Oocyte Development (oocyte + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Medaka Oct4 is expressed during early embryo development, and in primordial germ cells and adult gonads

Ana V. Snchez-Snchez
Abstract Oct4 is a crucial transcription factor for controlling pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and the epiblast of mouse embryos. We have characterized the expression pattern of medaka (Oryzias latipes) Ol-Oct4 during embryonic development and in the adult gonads. Genomic analysis showed that Ol-Oct4 is the ortholog of zebrafish spg/pou2. However, their expression patterns are not the same, suggesting that Oct4 may play different roles in zebrafish and medaka. Using specific antibodies for the Ol-Oct4 protein, we showed that Ol-Oct4 is also expressed in primordial germ cells, in the spermatogonia (male germ stem cells), and during different stages of oocyte development. These results suggest that Ol-Oct4 plays a post-embryonic role in the maturing gonads and gametes. The Ol-Oct4 mRNA and protein expression patterns are similar to those of mammalian Oct4 and introduce medaka fish as a valid model for the functional and evolutionary study of pluripotency genes in vivo. Developmental Dynamics 239:672,679, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Post-ingestive effects of nectar alkaloids depend on dominance status of bumblebees

Abstract 1.,Secondary metabolites have acute or chronic post-ingestive effects on animals, ranging from death to growth inhibition to reduced nutrient assimilation. 2.,Although characterised as toxic, the nectar of Gelsemium sempervirens is not lethal to pollinators, even when the concentration of the nectar alkaloid gelsemine is very high. However, little is known about the sublethal costs of nectar alkaloids. 3.,Using a microcolony assay and paired worker bumblebees, the present study measured the effects of artificial nectar containing gelsemine on oocyte development. Oocytes are a sensitive indicator of protein utilisation and general metabolic processes. We also calculated carbohydrate concentrations in the haemolymph to examine energetic costs of gelsemine consumption. 4.,High concentrations of gelsemine significantly reduced mean oocyte width in subordinate bees, while dominant bees showed only a trend towards oocyte inhibition. Gelsemine consumption did not reduce carbohydrate concentrations in haemolymph. 5.,The cost of ingesting gelsemine may be due to direct toxicity of alkaloids or may be an expense associated with detoxifying gelsemine. Detoxification of alkaloids can require reallocation of resources away from essential metabolic functions like reproduction. The risks associated with nectar alkaloid consumption are tied to both the social and nutritional status of the bee. [source]

Reproductive effects of the endocrine disruptor fenarimol on a Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis

Therese Jacobson
Abstract An endocrine disruptor, the fungicide fenarimol, was investigated regarding its effects on reproduction and hormone (ecdysteroid) levels in the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. In addition, the influence of food shortage, both by itself and in combination with fenarimol, on reproduction was examined. Field-collected amphipods were exposed in flow-through microcosms during the period of sexual maturation and mating in four treatment series: Control with low food, fenarimol with low food, control with high food, and fenarimol with high food. Fenarimol was added at a concentration of 0.3 mg/L in two pulses/week. Results show that fenarimol has a negative effect on fertilization rate and male mating ability. Results were supported by a tendency toward delayed male sexual development. Food shortage decreased weight in both sexes and retarded female oocyte development. Higher ecdysteroid levels were recorded in males than in females, and food shortage increased male ecdysteroid levels. No effect of fenarimol exposure on ecdysteroid levels was observed. No synergistic effects of fenarimol and food shortage could be distinguished in any variable examined. Thus, M. affinis was vulnerable to reproductive impairment by fenarimol, with effects on the next generation (i.e., a disturbed sexual development and fertilization ability). Food shortage has negative effects on M. affinis, but it does not enhance the effects of fenarimol. [source]

Reproductive status in females of the Brazilian catfish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum reared in cages

E. Romagosa
Summary The distinctive morphological features of the ovaries the ,cachara', Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum were characterized macroscopically, and by histology, when reared in cages, from March 2005 to February 2006. Forty eight females (mean total weight = 2.7 kg, mean standard length = 65.1 cm) were allocated to four cages of 2.7 m3 (20 fish/cage) which were installed in four 600 m2 ponds, located at the IP, Pariquera-Au, So Paulo, Brazil. The monthly, samples were fixed in 4%-buffered formalin before preparation for histological examination, ovaries were removed and weighted. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated as = 100 weight ovaries/total fish weight. The ovaries are the cystovarian type and macroscopically, were established three stages of ovarian maturation: Resting, developing Maturation (initial, intermediate, final) and Regression (initial, intermediate, final). Based on morphological criteria of those ovaries, the oocyte development has been divided into distinct stages: (i) oocyte growth (vitellogenesis); (ii) oocyte maturation, along which it goes through different phases of development, before (iii) ovulation and, (iv) spawning. When the P. fasciatum were kept in confinement and not induced to breed occurs fail to attain final oocyte maturation, start the process of degeneration. Consequently, the weight started to decline and 45% of the ovaries showed atresia of vitellogenic follicles. This was considered indicative of a recent cessation of the reproductive activity. Such failure could have been caused by stress of the monthly sampling involving a certain degree of disturbance, and perhaps also by the existence of stressors while in captivity. The synchronous ovary contained oocytes in an unique stage of development and had potential to perform total spawning up to one time a year, with the period reproductive beginning in the end of November to the beginning of February, coinciding with the highest water temperatures in the experimental cages (29.0,31.5C) and the increase of mean values of GSI. During the regression phase, residual oocytes could be observed together with decrease of the mean values of GSI and, the temperatures. [source]

Reproductive biology of two co-occurring mugilids, Liza argentea and Myxus elongatus, in south-eastern Australia

B. W. Kendall
The reproductive biology of Liza argentea and Myxus elongatus occurring in two estuaries (Lake Macquarie and St Georges Basin) was found to differ. Gonado-somatic index values and macroscopic staging of gonads identified the peak spawning period of L. argentea occurred between March and November in Lake Macquarie and January and April in St Georges Basin. In contrast, peak spawning of M. elongatus was concentrated between January and March in both estuaries. Spawning of L. argentea probably occurred in the lower reaches of estuaries as well as in nearshore coastal waters, whereas evidence indicated M. elongatus spawned only in ocean waters. The mean fork length at maturity (LF50) was greater for females than males in both species, and it also occurred at a larger mean LF in M. elongatus (males = 230 mm and females = 255 mm) than L. argentea (males = 180 mm and females = 207 mm). Estimates of total potential fecundity were also greater for M. elongatus (425 484,1 157 029) compared to L. argentea (159 933,548 954). Both species had determinate fecundity and displayed a group synchronous pattern of oocyte development, with two distinct size classes of oocytes present in mature ovaries. Liza argentea probably release the larger class of oocytes in one spawning event, but this could not be established for M. elongatus. [source]

Aberrant protein expression is associated with decreased developmental potential in porcine cumulus,oocyte complexes

Melissa Paczkowski
Oocyte developmental competence is progressively obtained during pubertal development in females. Poor developmental potential in oocytes derived from prepubertal females suggests that essential processes required for oocyte development have not been fulfilled. The objective of this experiment was to analyze the protein profiles of porcine cumulus,oocyte complexes (COC) derived from cyclic and prepubertal females to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with developmental potential. COC complexes, aspirated from prepubertal and cyclic ovaries, were pooled into three replicates of 400 COCs each per treatment in ,100,l SOF-HEPES medium. Protein samples were extracted and analyzed by two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Over 1,600 proteins were resolved on each of the three replicate gels. Sixteen protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, representing 14 unique, differentially expressed proteins (volume ratio greater than 1.3). Glutathione- S -transferase and pyruvate kinase 3 were more abundant in COCs derived from cyclic females, whereas soluble epoxide hydrolase and transferrin were more abundant in prepubertal derived COCs. Abundance of several glycolytic enzymes (enolase 1, pyruvate kinase 3, and phosphoglycerate kinase) was increased in COCs derived from cyclic females, suggesting glucose metabolism is decreased in prepubertal derived COCs. We conclude that the abundance of proteins involved in metabolism and oxidative stress regulation is significantly altered in prepubertal derived COCs and may play a role in the mechanisms resulting in developmental competence. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 77: 51,58, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Eomesodermin is expressed in mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos

Josie McConnell
Abstract T-box genes are a highly conserved family of genes encoding transcription factors, which share a conserved DNA binding domain (the T-box). Appropriate temporal and spatial expression of this gene family is critical for gastrulation and organogenesis in a number of species. The T-box containing gene Eomesodermin was first identified in Xenopus, where it plays a critical role in mesoderm formation. In situ analyses in mice have described the expression patterns of the mouse ortholog of this gene mEomesodermin (mEomes) at the time of implantation and during fetal development. Additional studies involving the disruption of the mEomes gene, have demonstrated an additional role for mEomes in trophoblast formation. However, these analyses did not address the possibility that maternally encoded or pre-blastocyst zygotic transcription of mEomes may also contribute to embryonic development. We show here that mEomes mRNA is present prior to blastocyst formation, and that the protein product of mEomes is associated with nuclear DNA during oocyte development and persistently localizes within all nuclei of the preimplantation embryo until the early blastocyst stage. mEomes protein is associated with the meiotic spindle in the unfertilized egg and with the mitotic spindle at each cell division. Our results are consistent with mEomesodermin having a role in early preimplantation development and inner cell mass formation in addition to its function in the trophoblast lineage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Alterations and reversibility in the chromatin, cytoskeleton and development of pig oocytes treated with roscovitine

Jyh-Cherng Ju
Abstract Germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown in mammalian oocytes is regulated by the activation of maturation promoting factor (MPF). We investigated a specific cdc2 kinase inhibitor, roscovitine, to maintain pig oocytes in the GV stage. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries and cultured for 44 hr in NCSU#23 medium containing different levels of roscovitine (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 ,M in Experiment 1 and 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 ,M in Experiment 2). The COCs were cultured for another 44 hr after removal of the chemical. Twenty oocytes in each group were fixed at 44 hr for immunocytochemical labeling of the cytoskeleton and the rest (,20/group) were fixed at the end of 88 hr after culture. Results showed that the inhibition of the oocyte in the GV stage was not effective when 10,50 ,M (Experiment 1) of roscovitine were used (19,34%). When oocytes were released from the inhibitor, similar proportions (70,83%) of oocytes were observed in the MII or advanced stages among treatments. However, when higher concentrations of roscovitine were used (Experiment 2), significantly greater inhibitory effect was observed at the levels of 80,120 ,M with 83,91% oocytes being blocked in the GV stage when compared to the control (9%) and the 40,60 ,M (27,43%) groups (P,<,0.05). Although 15,21% of the oocytes showed abnormal MII morphology with aberrant meiotic spindles and/or formation of cytoplasmic microtubules, a substantial number of oocytes resumed meiosis and reached MII stage at 44 hr after removal of this chemical. In Experiment 3, different concentrations of roscovitine (0, 20, 40, and 80 ,M) were tested to examine the length of intervals (0, 11, 22, 33, and 44 hr) for an effective inhibition. Results showed that the inhibitory effect was significantly more prominent at 22 hr than that at 33 and 44 hr after roscovitine treatment in all treatment groups (P,<,0.05). This study demonstrated that roscovitine-treated oocytes resumed meiosis after removal of the inhibitor. This could provide flexibility for studying porcine oocyte development and embryo cloning and may have application in other species. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 64: 482,491, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pyriproxyfen activates reproduction in prediapause northern strain plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst)

Eric J Hoffmann
Abstract Field-collected, prediapause northern strain plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), adults were treated with the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen to assess effects on reproductive development. Adults of this pest have an obligate winter reproductive diapause and do not reach reproductive maturity until after spring emergence. Topical (1.0 L) doses of 10, 1.0 and 0.1 g L,1 pyriproxyfen induced oocyte development and reproductive maturation in all treated females as assessed by dissection. There was no increased mortality in treated beetles, and control insects showed no reproductive maturation. Treatment of prediapause males and females with 1.0 g L,1 of topical pyriproxyfen or exposure to residues on fruit induced successful egg laying and F1 emergence; F1 pupation success in topical treatments and residue exposure was 47 and 59% respectively. Filial adults require re-exposure to initiate reproductive development. Treatment protocols with pyriproxyfen will allow researchers to culture the northern strain, instead of relying exclusively on the non-diapausing southern strain. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effects of Gonadotropins on In Vitro Maturation and of Electrical Stimulation on Parthenogenesis of Canine Oocytes

BS Kim
Contents The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gonadotropins on in vitro maturation (IVM) and electrical stimulation on the parthenogenesis of canine oocytes. In experiment I, cumulus oocyte complexes were collected from ovaries at a random phase of the oestrus cycle and cultured on maturation medium treated with hCG or eCG for 48 or 72 h. There were no significant differences in the effects on the metaphase II (MII) rate between the hCG and eCG treatment groups over 48 h (5.4% vs 5.5%). The MII rate in the co-treatment group of hCG and eCG for 48 h was higher than in each hormone treated group (15.5%, p < 0.05). In experiment 2, the parthenogenetic effect on oocyte development, at various electrical field strengths (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kV/cm DC) for 60 or 80 ,s with a single DC pulse after IVM on the co-treatment of hCG and eCG, was examined. The rate of pronuclear formation (37.1%) in electrical activation at 1.5 kV/60 ,s without cytochalasin B (CB) was higher than that of oocytes activated in the other groups (p < 0.05). However, we did not observe the cleavage stages. Also, CB did not influence parthenogenesis of canine oocytes. The results showed that the pronucleus formation rate, indicative of the parthenogenesis start point, could be increased by electrical stimulation. Therefore, these results can provide important data for the parthenogenesis of canine oocytes and suggest the probability of parthenogenesis in canines. [source]

Characterization of the methylation status of five imprinted genes in sheep gametes

A. Colosimo
Summary Genomic imprinting is a mammalian developmental process that uses epigenetic mechanisms to induce monoallelic and parental-specific expression of particular autosomal genes. A crucial epigenetic event consists of DNA methylation of CpG-islands, which become differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on the maternal and paternal alleles during oogenesis or spermatogenesis (germline DMRs). By contrast, somatic DMRs are acquired after fertilization. While there are several studies referring to methylation acquisition within germline DMRs in the mouse and human, a comparable methylation analysis of orthologous sequences is still lacking in sheep. To identify germline DMRs, this study analysed the methylation status of the available CpG-islands of five ovine imprinted genes (H19, IGF2R, DLK1, DIO3 and BEGAIN) in mature spermatozoa and in female gametes at different stages of their follicle growth, including in vitro matured oocytes. The 5,-end CpG-island of H19 showed a full methylation in spermatozoa and an absent methylation in growing and fully grown oocytes. The intron 2 CpG-island of IGF2R was unmethylated in male gametes, while it showed a high level of methylation in early stages of oogenesis. The promoter CpG-islands of DLK1 and DIO3 were found to be unmethylated both in spermatozoa and oocytes. Finally, the exon 9 CpG-island of BEGAIN was hypermethylated in mature male gametes, while it showed an almost complete methylation only in late stages of oocyte development. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation establishment during early stages of sheep oogenesis and subsequent in vitro maturation is gene-specific and that, of the five genes investigated, only the CpG-islands of H19 and IGF2R might represent ovine germline DMRs. [source]

Role of allatostatin-like factors from the brain of Tenebrio molitor females,

O. Wasielewski
Abstract The effect of brain extract from females of freshly emerged Tenebrio molitor on ovary, oocyte development, total protein content of hemolymph, and ovary was studied in 4-day-old adult mealworm females. Injections of extracts of 2-brain equivalents into intact (unligatured) Tenebrio females did not affect ovarian and oocyte development. Injections of ligated females, however, with 2-brain equivalents on day 1 and 2 after adult emergence strongly inhibited ovarian growth and oocyte development. At day 4, ligated and injected females did not develop their ovaries and pre-vitellogenic oocytes were not found. The changes in ovarian development correlated with an increase in the concentration of soluble proteins in the hemolymph as compared with the saline-injected controls. Additionally, a strong reduction of total protein content in ovarian tissue was observed. Reverse phase HPLC separation of a methanolic brain extract of T. molitor females showed that fraction 5 has a similar retention time to synthetic cockroach allatostatin. Fraction 5 was eluted at 12.88,min, which was closest to the internal standard Dippu-AST I, which eluted at 12.77,min. An ELISA of fraction 5 from the methanolic brain extract using antibodies against allatostatins Grybi-AST A1 and Grybi-AST B1 from cricket Gryllus bimaculatus showed that fraction 5 cross-reacted with Grybi-AST A1 antibodies. The cross-reactivity was similar to the synthetic allatostatin from D. punctata, which was used as a positive control. These observations demonstrate a possible role for allatostatin-like brain factor(s) in regulating the reproductive cycle of Tenebrio molitor. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]