Ocular Irritation (ocular + irritation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Decreased Tear Expression with an Abnormal Schirmer's Test Following Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Lateral Canthal Rhytides

Seth L. Matarasso MD
background. Inactivation of muscles of facial expression by chemodenervation with botulinum toxin remains an off-label indication. Nevertheless, it continues to be a safe and effective technique to improve dynamic rhytides and is the treatment of choice for the hypertrophic lateral fibers of the orbicularis oculi muscle that can cause the superimposed crow's feet. objective. Although infrequent and self-limiting, the complication of unexpected muscle weakness from toxin diffusion or erroneous placement is documented. methods. However, injection into the pretarsal portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle resulting in unilateral ocular irritation and diminished tear expression as evidenced by a dry eye and an abnormal Schirmer's test has rarely been reported. Direct injection into the pretarsal fibers of the muscle as opposed to diffusion of the toxin into the muscle fibers or the lacrimal gland was consistent with the onset of action of the toxin and the prolonged duration of the ocular symptoms. results. Treatment consisted of ocular lubrication until the effects of the toxin dissipated and muscle tone returned. Subsequent treatment did not result in a result in a recurrence of adverse sequelae. conclusions. Facial muscles are small, not isolated, and often have fibers that interdigitate. An important factor in the administration of botulinum toxin is the identification of the muscles responsible for the corresponding rhytide. Precise knowledge of muscular anatomy and function will aid in minimizing this and other potential complications. [source]

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in foundry workers exposed to low molecular weight isocyanates

Håkan Löfstedt MD
Abstract Background This study investigated the prevalence of ocular and respiratory symptoms and lung function in foundry workers exposed to isocyanic acid (ICA) and methyl isocyanate (MIC). Methods Foundry workers (n,=,64) using the Hot Box binder technique and referents (n,=,134) completed two questionnaires and a spirometry before and after a day shift. Findings were analyzed relating to exposure measurements of ICA, MIC, and formaldehyde. Results Exposed workers reported more frequently ocular irritation and coughing. Pre-shift lung function was lower than predicted in both groups of workers, and was not associated with exposure duration. Decrease in lung function over shift was more pronounced in exposed workers, but this was not associated with quantitative measures of the exposures. Conclusions An increased prevalence of ocular and respiratory symptoms, as well as a small decrease in lung function over shift, was observed among exposed workers. No associations with exposure to monoisocyanates and formaldehyde were seen, thus suggesting that other irritants in the foundry environment might be the cause. The effects seemed to be small and not clinically relevant on an individual level. Further studies using a follow-up design may be warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:455,463, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A case of chronic ocular irritation associated with progressive corneal opacification

Neil Lagali
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Delayed ocular complications of mustard gas poisoning and the relationship with respiratory and cutaneous complications

Mohammad Etezad-Razavi MD
Abstract Background:, This study was aimed to determine the correlation between ocular complications and respiratory or cutaneous complications in a group of 40 Iranian veterans with late complications of sulphur mustard (SM) poisoning. Methods:, Thorough ophthalmologic examination was performed on all severely SM-poisoned veterans in the province of Khorasan, Iran. Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function, as well as estimation of the burned skin area, was performed for all the patients. The severities of ocular, respiratory and cutaneous complications were classified into four grades in each patient and were compared with each other, using Spearman's rank correlation test. Results:, Forty male patients (aged 43.8 ± 9.8 years) with confirmed SM poisoning were studied 16,20 years after their initial exposure. Common symptoms were recorded as itching (42.5%), burning sensation (37.5%), photophobia (30%) and tearing (27.5%). Abnormal conjunctival and limbal findings were chronic conjunctivitis (17.5%), perilimbal hyperpigmentation (17.5%), vascular tortuosity (15%) and limbal ischaemia (12.5%). Abnormal corneal findings were subepithelial opacity (15%), corneal thinning (15%), diffuse corneal opacity (10%), neovascularization (7.5%) and epithelial defects (5%). A significant positive correlation was found between the severity of ocular and respiratory complications (r = 0.322, P = 0.043). Cutaneous complications revealed no significant correlation with either ocular or respiratory complications. Conclusions:, SM causes delayed destructive lesions in the ocular surface and cornea, leading to progressive visual deterioration and ocular irritation. Late complications of SM poisoning in the eyes, respiratory system and skin are mainly due to SM's local irritant effects. [source]

Medial canthal tendon repair for moderate to severe tendon laxity

Colin I Clement MB BS PhD
Abstract Background:,Medial canthal tendon laxity is a common cause of epiphora and ocular irritation. It is difficult to treat due to the proximity of the lower canaliculus and punctum to the tendon. Methods:,The results of a prospective series of patients with involutional medial canthal tendon laxity between 1997 and 2002 were reviewed. Symptoms and measured laxity were recorded before and after medial canthal tendon repair. The medial canthal tendon was routinely repaired through a cut along the lid margin extending from the punctum medially. This avoids a vertical cut onto the anterior lamella of the eyelid, which is useful if a skin graft is required. Results:,Twenty lower eyelid medial canthal tendon repairs were performed on 17 patients. Preoperatively, the lower punctum in all patients was able to be distracted to the medial limbus or further and in 50% of cases, the lower lid punctum was able to be distracted to the pupil midline or further. Postoperatively all patients had reduction of their medial canthal tendon laxity. Postoperatively in 85% of cases the lower punctum was not able to be distracted beyond the medial limbus; however, 15% of cases still had significant residual laxity. Eighty-five per cent of patients reported improvement in symptoms. Conclusions:,This is an effective procedure in the majority of patients with moderate to severe medial canthal tendon laxity; however, residual lower lid laxity persisted in some patients. [source]