Oomycete Pathogens (oomycete + pathogen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Entering and breaking: virulence effector proteins of oomycete plant pathogens

Brett M. Tyler
Summary Oomycete pathogens of plants and animals are related to marine algae and have evolved mechanisms to avoid or suppress host defences independently of other groups of pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi. They cause many destructive diseases affecting crops, forests and aquaculture. The development of genomic resources has led to a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the effectors used by these pathogens to suppress host defences. In particular, a huge, rapidly diverging superfamily of effectors with 100,600 members per genome has been identified. Proteins in this family use the N-terminal motifs RxLR and dEER to cross the host plasma cell membrane autonomously. Once inside the host cell, the proteins suppress host defence signalling. The importance of this effector family is underlined by the fact that plants have evolved intracellular defence receptors to detect the effectors and trigger a rapid counter-attack. The mechanisms by which the effector enter host cells, and by which they suppress host defences, remain to be elucidated. [source]

Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

Marco Kruijt
Abstract Aims:, Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identified, and their role in control of Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber evaluated. Methods and Results:, The biosurfactants were shown to lyse zoospores of Phy. capsici and inhibit growth of the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. In vitro assays further showed that the biosurfactants of strain 267 are essential in swarming motility and biofilm formation. In spite of the zoosporicidal activity, the biosurfactants did not play a significant role in control of Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber, since both wild type strain 267 and its biosurfactant-deficient mutant were equally effective, and addition of the biosurfactants did not provide control. Genetic characterization revealed that surfactant biosynthesis in strain 267 is governed by homologues of PsoA and PsoB, two nonribosomal peptide synthetases involved in production of the cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) putisolvin I and II. The structural relatedness of the biosurfactants of strain 267 to putisolvins I and II was supported by LC-MS and MS-MS analyses. Conclusions:, The biosurfactants produced by Ps. putida 267 were identified as putisolvin-like CLPs; they are essential in swarming motility and biofilm formation, and have zoosporicidal and antifungal activities. Strain 267 provides excellent biocontrol activity against Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber, but the lipopeptide surfactants are not involved in disease suppression. Significance and Impact of the Study:,Pseudomonas putida 267 suppresses Phy. capsici damping-off of cucumber and provides a potential supplementary strategy to control this economically important oomycete pathogen. The putisolvin-like biosurfactants exhibit zoosporicidal and antifungal activities, yet they do not contribute to biocontrol of Phy. capsici and colonization of cucumber roots by Ps. putida 267. These results suggest that Ps. putida 267 employs other, yet uncharacterized, mechanisms to suppress Phy. capsici. [source]

Tobacco blue mould disease caused by Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina

SUMMARY Blue mould [Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina (Adam) Skalicky 1964] is one of the most important foliar diseases of tobacco that causes significant losses in the Americas, south-eastern Europe and the Middle East. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms employed by this oomycete pathogen to colonize its host, with emphasis on molecular aspects of pathogenicity. In addition, key biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in tobacco resistance to blue mould are discussed. Taxonomy: Kingdom: Chromista (Straminipila); Phylum: Heterokontophyta; Class: Oomycete; Order: Peronosporales; Family: Peronosporaceae; Genus: Peronospora; Species: Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina. Disease symptoms: The pathogen typically causes localized lesions on tobacco leaves that appear as single, or groups of, yellow spots that often coalesce to form light-brown necrotic areas. Some of the leaves exhibit grey to bluish downy mould on their lower surfaces. Diseased leaves can become twisted, such that the lower surfaces turn upwards. In such cases, the bluish colour of the diseased plants becomes quite conspicuous, especially under moist conditions when sporulation is abundant. Hence the name of the disease: tobacco blue mould. Infection process: The pathogen develops haustoria within plant cells that are thought to establish the transfer of nutrients from the host cell, and may also act in the delivery of effector proteins during infection. Resistance: Several defence responses have been reported to occur in the Nicotiana tabacum,P. hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina interaction. These include the induction of pathogenesis-related genes, and a correlated increase in the activities of typical pathogenesis-related proteins, such as peroxidases, chitinases, ,-1,3-glucanases and lipoxygenases. Systemic acquired resistance is one of the best characterized tobacco defence responses activated on pathogen infection. [source]

Modeling the Qo site of crop pathogens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome b

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2004
Nicholas Fisher
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model system to characterize the effect of cytochrome b mutations found in fungal and oomycete plant pathogens resistant to Qo inhibitors (QoIs), including the strobilurins, now widely employed in agriculture to control such diseases. Specific residues in the Qo site of yeast cytochrome b were modified to obtain four new forms mimicking the Qo binding site of Erysiphe graminis, Venturia inaequalis, Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Phytophthora megasperma. These modified versions of cytochrome b were then used to study the impact of the introduction of the G143A mutation on bc1 complex activity. In addition, the effects of two other mutations F129L and L275F, which also confer levels of QoI insensitivity, were also studied. The G143A mutation caused a high level of resistance to QoI compounds such as myxothiazol, axoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, but not to stigmatellin. The pattern of resistance conferred by F129L and L275F was different. Interestingly G143A had a slightly deleterious effect on the bc1 function in V. inaequalis, S. fuliginea and P. megasperma Qo site mimics but not in that for E. graminis. Thus small variations in the Qo site seem to affect the impact of the G143A mutation on bc1 activity. Based on this observation in the yeast model, it might be anticipated that the G143A mutation might affect the fitness of pathogens differentially. If so, this could contribute to observed differences in the rates of evolution of QoI resistance in fungal and oomycete pathogens. [source]

Negative regulation of defense responses in Arabidopsis by two NPR1 paralogs

Yuelin Zhang
Summary NPR1 is required for systemic acquired resistance, and there are five NPR1 paralogs in Arabidopsis. Here we report knockout analysis of two of these, NPR3 and NPR4. npr3 single mutants have elevated basal PR-1 expression and the npr3 npr4 double mutant shows even higher expression. The double mutant plants also display enhanced resistance against virulent bacterial and oomycete pathogens. This enhanced disease resistance is partially dependent on NPR1, can be in part complemented by either wild-type NPR3 or NPR4, and is not associated with an elevated level of salicylic acid. NPR3 and NPR4 interact with TGA2, TGA3, TGA5 and TGA6 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis, we show that NPR3 interacts with TGA2 in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Combined with our previous finding that basal PR-1 levels are also elevated in the tga2 tga5 tga6 triple mutant, we propose that NPR3 and NPR4 negatively regulate PR gene expression and pathogen resistance through their association with TGA2 and its paralogs. [source]

High humidity suppresses ssi4 -mediated cell death and disease resistance upstream of MAP kinase activation, H2O2 production and defense gene expression

Fasong Zhou
Summary The Arabidopsis ssi4 mutant, which exhibits spontaneous lesion formation, constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and enhanced resistance to virulent bacterial and oomycete pathogens, contains a gain-of-function mutation in a TIR-NBS-LRR type R gene. Epistatic analyses revealed that both PR gene expression and disease resistance are activated via a salicylic acid (SA)- and EDS1 -dependent, but NPR1 - and NDR1 -independent signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that in moderate relative humidity (RH; 60%), the ssi4 mutant accumulates H2O2 and SA prior to lesion formation and displays constitutive activation of the MAP kinases AtMPK6 and AtMPK3. It also constitutively expresses a variety of defense-associated genes, including those encoding the WRKY transcription factors AtWRKY29 and AtWRKY6, the MAP kinases AtMPK6 and AtMPK3, the powdery mildew R proteins RPW8.1 and RPW8.2, EDS1 and PR proteins. All of these ssi4 -induced responses, as well as the chlorotic, stunted morphology and enhanced disease resistance phenotype, are suppressed by high RH (95%) growth conditions. Thus, a humidity sensitive factor (HSF) appears to function at an early point in the ssi4 signaling pathway. All ssi4 phenotypes, except for MAP kinase activation, also were suppressed by the eds1-1 mutation. Thus, ssi4 -induced MAP kinase activation occurs downstream of the HSF but either upstream of EDS1 or on a separate branch of the ssi4 signaling pathway. SA is a critical signaling component in ssi4 -mediated defense responses. However, exogenously supplied SA failed to restore lesion formation in high RH-grown ssi4 plants, although it induced defense gene expression. Thus, additional signals also are involved. [source]