Ocular Damage (ocular + damage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Measurement of protection afforded by ultraviolet-absorbing window film using an in vitro model of photodamage

Eric F. Bernstein MD
Abstract Background and Objectives The effects of chronic sun damage including telangiectasias, solar lentigos, rhytides, enlarged pores, sagging skin, and pre-cancerous and cancerous growths are among the most common presenting complaints in a dermatologist's office. These changes are often worse on the driver's side of the face, emphasizing the role of UVA exposure received while driving in producing these changes. This study was undertaken to measure the ability of car window glass alone and in combination with ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing film to reduce UV-damage as measured using an established in vitro model of photoprotection. Study Design Materials and Methods Using the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay with solar simulating radiation (SSR) administered by a xenon arc solar simulator, we measured the photoprotection ability of auto glass, window film that filters UV radiation, and the combination of window film and auto glass. Results As measured by the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay, auto glass reduced cell death from SSR by 29%, while window film reduced it 90%, and the combination of auto glass and film reduced cell death by 93%, when compared to unfiltered SSR. Conclusions Window film that filters UV radiation results in dramatic reductions in cytotoxicity when measured by the neutral red uptake photoprotection assay. Widespread use of window film provides an ever-present barrier to ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure and could potentially reduce the detrimental effects of UVA, including photoaging, skin cancer, and ocular damage, such as cataracts. In addition, such film is essential for patients suffering from conditions sensitive to UV radiation, such as lupus erythematosis. Lasers Surg. Med. 38:337,342, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ocular toxoplasmosis: in the storm of the eye

SUMMARY Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) can occur in the children of mothers infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. It is not limited to the congenitally infected, but can also occur following adult-acquired infection or as a result of disease reactivation in immune-compromised and pregnant individuals. Many aspects of immune privilege in the eye, including constitutive TGF-, expression and reduced MHC class 1 expression, would appear at first to favour parasite survival. Conversely, many of the mechanisms that control parasite multiplication in other anatomical sites, such as nitric oxide expression, IFN-, and TNF-,, are known to disrupt immune privilege and are associated with ocular damage. Taking into account the opposing needs of limiting parasite multiplication and minimizing tissue destruction we review the pathogenesis of OT in the murine model. [source]

Systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic US cohort: Clinical features, course, and outcome in patients with late-onset disease

Ana M. Bertoli
Objective To examine the clinical differences and the type and extent of organ damage in late- versus early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods A nested case,control study was performed in the context of LUMINA (LUpus in MInorities, NAture versus nurture), a large, longitudinal, multiethnic cohort. Patients who developed SLE at or after the age of 50 years were considered cases. Two controls (patients who developed SLE at age ,49 years) per case, matched for sex and disease duration, were randomly chosen. Selected baseline socioeconomic/demographic, behavioral, and psychological features, self-reported quality of life, and cumulative clinical data (clinical manifestations, laboratory data, disease activity, damage, and mortality) were compared between cases and controls. Multivariable analyses with late-onset lupus, damage accrual, and mortality as dependent variables were then performed. Results Two hundred seventeen patients were studied. Of them, 73 were cases. Cases were more likely to have neurologic involvement, arterial thrombotic events, osteoporosis, and hypertriglyceridemia, while renal involvement and anti-Sm antibodies were less frequent. Disease activity at baseline was lower among cases. Cases also exhibited more cardiovascular and ocular damage. Late-onset lupus was an independent predictor of damage accrual (t -test = 2.23, P = 0.028), any damage at last visit (odds ratio [OR] 23.32, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.98,141.56) (P < 0.001), and mortality (OR 10.74, 95% CI 3.07,37.56) (P < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with late-onset lupus exhibit distinct clinical features. Although disease activity tends to be lower in these patients, they tend to accrue more damage and experience higher mortality than patients with early-onset lupus. These findings probably reflect the contribution exerted by other comorbid conditions in the overall impact of lupus in these patients. [source]

Prophylaxis of posttraumatic endophthalmitis

Infectious endophthalmitis is a devastating complication of open globe injuries. The incidence of culture-positive endophthalmitis after open globe injuries varies between 0.5% and 17%. Several reports have demonstrated that delayed primary repair, dirty wound, breach of lens capsule, retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB), grade 4 injury (presenting visual acuity of worse than 5/200 to light perception), placement of primary intraocular lens, and rural setting are associated with an increased risk of posttraumatic endophthalmitis. Posttraumatic endophthalmitis is associated with its own microbiologic spectrum which is distinct from other subgroups of exogenous endophthalmitis. Posttraumatic endophthalmitis still carries a poor prognosis. Reasons for guarded prognosis include polymicrobial infection and the virulence of the infecting microorganisms. In addition, concomitant injuries may directly result in ocular damage that limits ultimate visual recovery. Because of the substantial incidence of endophthalmitis after open globe injuries, careful consideration should be given to the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of prophylaxis is to provide effective antibiotic levels as rapidly as possible against a broad range of organisms. Good coverage for most organisms is obtained with intravenous vancomycin coupled with a third generation cephalosporin, such as ceftazidime, which can penetrate the vitreous cavity in effective levels in inflamed aphakic experimental eyes. Recently, the use of prophylactic intravitreal antibiotic administration in high-risk cases was recommended. [source]