Ocular Disorders (ocular + disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Surveillance of vision and ocular disorders in children with Down syndrome

DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2007
Elma Stephen MBBS MD MRCPCH
Children with Down syndrome have a high prevalence of ocular disorders. The UK Down's Syndrome Medical Interest Group (DSMIG) guidelines for ophthalmic screening were locally implemented into a protocol that included neonatal eye examination by an opthalmologist and a comprehensive ophthalmological examination (cycloplegic refraction, ophthalmoscopy, and orthoptic assessement) by at least the age of 3 years, followed by preschool follow-up as indicated. We audited retrospectively surveillance for ocular disorders before and after the DSMIG-based guidelines were locally adopted in 1995. Results were compared for children born before and after the implementation of screening guidelines. A total of 81 children (43 females, 38 males) with Down syndrome were identified. After the DSMIG protocol, 34/36 children received a full ophthalmological examination in the neonatal period, compared with 9/27 children before 1995 (p<0.001). Neonatal screening resulted in the detection of cataracts in three infants. Mean age of first comprehensive ophthalmic screening outside the neonatal period was similar in the two groups (1y 6mo before guidelines vs 1y 9mo after), as were the proportion of children receiving preschool eye checks (27/30 before; 17/18 after). Overall, 65.7% children were screened in accordance with the guidelines, improving to 100% in recent years. At school age, 43% of the study population had significant refractive errors, with 27% having hypermetropia and astigmatism. Earlier prescription of glasses for refractive errors was seen (mean age 5y 6mo before guidelines; 3y 6mo after; p<0.001). Prevalence of other ocular disorders included strabismus (34/72, 47%), nasolacrimal duct obstruction (26/73, 35.6%), cataracts (5/64, 7.8%), and nystagmus (12/72, 16%). Establishment of the DSMIG-based local protocol has streamlined ocular surveillance. It is anticipated that this will improve developmental and functional outcomes in Down syndrome. [source]


Photochemistry and Photocytotoxicity of Alkaloids from Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) 3: Effect on Human Lens and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
Colin F. Chignell
ABSTRACT The dried root or rhizome of Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) contains several alkaloids including berberine, hydrastine, palmatine and lesser amounts of canadine and hydrastinine. Preparations derived from Goldenseal have been used to treat skin and eye ailments. Berberine, the major alkaloid in Goldenseal root powder, has been used in eye drops to treat trachoma, a disease characterized by keratoconjunctivitis. Berberine and palmatine are also present in extracts from Berberis amurensis Ruprecht (Berberidaceae) which are used to treat ocular disorders. We have previously shown that Goldenseal alkaloids are phototoxic to keratinocytes (Chem Res Toxicol. 14, 1529, 2001; ibid 19, 739, 2006) and now report their effect on human lens and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) were severely damaged when incubated with berberine (25 ,M) and exposed to UVA (5 J cm,2). Under the same conditions, palmatine was less phototoxic and hydrastine, canadine and hydrastinine were inactive. Moderate protection against berberine phototoxicity was afforded by the antioxidants ascorbate (2 mM) and N -acetylcysteine (5 mM). When exposed to UVA (5 J cm,2) both berberine (10 ,M) and palmatine (10 ,M) caused mild DNA damage as determined by the alkaline comet assay which measures single strand breaks. Berberine and palmatine are the only Goldenseal alkaloids with appreciable absorption above 400 nm. Because light at wavelengths below 400 nm is cut off by the anterior portion of the adult human eye only berberine and palmatine were tested for phototoxicity to human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Although berberine did damage hRPE cells when irradiated with visible light (, > 400 nm) approximately 10 times higher concentrations were required to produce the same amount of damage as seen in lens cells. Palmatine was not phototoxic to hRPE cells. Neither berberine nor palmatine photodamaged DNA in hRPE. Infusions of Goldenseal are estimated to contain ,1 mM berberine, while in tinctures the alkaloid concentration may be more than 10 times higher. Our findings show that eyewashes and lotions derived from Goldenseal or containing berberine must be used with caution when the eyes are exposed to bright sunlight but that oral preparations are not likely to cause ocular phototoxicity. [source]


Prevention and management of drug-induced ocular disorders

PRESCRIBER, Issue 12 2006
Anthony Cox MRPharmS, ClinDipPharm
Our series on serious ADRs focusses on rare but important drug reactions and how to recognise and avoid them. This article describes the principal ocular adverse effects and the drugs most often implicated. Copyright 2006 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]


Baculovirus P35 protein: An overview of its applications across multiple therapeutic and biotechnological arenas

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 2 2010
Sudhir Sahdev
Abstract Baculovirus immediate early P35 protein is well known for its anti-apoptotic as well as anti-oxidant properties. Mechanism of action of P35 involves inhibition of a vast range of initiator to executioner class of caspases. In addition, P35's role in inhibiting oxidant-induced mitochondrial damage, primarily in the apoptotic pathway, has also been extensively investigated. Elucidation of P35's functions during regulation of programmed cell death (PCD) has led to a renewed focus on exploiting this basic knowledge for clinical and other related applications. This review outlines specific biochemical and genetic pathways where P35 intervenes and regulates rate-limiting steps in the apoptotic signaling cascade. Research efforts are underway to utilize P35 as an agent in regulating apoptosis and under certain circumstances, also explore the therapeutic potential of its anti-oxidant features. One of the major outcomes of recent studies include significantly improved effectiveness of cytochrome P450 directed enzyme pro-drug delivery tools when used in conjunction with P35, which may help in alleviating drug resistance in tumor cells and simultaneously prolonging the cytotoxic effects of anti-cancer drugs. Moreover, applied research carried out recently in the fields of diabetes, ischemia-induced neuronal cell death, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory arthritis, cardiovascular and ocular disorders illustrate P35's utilization across diverse therapeutic areas and will certainly make it an attractive biomolecule for the discovery research. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]


1363: White dot syndromes

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
S ANDROUDI
Purpose The white dot syndromes (WDS) are a group of distinct clinical entities characterized by one common underlying feature: the presence of multiple "spots" in the fundus, usually in the deep retina or choroid without any other systemic manifestations. Methods The disorders are relatively rare and include the following entities: acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE), multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC), serpiginous choroidopathy (SC), multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis (MCP), punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC), subretinal fibrosis and uveitis syndrome, and presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS). Results Despite the fact that many infectious and noninfectious inflammatory diseases may present with multifocal chorioretinal lesions, the entities included in the WDS share some features which make them a particular group of ocular disorders. In fact, the WDS would be better labeled as idiopathic inflammatory multifocal chorioretinopathies, since with the exception of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, their causes are still unknown. Conclusion Because the specific diagnosis may have profound implications on therapy and prognosis, it is important to narrow the diagnosis to the greatest extent possible, even in patients with seemingly atypical findings. The correct diagnosis of WDS is important because the management is totally different from one another. Some of them are self-limited and have good visual outcomes without treatment, while others are associated with serious retinal and choroidal sequelae, which can result in severe visual loss even after adequate immunosuppressive therapy. [source]


2243: Update on inherited ocular developmental disease

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
GCM BLACK
Purpose To provide an overview of progress in understanding of the genetics of developmental ocular disease. Methods A systematic review, including case presentations, to illustrate insights into genes underlying developmental ocular disorders: Results Studies suggest that, in developed countries, between a third and a half of the diagnoses underlying childhood blind or partial-sighted registration are genetic while a number of other ,non-genetic' conditions also have a substantial genetic contribution. Such a figure is likely to be an underestimate. Although most of these conditions are rare, many of the issues regarding diagnosis and counselling apply to the group as a whole and it is therefore possible to consider a common approach to many aspects of their clinical management. An important challenge, for example, is to improve genetic counselling for patients affected by, and at risk of, disorders that may be caused by a genetic change in one of many possible genes, which typifies many inherited conditions associated with blindness (developmental ocular disorders, early-onset retinal dystrophies, congenital cataract). Most diagnostic genetic testing currently being undertaken focuses on single genes; this will be illustrated for ocular conditions such as retinoblastoma, Norrie disease and microphthalmia. However future prospects will focus upon use of new higher throughput technologies (e.g Microarray technologies). Conclusion The recent identification of genes underlying, for example, anophthalmia/microphthalmia spectrum (e.g. VSX2, SOX2, BCOR), anterior segment dysgenesis (e.g. PITX2, FOXC1, FOXE3) and early,onset retinal disorders (e.g. ADVIRC, RPE65) has shed light on the pathways and processes underlying a range of the biological processes underlying ocular development. [source]


Ocular findings among young men: a 12-year prevalence study of military service in Poland

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 5 2010
Michal S. Nowak
Abstract. Purpose:, To determine the prevalence of ocular diseases among young men and to assess the main ocular causes reflecting discharge from military service in Poland. Methods:, A retrospective review of the medical records of 105 017 men undergoing a preliminary examination for military service during the period 1993,2004. Sample size for the study was calculated with 99% confidence within an error margin of 5%. All of the study participants were White men of European origin, most of whom live or lived in Poland. Data regarding the vision status were assessed in 1938 eyes of 969 participants. Two groups were distinguished based on the age of the participants: group I aged 18,24 years, and group II aged 25,34 years. Results:, Presented visual impairment [visual acuity (VA) < 20/40)] followed by colour vision defects were the most common ocular disorders, accounting for 13.2%. There were statistically significant differences in uncorrected VA as well as in the rates of particular refractive errors in between the age groups (p < 0.05). The prevalence of glaucoma and ocular hypertension was significantly higher in older participants. Six hundred and sixty-seven (68.8%) participants examined medically in the study period were accepted for military service. However, 302 (31.2%) failed their examination and were temporarily or permanently discharged from duty. Fifty-two of them (17.2%) were discharged because of various ocular disorders. The most common causes were high refractive errors, which accounted for 38.5% of all the ocular discharges, followed by chronic and recurrent diseases of the posterior segment of the eye, which accounted for 19.2%. Conclusion:, The prevalence of ocular disorders among young men in an unselected military population was closer to the results obtained in other population-based studies comprising both men and women in the same age group. High refractive errors followed by chronic and recurrent diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are important causes of medical discharges from military service in Poland. [source]


Discontinuous drug combination therapy in autoimmune ocular disorders

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
Jelka G. Orsoni
Abstract. Purpose:, This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a steroid-sparing immunosuppressive treatment (IST) protocol in the control of severe or steroid-resistant autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases. Methods:, We carried out a prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Patients presenting with ocular inflammations that failed to respond adequately to steroids alone after monotherapy for a mean period of 9 2 months (internal control) were offered the option to switch to a combined IST. The protocol consisted of different immunosuppressive drugs added in a stepladder sequence, where each drug (including the steroids) was administered discontinuously. Main outcome measures were control of inflammation, visual acuity and safety of treatment. Results:, A total of 76 subjects (121 affected eyes) enrolled in the IST protocol. Mean length of follow-up was 43 15 months. Complete control of inflammation was achieved in 86% of patients. During the first year of IST, the rate of inflammatory recurrences/patient was 0.78 1.13. This ratio diminished further during succeeding follow-up. Mean best corrected visual acuity improved from 0.31 logMAR to 0.24 logMAR (p < 0.001). Blood pressure and uric acid blood levels significantly altered for the worse in the study group. Conclusions:, Immunosuppressive treatment was effective in achieving inflammatory quiescence in a large majority of patients. The study also demonstrated the longterm safety of the protocol and its steroid-sparing effect. [source]


Ocular changes, risk markers for eye disorders and effects of cataract surgery in elderly people: a study of an urban Swedish population followed from 70 to 97 years of age

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2 2004
Birgitta Bergman
Abstract. Aims:, To investigate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for ocular disorders and the effects of timing of cataract surgery from age 70,97 years. Population:, A representative population sample taken from within the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies (H 70) in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 958). All subjects underwent eye examinations at age 70 years in 1971 and subsequently at ages 82, 88, 95 and 97 years. All inhabitants of Gothenburg aged 95 and 97 years were invited to participate in the study. Results:, Decreased vision (visual acuity , 0.5) was found in 20% and 80% of subjects at ages 82 and 97 years, respectively. Blood folate and physical activity at age 70 years correlated positively and body mass index (BMI) negatively to visual acuity (VA) , 0.8 at ages 82 and 88 years. Smoking at age 70 years correlated to early age-related maculopathy (ARM). Cataract surgery had been performed in 40% of subjects at age 97 years. Surgery 2 years earlier led to a 15% increase in time spent with improved vision. Conclusions:, The deterioration of vision in elderly people is a major health problem, for which ,low' folate status, smoking, ,high' BMI and low physical activity are potential risk factors. Early cataract surgery is also beneficial in very old patients. [source]


Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: congenital malformation of the eye

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
Barkur S Shastry PhD
Abstract Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also known as persistent fetal vasculature, is a rare congenital developmental malformation of the eye, caused by the failure of regression of the primary vitreous. It is divided into anterior and posterior types and is characterized by the presence of a vascular membrane located behind the lens. The condition can be of an isolated type or can occur with other ocular disorders. Most cases of PHPV are sporadic, but it can be inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. Inherited PHPV also occurs in several breeds of dogs and cats. In a limited number of cases, Norrie disease and FZD4 genes are found to be mutated in unilateral and bilateral PHPV. These genes when mutated also cause Norrie disease pseudoglioma and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy that share some of the clinical features with PHPV. Mice lacking arf and p53 tumour suppressor genes as well as Norrie disease pseudoglioma and LRP5 genes suggest that these genes are needed for hyaloid vascular regression. These experiments also indicate that abnormalities in normal apoptosis and defects in Wnt signalling pathway may be responsible for the pathogenesis of PHPV. Identification of other candidate genes in the future may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition that may lead to a better therapeutic approach and better management. [source]