Oculomotor Nucleus (oculomotor + nucleus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Oculomotor system: A dual innervation of the eye muscles from the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei

J.A. BŁttner-Ennever PhD

Neuronal and vascular localization of histamine N-methyltransferase in the bovine central nervous system

Masahiro Nishibori
Abstract Histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) (EC plays a crucial role in the inactivation of the neurotransmitter histamine in the CNS. However, the localization of HMT remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemical localization of HMT in the bovine CNS using a polyclonal antibody against bovine HMT. The HMT-like immunoreactivity was observed mainly in neurons. Strongly immunoreactive neurons were present in the oculomotor nucleus and ruber nucleus in the midbrain, the facial nucleus in the pons, the dorsal vagal nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus in the medulla oblongata and in the anterior horn as well as intermediolateral zone of the spinal cord. Intermediately immunoreactive neurons were present in the piriform cortex and the inferior olivary nucleus. The grey matter of the forebrain regions was diffusely and faintly stained. In the cerebellum and the striatum, the nerve fibres in the white matter were positive. The tuberomammillary nucleus, where histaminergic neurons are present, were weakly positive. The other immunoreactive structures in the CNS were blood vessels. Almost all of the blood vessel walls, irrespective of whether they were arterial or venous, were variably stained. The glial fibrillary acidic protein- (GFAP-) immunoreactive astrocytes were not stained. These findings indicated that histamine released from histaminergic nerve terminals or varicose fibres is methylated mainly in postsynaptic or extrasynaptic neurons rather than in astrocytes. The localization of HMT in the blood vessel wall may mean that blood-borne histamine and histamine released from mast cells associated with the blood vessels are catabolized in this structure. [source]

Twitch and nontwitch motoneuron subgroups in the oculomotor nucleus of monkeys receive different afferent projections

Richard Wasicky
Abstract Motoneurons in the primate oculomotor nucleus can be divided into two categories, those supplying twitch muscle fibers and those supplying nontwitch muscle fibers. Recent studies have shown that twitch motoneurons lie within the classical oculomotor nucleus (nIII), and nontwitch motoneurons lie around the borders. Nontwitch motoneurons of medial and inferior rectus are in the C group dorsomedial to nIII, whereas those of inferior oblique and superior rectus lie near the midline are in the S group. In this anatomical study, afferents to the twitch and nontwitch subgroups of nIII have been anterogradely labeled by injections of tritiated leucine into three areas and compared. 1) Abducens nucleus injections gave rise to silver grain deposits over all medial rectus subgroups, both twitch and nontwitch. 2) Laterally placed vestibular complex injections that included the central superior vestibular nucleus labeled projections only in twitch motoneuron subgroups. However, injections into the parvocellular medial vestibular nucleus (mvp), or Y group, resulted in labeled terminals over both twitch and nontwitch motoneurons. 3) Pretectal injections that included the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), and the olivary pretectal nucleus (OLN), labeled terminals only over nontwitch motoneurons, in the contralateral C group and in the S group. Our study demonstrates that twitch and nontwitch motoneuron subgroups do not receive identical afferent inputs. They can be controlled either in parallel, or independently, suggesting that they have basically different functions. We propose that twitch motoneurons primarily drive eye movements and nontwitch motoneurons the tonic muscle activity, as in gaze holding and vergence, possibly involving a proprioceptive feedback system. J. Comp. Neurol. 479:117,129, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]