Ocular Motility (ocular + motility)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Ophthalmological, cognitive, electrophysiological and MRI assessment of visual processing in preterm children without major neuromotor impairment

Michelle O'Reilly
Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (< 33 weeks gestation or birthweight < 1000 g) without major neuromotor impairment and 12 born full-term controls were assessed at 8,12 years of age by means of ophthalmological assessment (visual acuity, colour vision, stereopsis, stereoacuity, visual fields, ocular motility, motor fusion), cognitive tests of visual-motor, visual-perceptual and visual-spatial skills and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEPs). All participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and neuromotor assessments. No significant differences were found between the groups on the ophthalmological, visual cognitive, neurological, neuromotor or MRI measures. The P100 component of the PR-VEP showed a significantly shorter latency in the preterm compared with the full-term participants. Whilst this P100 finding suggests that subtle abnormalities may exist at the neurophysiological level, we conclude that visual dysfunction is not systematically associated with preterm birth in the context of normal neurological status. [source]

Hyaluronidase allergy: A rare cause of periorbital inflammation

Kate Borchard
ABSTRACT Hyaluronidase is a bovine or ovine testicular protein that is used as an adjunct to co-administered medicaments and fluids to enhance their dispersion and absorption through the degradation of hyaluronan. While it is a known potential allergen, there are few reports of hyaluronidase hypersensitivity. A 56-year-old lady presented 8 hours post glaucoma surgery with ipsilateral lacriminorrhoea, periorbital erythema, oedema, proptosis, pruritis and conjunctival chemosis. Right ocular motility was restricted and visual acuity was reduced. The reaction settled with oral corticosteroids and antihistamines. Hyaluronidase allergy was confirmed on skin prick testing. Hyaluronidase allergy is rare. In the few cases reported, reactions occurred at various doses and were acute (intraoperative), early (within hours), intermediate (within days) or delayed (within weeks). Anaphylaxis has also been described. Primary sensitization appears to be a prerequisite for most reactions. The variability in onset of symptoms and the response to skin testing would suggest that type I and type IV hypersensitivity may both contribute to this response. In this case, the timing fitted with a late phase type 1 reaction. This case shows that despite being less common than haemorrhage for acute reactions and infection for delayed reactions, allergy can account for orbital inflammation following ophthalmic surgery. [source]

2462: Phenotype/genotype in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

Purpose To report and to classify the ocular motility disorders in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. This rare syndrome, 1 of 200,000 livebirths, is characterized by a lack of ventilation due to defects of autonomic control especially of hypercapnia. Methods We examine in a study 34 children (range 9 days-old to 15 yo) with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. They underwent a complete ocular and orthoptic consultation. An informed consent was signed to perform a DNA analysis to precise PHOX-2B gene mutations. Results Anisocoria, stabismus, eso and exotropia or phoria, ptosis, craniofacial palsy were found and we evaluated disorders considering intrinsic ocular motility and extrinsic ocular motility. We classified ocular anomalies in minor and major types with a score. The phenotype score was established in correlation with genotype. The score is higher in patients with genotype of equal or more 7 ALA mutations and a precise table correlation was established. Conclusion The high incidence of ocular motility disorders may result of neurologic defects of the oculomotor nerves and muscles involving neural crest development. A precise phenotype contributes to an evaluation of the severity of the disease and can also lead to a better reeducation of oculomotor anomalies. [source]

Isolated extraocular muscle involvement as the ophthalmic manifestation of leukaemia

Hayyam Kiratli MD
Abstract Background:, Clinical and imaging features of patients with orbital leukaemia primarily involving extraocular muscles were evaluated. Methods:, This retrospective case series includes patients with leukaemia whose only ophthalmic manifestation was extraocular muscle enlargement. Demographic data, clinical information on the systemic disease, prominent ocular signs and symptoms, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, treatments applied and the outcomes were collected. Results:, Five patients were diagnosed as leukaemic infiltration of extraocular muscle between 1995 and 2008. The age at presentation ranged between 3 and 61 years. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the diagnosis in two patients, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia and biphenotypic acute leukaemia were found in one patient each, respectively. One patient had bilateral involvement. The lateral rectus muscle was affected in four patients and the superior rectus muscle in one case. Restricted ocular motility was the most common finding. In one patient who had no prior history of leukaemia, an incisional biopsy established the diagnosis. All patients received multi-agent chemotherapy. Four patients expired after a rapid decline of the systemic status within a mean period of 7 months. Conclusions:, Leukaemic infiltration of extraocular muscles is a rare and late manifestation of the advanced disease associated with relapse and there seems to be a predilection for the lateral rectus muscle. Systemic prognosis remains dismal despite intensive chemotherapy. [source]