Ocular Dominance (ocular + dominance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Callosal contribution to ocular dominance in rat primary visual cortex

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 7 2010
Chiara Cerri
Abstract Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity triggered by monocular eyelid suture is a classic paradigm for studying experience-dependent changes in neural connectivity. Recently, rodents have become the most popular model for studies of OD plasticity. It is therefore important to determine how OD is determined in the rodent primary visual cortex. In particular, cortical cells receive considerable inputs from the contralateral hemisphere via callosal axons, but the role of these connections in controlling eye preference remains controversial. Here we have examined the role of callosal connections in binocularity of the visual cortex in na´ve young rats. We recorded cortical responses evoked by stimulation of each eye before and after acute silencing, via stereotaxic tetrodotoxin (TTX) injection, of the lateral geniculate nucleus ipsilateral to the recording site. This protocol allowed us to isolate visual responses transmitted via the corpus callosum. Cortical binocularity was assessed by visual evoked potential (VEP) and single-unit recordings. We found that acute silencing of afferent geniculocortical input produced a very significant reduction in the contralateral-to-ipsilateral (C/I) VEP ratio, and a marked shift towards the ipsilateral eye in the OD distribution of cortical cells. Analysis of absolute strength of each eye indicated a dramatic decrease in contralateral eye responses following TTX, while those of the ipsilateral eye were reduced but maintained a more evident input. We conclude that callosal connections contribute to normal OD mainly by carrying visual input from the ipsilateral eye. These data have important implications for the interpretation of OD plasticity following alterations of visual experience. [source]


Sensory ocular dominance based on resolution acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPTOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
Catherine Suttle PhD MCOptom
Background:, Ocular dominance is the superiority or preference of one eye over the other in terms of sighting, sensory function (for example, visual acuity) or persistence in binocular rivalry. There is poor agreement between sighting and sensory dominance and findings are equivocal on the possible neural basis of ocular dominance and its significance. Thus, there are questions on the meaning and importance of ocular dominance. Despite the lack of clarity in this area, ocular dominance is used clinically, for example, as the basis for decisions on monovision in contact lens wear and on treatment of anomalies of binocular vision. Methods:, Sighting dominance and three types of sensory dominance (based on resolution acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity) were compared within individuals, with the main aim of determining whether sensory dominance is consistent across spatial visual functions. Results:, Our findings indicate that each type of sensory dominance is insignificant in most individuals and in agreement with previous work that sensory and sighting dominance do not generally agree. Conclusion:, These results demonstrate not only that different types of ocular dominance are not in agreement but also that in the normal visual system sensory dominance as measured here is insignificant in most individuals with normal vision. [source]


Callosal contribution to ocular dominance in rat primary visual cortex

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 7 2010
Chiara Cerri
Abstract Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity triggered by monocular eyelid suture is a classic paradigm for studying experience-dependent changes in neural connectivity. Recently, rodents have become the most popular model for studies of OD plasticity. It is therefore important to determine how OD is determined in the rodent primary visual cortex. In particular, cortical cells receive considerable inputs from the contralateral hemisphere via callosal axons, but the role of these connections in controlling eye preference remains controversial. Here we have examined the role of callosal connections in binocularity of the visual cortex in na´ve young rats. We recorded cortical responses evoked by stimulation of each eye before and after acute silencing, via stereotaxic tetrodotoxin (TTX) injection, of the lateral geniculate nucleus ipsilateral to the recording site. This protocol allowed us to isolate visual responses transmitted via the corpus callosum. Cortical binocularity was assessed by visual evoked potential (VEP) and single-unit recordings. We found that acute silencing of afferent geniculocortical input produced a very significant reduction in the contralateral-to-ipsilateral (C/I) VEP ratio, and a marked shift towards the ipsilateral eye in the OD distribution of cortical cells. Analysis of absolute strength of each eye indicated a dramatic decrease in contralateral eye responses following TTX, while those of the ipsilateral eye were reduced but maintained a more evident input. We conclude that callosal connections contribute to normal OD mainly by carrying visual input from the ipsilateral eye. These data have important implications for the interpretation of OD plasticity following alterations of visual experience. [source]


Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Inhibition Does Not Restore Ocular Dominance Plasticity in a Ferret Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2010
Thomas E. Krahe
Background:, There is growing evidence that deficits in neuronal plasticity account for some of the neurological problems observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Recently, we showed that early alcohol exposure results in a permanent impairment in visual cortex ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in a ferret model of FASD. This disruption can be reversed, however, by treating animals with a Phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 1 inhibitor long after the period of alcohol exposure. Aim:, Because the mammalian brain presents different types of PDE isoforms we tested here whether inhibition of PDE type 4 also ameliorates the effects of alcohol on OD plasticity. Material and Methods:, Ferrets received 3.5 g/Kg alcohol i.p. (25% in saline) or saline as control every other day between postnatal day (P) 10 to P30, which is roughly equivalent to the third trimester equivalent of human gestation. Following a prolonged alcohol-free period (10 to 15 days), ferrets had the lid of the right eye sutured closed for 4 days and were examined for ocular dominance changes at the end of the period of deprivation. Results:, Using in vivo electrophysiology we show that inhibition of PDE4 by rolipram does not restore OD plasticity in alcohol-treated ferrets. Conclusion:, This result suggests that contrary to PDE1, PDE4 inhibition does not play a role in the restoration of OD plasticity in the ferret model of FASD. [source]


Co-regulation of ocular dominance plasticity and NMDA receptor subunit expression in glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 knock-out mice

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
Patrick O. Kanold
Experience can shape cortical circuits, especially during critical periods for plasticity. In visual cortex, imbalance of activity from the two eyes during the critical period shifts ocular dominance (OD) towards the more active eye. Inhibitory circuits are crucial in this process: OD plasticity is absent in GAD65KO mice that show diminished inhibition. This defect can be rescued by application of benzodiazepines, which increase GABAergic signalling. However, it is unknown how such changes in inhibition might disrupt and then restore OD plasticity. Since NMDA dependent synaptic plasticity mechanisms are also known to contribute to OD plasticity, we investigated whether NMDA receptor levels and function are also altered in GAD65KO. There are reduced NR2A levels and slower NMDA currents in visual cortex of GAD65KO mice. Application of benzodiazepines, which rescues OD plasticity, also increases NR2A levels. Thus it appears as if OD plasticity can be restored by adding a critical amount of excitatory transmission through NR2A-containing NMDA receptors. Together, these observations can unify competing ideas of how OD plasticity is regulated: changes in either inhibition or excitation would engage homeostatic mechanisms that converge to regulate NMDA receptors, thereby enabling plasticity mechanisms and also ensuring circuit stability. [source]


Sensory ocular dominance based on resolution acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPTOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
Catherine Suttle PhD MCOptom
Background:, Ocular dominance is the superiority or preference of one eye over the other in terms of sighting, sensory function (for example, visual acuity) or persistence in binocular rivalry. There is poor agreement between sighting and sensory dominance and findings are equivocal on the possible neural basis of ocular dominance and its significance. Thus, there are questions on the meaning and importance of ocular dominance. Despite the lack of clarity in this area, ocular dominance is used clinically, for example, as the basis for decisions on monovision in contact lens wear and on treatment of anomalies of binocular vision. Methods:, Sighting dominance and three types of sensory dominance (based on resolution acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity) were compared within individuals, with the main aim of determining whether sensory dominance is consistent across spatial visual functions. Results:, Our findings indicate that each type of sensory dominance is insignificant in most individuals and in agreement with previous work that sensory and sighting dominance do not generally agree. Conclusion:, These results demonstrate not only that different types of ocular dominance are not in agreement but also that in the normal visual system sensory dominance as measured here is insignificant in most individuals with normal vision. [source]