Oculi Muscle (oculi + muscle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Oculi Muscle

  • orbiculari oculi muscle

  • Selected Abstracts

    Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Subjects with Crow's Feet

    Nicholas J. Lowe MD
    Background Published evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is an effective treatment for crow's feet. However, few dose-ranging studies have been performed. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of a single treatment with one of four doses of BTX-A (Botox/Vistabel, Allergan Inc) compared with placebo for the improvement of crow's feet. Methods Subjects received a single bilateral treatment of 18, 12, 6, or 3 U of BTX-A or placebo injected into the lateral aspect of the orbicularis oculi muscle (parallel-group, double,blind design). Investigators and subjects rated crow's feet severity at maximum smile on day 7 and at 30-day intervals from days 30 to 180. Results As observed by both investigators and subjects, all doses of BTX-A resulted in improvements in crow's feet severity when compared with placebo. A dose-dependent treatment effect for efficacy was observed, with higher doses having an increased magnitude and duration of effect. However, a clear differentiation between the 18 U and 12 U doses was not apparent. Few adverse events were reported, with no statistically significant differences between BTX-A and placebo in the incidence of subjects experiencing adverse events. Conclusion BTX-A is safe and effective in decreasing the severity of crow's feet, with 12 U per side suggested as the most appropriate dose. THIS STUDY WAS FUNDED BY ALLERGAN, WHICH WAS ALSO INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE STUDY; COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA; AND PREPARATION, REVIEW, AND APPROVAL OF THE MANUSCRIPT. DRS. LOWE AND FRACZEK ARE PAID CONSULTANTS FOR ALLERGAN, DRS. KUMAR AND EADIE ARE EMPLOYEES OF ALLERGAN, AND DRS. LOWE AND KUMAR HOLD STOCK OPTIONS. [source]

    Decreased Tear Expression with an Abnormal Schirmer's Test Following Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Lateral Canthal Rhytides

    Seth L. Matarasso MD
    background. Inactivation of muscles of facial expression by chemodenervation with botulinum toxin remains an off-label indication. Nevertheless, it continues to be a safe and effective technique to improve dynamic rhytides and is the treatment of choice for the hypertrophic lateral fibers of the orbicularis oculi muscle that can cause the superimposed crow's feet. objective. Although infrequent and self-limiting, the complication of unexpected muscle weakness from toxin diffusion or erroneous placement is documented. methods. However, injection into the pretarsal portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle resulting in unilateral ocular irritation and diminished tear expression as evidenced by a dry eye and an abnormal Schirmer's test has rarely been reported. Direct injection into the pretarsal fibers of the muscle as opposed to diffusion of the toxin into the muscle fibers or the lacrimal gland was consistent with the onset of action of the toxin and the prolonged duration of the ocular symptoms. results. Treatment consisted of ocular lubrication until the effects of the toxin dissipated and muscle tone returned. Subsequent treatment did not result in a result in a recurrence of adverse sequelae. conclusions. Facial muscles are small, not isolated, and often have fibers that interdigitate. An important factor in the administration of botulinum toxin is the identification of the muscles responsible for the corresponding rhytide. Precise knowledge of muscular anatomy and function will aid in minimizing this and other potential complications. [source]

    Botulinum-A Toxin Treatment of the Lower Eyelid Improves Infraorbital Rhytides and Widens the Eye

    Timothy Corcoran Flynn MD
    Botulinum-A exotoxin (BTX-A) can be used cosmetically to improve rhytides, particularly of the upper one-third of the face. In this study, fifteen women had BTX-A (BOTOX, Allergan, Inc.) injected into the orbicularis oculi muscle. One lower eyelid received two units just subdermally in the midpupillary line three millimeters below the ciliary margin. The opposite periocular area received two units BTX-A in the lower eyelid with 12 units BTX-A injected into the lateral orbital ("crow's foot") area. Three injections of four units each were placed 1.5 cm from the lateral canthus, each 1 cm apart. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the degree of improvement (grade 0 = no improvement, grade 1 = mild improvement, grade 2 = moderate improvement, and grade 3 = dramatic improvement). An independent photographic analysis was performed. Patients reported a grade of 0.73 when two units were injected alone into the lower lid, and a grade of 1.9 when the lower eyelid and the lateral orbital areas were injected. Physician assessment was grade 0.7 with injection of the eyelid alone and grade 1.8 with injection of the lower eyelid and lateral orbital area. Single investigator photographic analysis demonstrated that 40% of the subjects who had injection of the lower eyelid alone had an increased palpebral aperture (IPA), while 86% of the subjects who had injection of the lower eyelid and lateral orbital area had an IPA. Subjects receiving two units alone had an average 0.5 mm IPA and a mean 1.3 mm IPA at full smile. Concomitant treatment of the lateral orbital area produced a mean 1.8 mm IPA at rest and a mean 2.9 mm IPA at full smile. The results were more notable in the Asian eye. Two units of BTX-A injected into the lower eyelid orbicularis oculi muscle improves infraorbital wrinkles, particularly when used in combination with BTX-A treatment of the lateral orbital area. [source]

    Electrical activation of the orbicularis oculi muscle does not increase the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in patients with blepharospasm

    A. Conte
    Background:, Our primary aim in this study was to determine whether electrically induced activation of the injected muscle increases effectiveness of botulinum type A toxin (BonT-A) in patients with blepharospasm (BPS). The second aim was to assess the safety of BonT-A by investigating whether BonT-A injection alters the excitability of blink reflex circuits in the brainstem. Methods:, Twenty-three patients with BPS received BonT-A (Botox) injected bilaterally into the orbicularis oculi muscle at a standard dose. In 18 patients, electrically induced muscle activation of the orbicularis oculi muscle on one side was performed for 60 min (4 Hz frequency) in a single session, immediately after BonT-A injection and in five patients for 60 min once a day for five consecutive days. The severity of BPS was assessed clinically with the BPS score. Compound muscle action potential (cMAPs) from the orbicularis oculi muscles were measured bilaterally. The blink reflex recovery cycle was studied at interstimulus intervals of 250 and 500 ms. Participants underwent clinical and neurophysiological assessment before BonT-A injection (T0) and 2 weeks thereafter (T1). Results:, Compound muscle action potential amplitude significantly decreased at T1 but did not differ between stimulated and non-stimulated orbicularis oculi in the two groups. BonT-A injection left the blink reflex recovery cycle tested on the stimulated and non-stimulated sides unchanged. Conclusions:, In patients with BPS, the electrically induced muscle activation neither increases the effectiveness of BonT-A nor produces larger electrophysiological peripheral effects. The lack of BonT-A-induced changes in the blink reflex recovery cycle provides evidence that BonT-A therapy is safe in patients with BPS. [source]

    Lateral spread response elicited by double stimulation in patients with hemifacial spasm

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 6 2002
    Shinya Yamashita MD
    Abstract In patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS), a lateral spread response (or abnormal muscle response) is recorded from facial muscles after facial nerve stimulation. The origin of this response is not completely understood. We studied the lateral spread responses elicited by double stimulation in 12 patients with HFS during microvascular decompression. The response was recorded from the mentalis muscle by electrical stimulation of the temporal branch of the facial nerve or from the orbicularis oculi muscles by stimulation of the marginal mandibular branch. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of double stimulation ranged from 0.5 to 7.0 ms. R1 was defined as the response elicited by the first stimulus, and R2 as the response elicited by the second stimulus. R1 had a constant latency and amplitude regardless of the ISI, whereas R2 appeared after a fixed refractory period without facilitation or depression in a recovery curve of latency and amplitude. From these findings, we consider that the lateral spread response is due to cross-transmission of facial nerve fibers at the site of vascular compression rather than arising from facial nerve motor neurons. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve 25: 000,000, 2002 [source]

    Blepharoclonus and Arnold,Chiari malformation

    M.D. Daniel E. Jacome
    Objective, Blepharoclonus (BLC) denotes a large amplitude, involuntary tremors of the orbicularis oculi muscles, observed during gentle closure of the eyelids. BLC may follow major head trauma. Four patients with Arnold,Chiari malformation (ACM) and BLC are described. Materials and methods, The first patient had facial numbness for 5 months; the remaining patients had headaches following minor head or cervical spinal injuries. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) blink reflexes, mental and facial nerve responses and facial electromyogram (EMG) were performed. Results, All patients exhibited ACM on brain MRI. The first patient had coincidental dural venous malformation, empty-sella turcica and familial digital dysplasia. She exhibited oculopterygoid synkinesis. The last 3 patients had posttraumatic headache; the second and third patients had limited features of Ehlers,Danlos syndrome (EDS). The second patient had cervical spinal fusion and the fourth a cervical syrinx. All the patients had BLC on gentle eyelid closure. Conclusion, BLC is an underdiagnosed neuro-ophthalmological sign of ACM. [source]