension before (n = 24) and after (n = 22) variceal obliteration by EST with AA using a water perfusion esophageal manometry system. Contraction amplitude in the distal esophagus was reduced in the post-EST group compared with the pre-EST group (63.4 ± 24.9 vs. 18.2 ± 14.3 mmHg, p < 0.01). Duration of esophageal contraction in both the proximal and distal esophagus became prolonged in the post-EST compared with the pre-EST group (3.3 ± 0.8 vs. 5.4 ± 2.6 and 4.3 ± 1.1 vs. 6.6 ± 2.3 s, p < 0.001 for both). Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure was reduced in the post-EST compared with the pre-EST group, although the difference was not significant statistically. Abnormal contraction waveforms were more frequent in the post-EST group. One patient in the post-EST group had persistent dysphagia in the absence of endoscopically documented stricture at the time of manometric study. This study shows frequent occurrence of esophageal dysmotility after EST with AA; however, esophageal dysmotility after EST was infrequently associated with motor dysphagia. [source]

    Clinical and Echocardiographic Aspects of Mid-Ventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2005
    Francisco Martínez Baca-López M.D.
    Three cases of patients with hypertropic cardiomyopathy, apical aneurysm, and mid-ventricular obstruction are presented. Two patients were diagnosed first by two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, which showed mid-ventricular obliteration, characteristic hourglass image, and paradoxic jet flow. One patient with suboptimal echocardiogram was necessary to perform contrast echocardiogram. Clinical picture was characterized by angina and dyspnea. Thallium myocardial imaging revealed perfusion abnormalities in apical region, ischemia or necrosis. Cardiac catheterism showed mid-ventricular obliteration and significant intraventricular gradient and coronary arteries angiography without lesions. [source]

    Management of new onset atrial fibrillation in previously well patients less than 60 years of age

    David McD Taylor
    Abstract Objective:, This study reviewed the ED management of new onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in previously well patients aged less than 60 years. Methods:, We undertook a retrospective review of ED patients from 1998 to 2002 inclusive. The main outcome measures were approaches to rate or rhythm control and anticoagulation, the use of echocardiography, the value of diagnostic testing and the frequency of hospital admission. Results:, Fifty-two patients were identified. In general, all patients were haemodynamically stable. One patient had mild cardiac failure and one was clinically thyrotoxic. Serum potassium was measured in 51 (98%) patients, magnesium in 23 (44%) and cardiac enzymes in 30 (58%); results were generally unhelpful. Thyroid function tests were carried out in 40 (77%) patients; results were unremarkable except for the clinically thyrotoxic patient. No patient had echocardiography in the ED; however, 6 patients (12%) were later found to have major cardiac abnormalities. Forty-four (85%) patients received a variety of medications; 37 (71%) received an anti-arrhythmic and 24 (46%) an antithrombotic. Overall, 17 (33%) patients received theoretically effective therapy for conversion to sinus rhythm. Twenty-two (42%) patients were admitted to hospital. Conclusions:, This study reveals variation in the management of acute AF in previously well, haemodynamically stable, young patients. Pathology testing was frequently carried out with a low yield. There were high rates of attempts to cardiovert, use of antithrombotics and of admission to hospital. Although cardioversion attempts appeared to be contrary to existing guidelines, decisions may have been based primarily on patient symptoms. Echocardiography should be considered prior to anti-arrhythmic therapy. [source]

    Use and toxicity of complementary and alternative medicines among emergency department patients

    David McD Taylor
    Abstract Objective:, To determine the prevalence and type of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) used by ED patients, to identify patient subgroups more likely to use CAM, the conditions for which they were taken, and the prevalence of side-effects and toxicity associated with CAM use. Methods:, This was an analytical cross-sectional survey of patients at a large tertiary referral ED. Consenting patients completed a specifically designed study questionnaire, in their preferred language if required. Information was collected on CAM use on the day of presentation and within the previous week and previous year. Results:, Four hundred and four patients were enrolled (participation rate 97.1%). Fifty (12.4%, 95% CI 9.4, 16.1) patients had taken a CAM on the day of presentation, 203 (50.2%, 95% CI 45.3, 55.2) within the previous week and 275 (68.1%, 95% CI 63.2, 72.5) within the previous year. CAM users were significantly younger, better educated and more likely to be female than non-CAM users (P < 0.01). 103 different CAM had been taken for a wide variety of reasons. Side-effects were experienced in 53 of the 1182 CAM courses taken (side-effect rate of 4.5%). One patient presented suffering specifically from CAM toxicity. Conclusion:,, Complementary and alternative medicines are used by a considerable proportion of ED patients. The potential for side-effects, toxicity and interaction with traditional medication indicates the need for consideration of CAM use in patient assessment. [source]

    Treatment of Acute Stroke with Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Abciximab

    Daniel C. Morris MD
    Objectives: Preclinical data suggest that treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with the combination of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and abciximab may increase efficacy and decrease the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). The authors report pilot data of five AIS patients with half-dose rt-PA and abciximab as part of an ongoing phase I safety trial with sICH as the primary outcome. Methods: Five patients with AIS were treated with the combination of half-dose rt-PA (0.45 mg/kg) and abciximab (0.25 mg/kg bolus followed by a 0.125 ,g/kg/min infusion over 12 hours). Head computed tomographic scan was obtained after 24 hours of treatment onset. Results: Four patients received the combination of half-dose abciximab and rt-PA without major complications. One patient experienced a parenchymal hematoma type-1 ICH without significant decline of his neurological status. The average National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale change at discharge in comparison with pretreatment was ,5.4 ± 7.0, and the median change was 6 points with a range of 4 points (worsening) to ,13 points (improvement) (p = 0.07) based on a one-sided t-test. Conclusions: Administration of rt-PA and abciximab to AIS patients was completed without difficulty. No sICH were observed; however, 20% (1 out of 5) experienced an asymptomatic ICH. Based on our observation of five patients, there was a trend of treatment efficacy; however, these results need to be confirmed in a larger-scale placebo-controlled clinical trial. [source]

    Adolescent Foley Catheter Technique for Visualizing Hymenal Injuries in Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Jeffrey S. Jones MD
    Abstract Objectives: To determine the usefulness of the Foley catheter balloon technique for visualizing injuries of the estrogenized hymen in adolescent sexual assault victims compared with supine labial traction. Methods: A prospective clinical trial of 20 adolescent (age 13,16 years old) victims of sexual assault evaluated at a free-standing Nurse Examiner Clinic was conducted over a four-month study period. The clinic, affiliated with an emergency medicine residency program, is staffed by registered nurses who have been specially trained to perform medicolegal examinations using colposcopy with digital imaging. The Foley catheter technique uses an inflated balloon in the distal vaginal vault to expand the estrogenized hymen to its full capacity so that the edge may be readily visualized for signs of trauma. The Foley technique was compared with gross inspection, using supine labial traction, to photodocument hymenal abnormalities. Photographs of the hymen were obtained using the labial traction technique and then with the Foley technique. Three emergency physicians independently examined each pair of photographs with high interrater agreement for the presence of injury (,= 0.88). Results: Twenty adolescent sexual assault victims volunteered for the study; mean age was 14.8 years. Gross inspection of the hymen using supine labial traction identified hymenal injuries in three patients (15%). Use of the Foley catheter balloon technique allowed identification of hymenal abnormalities in nine additional cases (60%). The common injuries to the hymen included lacerations (30%), followed by ecchymosis and abrasions. One patient (5%) voiced discomfort (mild pressure sensation) during inflation of the balloon. Conclusions: The Foley catheter balloon technique is a simple method allowing improved photodocumentation of hymenal trauma in adolescent sexual assault victims compared with supine labial traction. [source]

    Aphasic or amnesic status epilepticus detected on PET but not EEG

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2009
    Christine Dong
    Summary Purpose:, To describe five patients with ictal aphasia and one patient with ictal amnesia, who had focal positron emission tomography (PET) hypermetabolism but no clear ictal activity on electroencephalography (EEG). Methods:,18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG),PET scans with concomitant EEG were obtained in five patients with suspected ictal aphasia or ictal amnesia without ictal activity on EEG. We reviewed medical history, EEG, imaging data, and treatment outcome. Results:, Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no structural abnormalities in any of the patients. EEG showed left temporal irregular delta activity in three patients, with aphasia and nonspecific abnormalities in two other patients, all without clear ictal pattern. All patients demonstrated focal hypermetabolism on PET scan. The hypermetabolism was in the left frontotemporal region in patients with ictal aphasia and in the bilateral hippocampal region in the patient with amnesia. Three patients who received intravenous benzodiazepines during their episodes had transient clinical improvement. With antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment, symptoms gradually resolved in all patients. Concomitant resolution of PET hypermetabolism was documented in three patients who had follow up scans. One patient with ictal aphasia later developed recurrent episodes, each with recurrent PET hypermetabolism. This patient and one other patient required immune-modulating therapy in addition to AEDs. Discussion:, FDG-PET imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in patients with suspected ictal aphasia or amnesia, who fail to show clear evidence of ictal activity on EEG. [source]

    Epileptogenicity of Supratentorial Medullary Venous Malformation

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2006
    Takato Morioka
    Summary:,Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epileptogenicity of supratentorial medullary venous malformation (MVM). Special consideration was given to any associations with intracerebral hemorrhage with or without other vascular malformations, including cavernous angioma (CA). Methods: In total, 10 patients with angiographically or histologically verified MVMs were examined. The patients were divided into two groups with or without intracerebral hemorrhage, and their clinical, neuroradiologic, and interictal and ictal EEG findings were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Although three of five patients in the nonhemorrhagic group had epilepsy, no topographic concordance was found between the MVM location and the EEG focus. On the contrary, in four of five patients in the hemorrhagic group, epilepsy developed, and topographic concordance between the hemorrhagic MVM location and the EEG focus was noted. One patient with a hemorrhagic MVM and an associated CA in the hippocampus had electroclinical pictures of intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy on this side. Conclusions: Although a supratentorial MVM itself is not epileptogenic, the development of an intracerebral hemorrhage may cause epilepsy. In particular, an associated CA may be highly epileptogenic. [source]

    Heart Rate Changes and ECG Abnormalities During Epileptic Seizures: Prevalence and Definition of an Objective Clinical Sign

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2002
    Maeike Zijlmans
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine the prevalence of heart rate changes and ECG abnormalities during epileptic seizures and to determine the timing of heart rate changes compared to the first electrographic and clinical signs. To assess the risk factors for the occurrence of ECG abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively 281 seizures in 81 patients with intractable epilepsy who had prolonged video-EEG and two-channel ECG. The nature and timing of heart rate changes compared to the electrographic and clinical seizure onset was determined. The ictal period (including one minute preictally and three minutes postictally) was analyzed for cardiac arrhythmias, conduction and repolarization abnormalities. Risk factors for cardiac abnormalities were investigated using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: There was an increase in heart rate of at least 10 beats/minute in 73% of seizures (93% of patients) and this occurred most often around seizure onset. In 23% of seizures (49% of patients) the rate increase preceded both the electrographic and the clinical onset. ECG abnormalities were found in 26% of seizures (44% of patients). One patient had an asystole for 30 seconds. Long seizure duration increased the occurrence of ECG abnormalities. No other risk factor was found. Conclusions: Heart rate changes occur frequently and occur around the time or even before the earliest electrographic or clinical change. The change can clarify the timing of seizure onset and the specific rate pattern may be useful for seizure diagnosis and for automatic seizure detection. ECG abnormalities occur often and repeatedly in several seizures of the same patient. [source]

    Octreotide LAR resolves severe chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) and allows continuation of full-dose therapy

    S.H. ROSENOFF md
    Severe diarrhoea after chemotherapy is a dose-limiting toxicity of first-line chemotherapeutic agents approved for the treatment of colorectal cancer including 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin (5-FU/LV) and irinotecan (CPT-11). This report explores the potential of the long-acting version of the somatostatin analogue octreotide, for secondary prophylaxis in patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID). A case series of three patients in a general community setting with colorectal cancer and severe refractory diarrhoea after fluoropyrimidine or irinotecan therapy resulting in suspension of chemotherapy, hospitalization, and/or refusal of further treatment. After the failure of initial aggressive antidiarrhoeal therapy with loperamide and/or diphenoxylate-atropine, patients were treated with octreotide LAR (30 mg q28d). The ability of octreotide LAR to resolve diarrhoea, prevent further episodes of grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal toxicity and prevent costly hospitalizations. Octreotide LAR 30 mg q28d speed resolution of diarrhoea and was able prevent further episodes during subsequent cycles of chemotherapy. One patient who initially refused chemotherapy because of CID was able to complete his treatment. All patients reported improvement in quality of life following resolution of diarrhoea with octreotide LAR and no further hospitalizations because of CID were necessary. [source]

    Novel SDHD germ-line mutations in pheochromocytoma patients

    C. Neumayer
    Abstract Background,SDHD germ-line mutations predispose to pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL). Material and methods, The incidence and types of SDHD germ-line mutations are determined in 70 patients with apparently sporadic adrenal and extra-adrenal PCC. Results,SDHD sequence variants were identified in the germ line of five patients. Two of three novel mutations were in exon 1 and one in exon 3. One patient had a codon 1 missense mutation (M1K) and a concurrent 3-bp deletion in intron 1. Three of 10 family members had only the exon 1 mutation, whereas one had only the intron 1 mutation. The other exon 1 mutation resulted from a deletion of nucleotides 28,33 with a 12-bp in-frame insertion (c.28_33 del ins TAGGAGGCCCTA). This mutation generated a premature stop codon after codon 9 and was also present in the brother who had a bilateral PCC. The third patient with a carotid body tumour, with an abdominal and a thoracic PGL had a 12-bp deletion in exon 3 (codons 91,94, c.271_282 del). Her father carried the same mutation and had bilateral carotid body tumours. Two further patients, one with six PGL, carried a previously described H50R polymorphism, whose disease-specific relevance is currently unclear. The three patients with bona fide SDHD mutations were younger than those without germ-line mutations. Conclusion,SDHD germ-line mutations are rare in patients with PCC, but their identification is an important prerequisite for the clinical care and appropriate management of affected individuals and their families. [source]

    Hearing loss in Fabry disease: data from the Fabry Outcome Survey

    S. Hegemann
    Abstract Background, Hearing loss is a common symptom in Fabry disease, but neither its natural course nor its aetiology has been defined precisely. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed epidemiological description of hearing impairment in patients in the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS), which is the largest available database of Fabry patients. Materials and methods, Questionnaires were completed by 566 Fabry patients, of whom 316 reported ear-related symptoms. Pure-tone audiograms from 86 patients, performed before starting enzyme replacement therapy, were analysed and compared with age- and sex-specific normal values (International Organization for Standardization, ISO 7029). Results, When compared to an age-matched population (ISO 7029), 74% of patients had a threshold elevated above the 95th centile in at least one tested frequency. All frequencies were affected to a similar degree. However, only 14 patients (16%) were clinically affected by hearing impairment according to the age-independent World Health Organization (WHO) classification (mean threshold at 0·5, 1 and 2 kHz worse than 25 dB). Hearing loss was sensorineural in 63 patients (73%) of whom 7 patients (8%) had also a conductive component. One patient had a purely conductive hearing loss. Episodes of sudden hearing loss seemed to occur more frequently than in the general population. Men were affected earlier and more severely than women. Conclusions, Hearing in Fabry disease is significantly worse than in an age-matched general population but leads to clinically relevant hearing impairment in only 16% of cases. It resembles accelerated presbycusis with an additional Fabry-specific strial-type hearing loss. [source]

    High risk of hepatitis B-virus reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplantation in hepatitis B core antibody-positive patients

    Kosei Matsue
    Abstract We investigated the serological changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related markers in 55 and 26 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients undergoing allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation, respectively, over the past 4 yr. Five of the 17 allogeneic and one of the five autologous patients with pretransplant anti-hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (anti-HBc) were HBsAg-positive after transplantation, whereas none of the patients negative for anti-HBc were HBsAg-positive in both groups. All patients who became HBsAg-positive received steroid-containing immunosuppressive therapy for chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) or myeloma. Four of the six patients developed flare of HBV hepatitis, and two patients did not. One patient developed fulminant hepatitis treated with lamivudine and plasma exchange. Other five patients received entecavir from the detection of HBsAg. Although HBV-DNA levels became below the limit of detection in all patients, HBsAg positivity remained in three patients after 6 months of treatment. We concluded that anti-HBc positivity is a risk factor for reactivation of HBV after both autologous and allogeneic transplantation, and HBV-related markers should be monitored regularly in these patients. We also stress the efficacy of pre-emptive use of antiviral agents in controlling HBV replication and limiting hepatic injury due to reactivation of HBV in these patients. [source]