Ocular Infections (ocular + infections)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Detection and Prevention of Ocular Phototoxicity of Ciprofloxacin and Other Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics,

Baozhong Zhao
Fluoroquinolone (FLQ) drugs are a potent family of antibiotics used to treat infections including ocular infections. To determine if these antibiotics may be phototoxic to the eye, we exposed human lens epithelial cells to 0.125,1 mm FLQs (ciprofloxacin [Cipro], lomefloxacin [Lome], norfloxacin [Nor] and ofloxacin [Ofl]), the precursor quinolone nalidixic acid (Nalid) and UVA radiation (2.5 J cm,2). Based on fluorescence confocal microscopy, FLQs are diffused throughout the cytoplasm and preferentially located in the lysosomes of lens epithelial cells. Neither FLQ exposure alone nor UVA exposure alone reduced cell viability. However, with exposure to UVA radiation the FLQs studied (Cipro, Nor, Lome and Ofl) induced a phototoxic reaction that included necrosis, apoptosis, loss of cell viability as measured by MTS, and membrane damage as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Both Nalid and all FLQs studied (Cipro, Nor, Lome and Ofl) photopolymerized the lens protein ,-crystallin. Phototoxic damage to lens epithelial cells and/or ,-crystallin will lead to a loss of transparency of the human lens. However, if precautions are taken to filter all UV radiation from the eye while taking these antibiotics, eye damage may be prevented. [source]

Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases

Eyal Margalit
Abstract:, A variety of disease processes can affect the retina and/or the optic nerve, including vascular or ischemic disease, inflammatory or infectious disease, and degenerative disease. These disease processes may selectively damage certain parts of the retina or optic nerve, and the specific areas that are damaged may have implications for the design of potential therapeutic visual prosthetic devices. Outer retinal diseases include age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and retinitis pigmentosa. Although the retinal photoreceptors may be lost, the inner retina is relatively well-preserved in these diseases and may be a target for retinal prosthetic devices. Inner retinal diseases include retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal venous occlusive disease, and retinopathy of prematurity. Other retinal diseases such as ocular infections (retinitis, endophthalmitis) may affect all retinal layers. Because the inner retinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cells, may be destroyed in these diseases (inner retinal or whole retinal), prosthetic devices that stimulate the inner retina may not be effective. Common optic nerve diseases include glaucoma, optic neuritis, and ischemic optic neuropathy. Because the ganglion cell nerve fibers themselves are damaged, visual prosthetics for these diseases will need to target more distal portions of the visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. Clearly, a sound understanding of retinal and optic nerve disease pathophysiology is critical for designing and choosing the optimal visual prosthetic device. [source]

2211: The utility of a rabbit model of adenovirus ocular infection

Acute adenovirus ocular infections are the most common ocular viral infections worldwide and are associated with community and medical facility epidemics. While not permanently blinding, ocular adenoviral infections are associated with significant patient morbidity, including symptomatic distress with visual disturbances which can last years, and loss of time from school or work. Currently, the treatment of these acute infections is symptomatic due to the lack of an approved antiviral. This symptomatic treatment presents a controversy of whether to treat these viral infections with immunomodulating agents (e.g. topical corticosteroids, NSAIDs, cyclosporine A), which are contraindicated for use in the treatment of the other major external ocular viral infection, HSV-1 epithelial keratitis. The adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)/New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit ocular model has provided data for potential clinical guidelines for the use of immunomodulating agents in the treatment of adenovirus ocular infections. Moreover, this model has been used extensively to evaluate promising candidate antivirals for adenovirus. Multiple candidate antivirals have been evaluated in vivo using this model, and several have proceeded to human clinical trials. The current presentation will discuss the potential clinical guidelines for the use of immunomodulating agents, present data on potential new topical antiviral agents, discuss the potential combination therapy of an antiviral and immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of adenovirus ocular infections as well as the limitations of the model. Commercial interest [source]

2212: Animal models for vaccinia virus keratitis

Purpose Studies on pathogenic mechanisms involved in viral ocular infections and testing of potential therapies requires well established quantitative animal models. We present a new model of Vaccinia virus keratitis. Methods Rabbits were infected with the Dryvax strain of Vaccinia virus and disease was scored using a modified MacDonald-Shadduck scoring system. The model will be described and examples of the use of the model for studies of pathogenesis and testing therapeutic approaches will be presented. Results The optimum dose of virus was determined (10e5 PFU). Infiltration of neutrophils followed predominantly by CD4+ cells occurred in the cornea and the optimum therapy was determined to be topical viroptic 9 times per day for 10 days. Steroid use should be avoided. Conclusion A new model of Vaccinia keratitis has been developed that is useful for pathogenesis and therapeutic studies. Commercial interest [source]

The use of animal models for the evaluation of ocular antiviral agents

Animal models have been used extensively in the evaluation and development of topical ocular antiviral agents. Rabbit ocular models have proven predictive of the clinical efficacy of topical antiviral agents for HSV-1 epithelial keratitis and in clinical trials for adenoviral ocular infections. The current presentation will discuss the limitations of these models and present data on potential new topical antiviral agents, focusing primarily on antivirals for adenoviral ocular infections. [source]

Medical treatment for combined Fusarium and Acanthamoeba keratitis

Hsin-Chiung Lin
Abstract. Purpose:,Acanthamoeba and fungal keratitis are rare ocular infections. We report cases of combined Fusarium and Acanthamoeba keratitis and the clinical course of medical treatment. Methods:, We reviewed the medical records of patients treated for culture-proven Acanthamoeba keratitis at a referral centre, during 2001,2006. Results:, Eleven consecutive patients were treated for culture-proven Acanthamoeba keratitis during the 5 years, two of whom had combined fungal infections. A 29-year-old man presented with ground-glass corneal oedema and epitheliopathy caused by contact lens use. The other patient, a 7-year-old girl, had eye trauma that led to a feathery corneal infiltrate. Both cases were treated with topical 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), 0.1% propamidine, 1% clotrimazole and 5% natamycin. Therapeutic keratoplasty was not required in either case. Conclusions:, Timely identification of the pathogen, with repeated culture and smear if necessary, as well as adequate dosage to prevent recurrence is highly recommended in order to preclude the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. [source]

Speciation and susceptibility of Nocardia isolated from ocular infections

A.K. Reddy
Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1168,1171 Abstract Twenty Nocardia spp. isolated from ocular infections were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and susceptibility was determined using the E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Species distribution among the 20 isolates was as follows: Nocardia levis (n = 7), Nocardia farcinica (n = 3), Nocardia abscessus (n = 2), Nocardia brasiliensis (n = 2), Nocardia amamiensis (n = 2), Nocardia puris (n = 1), Nocardia beijingensis (n = 1), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (n = 1) and Nocardia thailandica (n = 1). All isolates were sensitive to amikacin. Eighteen (90%) isolates were sensitive to tobramycin, 11 (55%) to ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin, and seven (35%) to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Molecular methods are useful for the identification and for the detection of Nocardia species that have not so far been reported in human infections. [source]