Ocular Signs (ocular + sign)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Childhood ocular rosacea: Considerations for diagnosis and treatment

Esther Hong
ABSTRACT Rosacea in children is not as well described as it is in adults. Ocular signs may be a dominant feature and some children with what has previously been called periorificial dermatitis may in fact have rosacea. We report three cases of paediatric ocular rosacea responding to prolonged treatment with oral erythromycin. Our cases demonstrate the close association of periorificial dermatitis with childhood rosacea, and highlight the importance of eye signs in its diagnostic criteria. [source]

Efficacy and safety of single- and multiple-dose ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution in a pediatric population

Mark B. Abelson
Allergic conjunctivitis can seriously disrupt children's daily activities. This study assessed the efficacy (onset and duration of action) and safety of ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution compared with vehicle placebo in pediatric subjects after single and multiple dosing. This was a double-masked, multicenter, fellow-eye, placebo-controlled, conjunctival allergen challenge trial. Eligible subjects (8,16-yr-olds) who produced a qualifying reaction to allergen were randomized to a single dose (one drop) of ketotifen fumarate in one eye and vehicle placebo in the fellow eye, followed by an allergen challenge at 15 min and 8 h post-dose. Subjects who had a qualifying reaction to allergen in the placebo-treated eye and a qualifying response to ketotifen in the active-treated eye following the single dose were re-randomized to a multiple-dose treatment period. They were instructed to instill one drop of ketotifen fumarate in one eye and placebo in the other eye twice daily for 4 wk. An allergen challenge was conducted 8 h after the last dose. The primary efficacy assessment was ocular itching, judged by the subject at 3, 7, and 10 min post-allergen challenge after single- and multiple-dose treatments. Other ocular signs and symptoms were assessed at 7, 10, and 15 min post-dose. A total of 133 subjects were randomized to single-dose treatment; 105 were evaluable for efficacy. Of these, 60 were re-randomized to multiple-dose treatment, and 55 were evaluable for efficacy. After single and multiple doses, ketotifen fumarate significantly inhibited ocular itching compared with placebo at all post-challenge timepoints (p < 0.001) and also significantly reduced hyperemia, chemosis, and lid swelling (p = 0.031). No drug-related systemic adverse events were reported, and ocular adverse events were comparable to placebo. No subject discontinued prematurely due to an adverse event. These results indicate that ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution is an effective and safe treatment option for children with allergic conjunctivitis. [source]

A combination of total intravenous anesthesia and thoracic epidural for thymectomy in juvenile myasthenia gravis

OLIVER BAGSHAW MBChB FRCAArticle first published online: 12 DEC 200
Summary Juvenile myasthenia gravis is the acquired form of the disease in children and presents with ocular signs, fatigability, weakness and bulbar problems. The majority of patients demonstrate thymic hyperplasia and have been shown to benefit from thymectomy. The main considerations for the anesthesiologist are the degree of muscle weakness, the muscle groups involved and sensitivity to neuromuscular blocking drugs and volatile agents. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with epidural analgesia is probably the anesthetic technique of choice, although the latter is often avoided, because of the risk of a very high block. Two cases of thymectomy are presented where anesthesia was provided using a combination of TIVA and thoracic epidural analgesia. Both patients tolerated the technique well and had an uncomplicated perioperative course. [source]

1262: Symptoms and signs of anterior uveitis

Purpose Based on the anatomic classification of uveitis, iritis and iridocyclitis are classified as anterior uveitis. Methods Symptoms and signs of anterior uveitis will be presented Results Patients with acute anterior uveitis typically present with red eyes, photophobia, ocular pain, and sometimes visual blurring. In chronic anterior uveitis, onset is usually insidious and patients may be asymptomatic until the development of complications. Ciliary injection, endothelial dusting or fine keratic precipitates (KPs), cells and flare in the anterior chamber with or without hypopyon formation or fibrinous exudate are the typical findings of alternating unilateral acute nongranulomatous anterior uveitis which is most commonly seen in association with HLA-B27 antigen and spondyloarthropaties. Medium-size KPs or large mutton-fat KPs, chronic flare, Koeppe and Busacca nodules of the iris, peripheral anterior synechiae and broad-based posterior synechiae are the typical findings of granulomatous anterior uveitis which is often chronic. Viral anterior uveitis is characterized by unilateral recurrent episodes of anterior uveitis characterized by endotheliitis, elevated intraocular pressure, and patchy or sectoral iris atrophy. JIA-associated anterior uveitis is typically a bilateral nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis often complicated by band keratopathy, seclusion of the pupil, and cataract. Conclusion Symptoms and signs in anterior uveitis vary depending on the acute or chronic, ganulomatous or nongranulomatous nature of the disease. Specific anterior uveitic entities are characterized by a distinct constellation of ocular signs. [source]

Switching from a preserved to a preservative-free prostaglandin preparation in topical glaucoma medication

Hannu Uusitalo
Abstract. Purpose:, The purpose of this study was to investigate the tolerability and intraocular pressure (IOP) reducing effect of the first preservative-free prostaglandin tafluprost (Taflotan®) in patients exhibiting ocular surface side-effects during latanoprost (Xalatan®) treatment. Methods:, A total of 158 patients were enrolled in this open-label multicentre study. Eligible patients had to have at least two ocular symptoms, or one sign and one symptom, during treatment with latanoprost. At baseline, the patients were directly switched from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost for 12 weeks. The patients were queried for ocular symptoms, and ocular signs were assessed by using tear break-up time, Schirmer's test, fluorescein staining and evaluation of conjunctival hyperaemia and blepharitis. In addition, HLA-DR and MUC5AC in conjunctival impression cytology specimens were analyzed, and a drop discomfort/quality of life (QoL) questionnaire was employed. IOP was measured at all visits. Results:, Preservative-free tafluprost maintained IOP at the same level after 12- weeks treatment (16.4 ± 2.7 mmHg) as latanoprost at baseline (16.8 ± 2.5 mmHg). During treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, the number of patients having irritation/burning/stinging (56.3%), itching (46.8%), foreign body sensation (49.4%), tearing (55.1%) and dry eye sensation (64.6%) decreased to 28.4%, 26.5%, 27.1%, 27.1% and 39.4% correspondingly. The number of the patients with abnormal fluorescein staining of cornea (81.6%) and conjunctiva (84.2%), blepharitis (60.1%), conjunctival hyperaemia (84.2%) and abnormal Schirmer's test (71.5%) was also reduced significantly to 40.6%, 43.2%, 40.6%, 60.0% and 59.4% correspondingly. The tear break-up time improved significantly from 4.5 ± 2.5 seconds to 7.8 ± 4.9 seconds. A reduction in the number of patients with abnormal conjunctival cells based on HLA-DR and MUC5AC was also detected. Conclusions:, Preservative-free tafluprost maintained IOP at the same level as latanoprost, but was better tolerated in patients having signs or symptoms while on preserved latanoprost. Preservative-free tafluprost treatment resulted in improved QoL, increased patient satisfaction and drop comfort. [source]

Isolated extraocular muscle involvement as the ophthalmic manifestation of leukaemia

Hayyam Kiratli MD
Abstract Background:, Clinical and imaging features of patients with orbital leukaemia primarily involving extraocular muscles were evaluated. Methods:, This retrospective case series includes patients with leukaemia whose only ophthalmic manifestation was extraocular muscle enlargement. Demographic data, clinical information on the systemic disease, prominent ocular signs and symptoms, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, treatments applied and the outcomes were collected. Results:, Five patients were diagnosed as leukaemic infiltration of extraocular muscle between 1995 and 2008. The age at presentation ranged between 3 and 61 years. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the diagnosis in two patients, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia and biphenotypic acute leukaemia were found in one patient each, respectively. One patient had bilateral involvement. The lateral rectus muscle was affected in four patients and the superior rectus muscle in one case. Restricted ocular motility was the most common finding. In one patient who had no prior history of leukaemia, an incisional biopsy established the diagnosis. All patients received multi-agent chemotherapy. Four patients expired after a rapid decline of the systemic status within a mean period of 7 months. Conclusions:, Leukaemic infiltration of extraocular muscles is a rare and late manifestation of the advanced disease associated with relapse and there seems to be a predilection for the lateral rectus muscle. Systemic prognosis remains dismal despite intensive chemotherapy. [source]