Nucleotide Sequences (nucleotide + sequence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Nucleotide Sequences

  • complete nucleotide sequence
  • gene nucleotide sequence

  • Terms modified by Nucleotide Sequences

  • nucleotide sequence analysis
  • nucleotide sequence comparison
  • nucleotide sequence identity

  • Selected Abstracts


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
    Yong-dan Li
    Abstract, The spheroidin genes of Calliptamus italicus entomopoxvirus (CiEPV) and Gomphocerus sibiricus entomopoxvirus (GsEPV) were obtained by PCR, and the fragments were cloned, se-quenced and analyzed. The CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidin genes respectively harbored ORFs of 2 922 bps and 2 967 bps that were capable of coding polypeptides of 109.2 and 111.1 kDa. Computer analysis indicated that CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidins shared less than 20% amino acid identities with lepidopteran AmEPV and coleopteran AcEPV spheroidins, but more than 80% amino acid identities with orthopteran OaEPV, MsEPV and AaEPV spheroidins. The CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidins respectively contained 19 and 21 cysteine residues that were particularly abundant at the C-termini, as is the case with those of the other orthopteran EPV spheroidins. The numbers and locations of the cysteine residues of the spheroidins were most similar to those of the spheroidins of EPVs that are virulent on the same insect orders. The promoter regions of the two spheroidin genes were highly conserved (99%) among the orthopteran EPVs and also contained the typical very A+T rich and TAAATG signal mediating transcription of poxvirus late genes. We also sequenced an incomplete ORF downstream of the pheroidin gene of CiEPV and GsEPV. The ORF was in the opposite direction to the spheroidin gene and was homologous to MSV072 putative protein of MsEPV. [source]

    Non-muscle myosin heavy chain (MYH9): A new partner fused to ALK in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Laurence Lamant
    In anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the ALK gene at 2p23 is known to be fused to NPM, TPM3, TPM4, TFG, ATIC, CLTC, MSN, and ALO17. All of these translocations result in the expression of chimeric ALK transcripts that are translated into fusion proteins with tyrosine kinase activity and oncogenic properties. We report a case showing a restricted cytoplasmic staining pattern of ALK and a novel chromosomal abnormality, t(2;22)(p23;q11.2), demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The result of 5, RACE analysis showed that the ALK gene was fused in-frame to a portion of the non-muscle myosin heavy chain gene, MYH9. Nucleotide sequence of the MYH9-ALK chimeric cDNA revealed that the ALK breakpoint was different from all those previously reported. It is localized in the same exonic sequence as MSN-ALK, but 6 bp downstream, resulting in an in-frame fusion of the two partner proteins. In contrast to the previously reported ALK fusion proteins, MYH9-ALK may lack a functional oligomerization domain. However, biochemical analysis showed that the new fusion protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo but seems to lack tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. If further investigations confirm this latter result, the in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of MYH9-ALK protein could involve mechanisms different from those described in the other ALK hybrid proteins. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Elevated genetic heterogeneity and Pleistocene climatic instability: inferences from nrDNA in New Zealand Coprosma (Rubiaceae)

    Stephen R. Wichman
    Aim To examine patterns of hybridization and genotype mixing within the genus Coprosma J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (Rubiaceae). Location New Zealand Methods Nucleotide sequence was determined for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA for fifty individuals from thirty-six taxa within the New Zealand component of the genus Coprosma. Results Mixed sequences were found to be widespread in Coprosma. Direct sequencing of ITS polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from seven polyploid taxa showed evidence of sequence mixtures. Cloning and sequencing of individual PCR products from two polyploids confirmed the presence of multiple templates, one of which corresponded to that of a diploid. Intra-individual heterogeneity was also seen in a hybrid diploid taxon, with the mixed nucleotides corresponding to those of the parental lineages. Finally the ITS sequences of twenty-two diploid taxa showed that eleven contained intra-individual heterogeneity. Conclusions We conclude that the widespread occurrence of sequence mixtures in Coprosma results from of frequent hybridization. We also conclude that concerted evolution of the ITS and ETS regions is depressed. We propose that these characteristics evolved as a mechanism to maintain high levels of heterogeneity and suggest that this is adaptive for Coprosma in climatically unstable and physically complex New Zealand landscapes. These landscapes have been subjected to repeated oscillations between stadial and interstadial environments during the Pleistocene. [source]

    Molecular cloning of Yersinia ruckeri aroA gene: a useful taxonomic tool

    J Yugueros
    The aroA gene of Yersinia ruckeri, which encodes 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase was cloned by complementation of the aroA mutation in Escherichia coli AB2829 by using pUC18 plasmid as a vector. Nucleotide sequence of the aroA gene revealed an open reading frame of 427 amino acids showing a high degree of homology to other bacterial AroA proteins. A pair of primers with 23 and 20 nucleotides were selected from the 5, and 3, termini, respectively, and formed the basis of a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A 1165-bp deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragment was amplified from all lysed Y. ruckeri strains. An identical size fragment was also amplified from lysed Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. aldovae, Salmonella enteritidis and E. coli, but not from other enterobacteria. AluI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PCR amplified products allowed for differentiation between Y. ruckeri and the other bacteria. Specificity and sensitivity make this PCR assay a useful method for rapid identification and diagnosis of Y. ruckeri infections. [source]

    Evidence of intrafamilial transmission of rotavirus in a birth cohort in South India

    Indrani Banerjee
    Abstract Transmission of rotavirus infection was studied in a birth cohort of children based in an urban slum in Vellore and their familial contacts. Contemporaneous samples from index patients and their familial contacts were collected for analysis in three different settings. Firstly, samples were collected from familial contacts during a period of rotavirus infection in children from the cohort. Secondly, on occasions when a family member had rotavirus diarrhea, samples from the cohort child were taken for analysis. Lastly, asymptomatic surveillance samples collected at predetermined time points from both the cohort child and familial contacts were analyzed. From 560 samples collected from family members during symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus infections in these children, three rotavirus transmissions were identified, accounting for a secondary attack rate of 0.54%. In four instances of rotavirus diarrhea in a family member, one infection was transmitted to the cohort child. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a high degree of similarity in all these pairs ranging between 99% and 100% at both the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid levels, highly suggestive of person-to-person transmission of rotavirus infection. There was complete concordance of rotavirus genotyping between these pairs. No transmission events were noted from 14 asymptomatic rotavirus infections identified during routine surveillance of family members. This study is the first to use phylogenetic analysis to study the intrafamilial spread of rotavirus infection. J. Med. Virol. 80:1858,1863, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genetic diversity and historical population structure in the New Zealand mayfly Acanthophlebia cruentata

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Summary 1. Nucleotide sequences of a 280 base pair region of the cytochrome b gene were used to assess genetic diversity and to infer population histories in the New Zealand mayfly Acanthophlebia cruentata. 2. A hierarchial examination of populations from 19 streams at different spatial scales in the central and northern North Island of New Zealand found 34 haplotypes. A common haplotype was found in all central region streams and unique haplotypes in northern streams. Several central streams had region specific haplotypes with genetically differentiated populations at the 70,100 km scale. 3. Haplotype diversity was high (0.53,0.8) at most sites, but low (0,0.22) in some central sites. amova analyses found significant genetic diversity among regions (69%) and among catchments (58%). Most population pairwise FST tests were significant, with non-significant pairwise tests among sites in the central region and pairs of sites between neighbouring streams. 4. The levels of sequence divergence are interpreted as the result of Pleistocene divergence in multiple refugia, leading to the evolution of regionally unique haplotypes. The low diversity in some central region populations may result from recent colonisation following local extinctions, associated with volcanic events. [source]

    Characterization of hepatitis A virus isolates from subgenotypes IA and IB in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

    Vanessa S. de Paula
    Abstract Hepatitis A virus (HAV) isolates from around the world have been classified into seven genotypes (I,VII). Most human strains belong to genotype I, which has been divided into two subgenotypes, A and B. South America has provided a small number of strains studied at the genome level. In the present study, IgM anti-HAV antibodies were detected in 116 out of 250 (46%) serum samples collected from consecutive patients with acute hepatitis referred to the Brazilian Reference Center for Viral Hepatitis, Rio de Janeiro. Viral RNA were extracted from all 250 samples and submitted to a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay designed to amplify a genome segment in the VP1/2A junction region. HAV RNA was detected in 54/116 (47%) and 17/134 (13%) IgM anti-HAV-positive and -negative sera, respectively. In addition, HAV RNA was detected in 17/35 (49%) IgM anti-HAV-positive sera that had been collected at a day care center where cases of acute hepatitis were being observed for 3 months. Nucleotide sequences (168 bp) of PCR products were determined for 30 HAV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 21 belonged to subgenotype IB, while 9 were of subgenotype IA. Interestingly, a concomitant circulation of isolates from subgenotypes IA and IB was observed in the day care center. J. Med. Virol. 66:22,27, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sequence analysis of genes encoding structural and nonstructural proteins of a human group B rotavirus detected in Calcutta, India

    Nobumichi Kobayashi
    Abstract Nucleotide sequences of RNA segments encoding structural proteins(VP4, VP6, and VP7) and nonstructural proteins(NSP1 and NSP3) of a human group B rotavirus CAL-1, which was detected in Calcutta, India, were determined and their relatedness with cognate genes of other group B rotaviruses was analyzed. The CAL-1 genes showed generally high sequence identities (more than 90%) to those of human group B rotavirus, adult diarrheal rotavirus (ADRV) in China, while identities with bovine, murine, and ovine viruses were considerably lower (58,73%). Among RNA segments analyzed, sequence identity of the VP6 gene was relatively high compared with other gene segments. In the CAL-1 VP7 sequence, many characteristics were shared by ADRV, but not by other animal group B rotaviruses. In contrast, VP4 and NSP3 of CAL-1 were single animo acid and 23 amino acids longer than those of ADRV strain, respectively, due to differences of a few nucleotides. These findings suggested that human group B rotaviruses CAL-1 and ADRV might have originated from a common ancestral virus distinct from animal group B rotaviruses reported so far, while some notable sequence differences indicated the distinct nature of these viruses. J. Med. Virol. 64:583,588, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    New 16Sr subgroups and distinct single nucleotide polymorphism lineages among grapevine Bois noir phytoplasma populations

    F. Quaglino
    Abstract Bois noir (BN) is an insect-transmitted grapevine yellows disease caused by phytoplasmas belonging to the stolbur subgroup 16SrXII-A. In Italy, increasing prevalence of stolbur phytoplasma strains in vineyards suggests progressive spread of the disease and potential for heavy impacts on the wine industry. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of stolbur phytoplasma strains in BN phytoplasma populations. Nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes from stolbur phytoplasma strains affecting vineyards in the Lombardy region of Italy and stolbur phytoplasma 16S rDNA sequences retrieved from GenBank were subjected to virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Calculation of virtual restriction similarity coefficients revealed the presence of new subgroups in group 16SrXII (stolbur phytoplasma group). Representative strains of confirmed new subgroups 16SrXII-F (XII-F) and XII-G and tentative new subgroups XII-A1 through XII-A19, XII-H, XII-I, and XII-J as well as known subgroup XII-A were from grapevines; strains representing three additional tentative new subgroups (XII-K, XII-L and XII-M) were from other plant hosts. Nucleotide sequence alignments identified no less than nine genetically distinct 16S rDNA single nucleotide polymorphism lineages from grapevine, indicating a high degree of genetic heterogeneity within BN phytoplasma populations. The findings open new opportunities for in-depth studies of the distribution of grapevine-associated 16SrXII phytoplasma strains in weeds, insect vector populations and grapevines from vineyards located in different geographic areas. [source]

    Genotypic analysis of genes associated with isoniazid and ethionamide resistance in MDR-TB isolates from Thailand

    S. Boonaiam
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 396,399 Abstract Nucleotide sequences of genes conferring isoniazid resistance (katG, inhA, oxyR,ahpC and ndh) and ethionamide resistance (ethA) in 160 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Thailand were analysed. Mutations in the katG gene were found in 129 isolates, predominantly at codon 315, which was mutated in 127 isolates. Twenty-two isolates had mutations in the inhA promoter and coding region. Mutations in the oxyR,ahpC intergenic region and in ndh were detected in four and one isolate(s), respectively. Of 24 ethionamide-resistant isolates, 13 had mutations in the ethA gene. However, these mutations were dispersed along the entire gene, with no codon predominating significantly. [source]

    Purification and cDNA Cloning of Lysozyme II from Cabbage Butterfly, Artogeia rapae Larvae

    BANG In Seok
    ABSTRACT Last instar larvae of cabbage butterfly Artogeia rapae respond to injection of bacteria with a set of inducible antibacterial peptides/proteins. The inducible peptides/proteins are related to the known hinnavins (I and II) and lysozymes (I and II). The lysozyme II has been isolated by heat treatment, cation exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography from immunized hemolymph of last instar larvae. The lysozyme II gene of A. rapae was isolated and its nucleotide sequence was determined by the RACE-PCR from immunized fat body with E. coli. It has an open reading frame of 414 bp nucleotide corresponding to 138 amino acids including an 18 amino acid signal sequence. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of Artogeia lysozyme II without a signal peptide were 13,649.38 Da and 9.11, respectively. It is great similarity with Manduca lysozyme among other lepidopteran. [source]

    Complete sequence of the IncP-9 TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida

    Alicia Greated
    Summary The TOL plasmid pWW0 (117 kb) is the best studied catabolic plasmid and the archetype of the IncP-9 plasmid incompatibility group from Pseudomonas. It carries the degradative (xyl) genes for toluenes and xylenes within catabolic transposons Tn4651 and Tn4653. Analysis of the complete pWW0 nucleotide sequence revealed 148 putative open reading frames. Of these, 77 showed similarity to published sequences in the available databases predicting functions for: plasmid replication, stable maintenance and transfer; phenotypic determinants; gene regulation and expression; and transposition. All identifiable transposition functions lay within the boundaries of the 70 kb transposon Tn4653, leaving a 46 kb sector containing all the IncP-9 core functions. The replicon and stable inheritance region was very similar to the mini-replicon from IncP-9 antibiotic resistance plasmid pM3, with their Rep proteins forming a novel group of initiation proteins. pWW0 transfer functions exist as two blocks encoding putative DNA processing and mating pair formation genes, with organizational and sequence similarity to IncW plasmids. In addition to the known Tn4651 and IS1246 elements, two additional transposable elements were identified as well as several putative transposition functions, which are probably genetic remnants from previous transposition events. Genes likely to be responsible for known resistance to ultraviolet light and free radicals were identified. Other putative phenotypic functions identified included resistance to mercury and other metal ions, as well as to quaternary ammonium compounds. The complexity and size of pWW0 is largely the result of the mosaic organization of the transposable elements that it carries, rather than the backbone functions of IncP-9 plasmids. [source]

    Identification of the ornithine decarboxylase gene in the putrescine-producer Oenococcus oeni BIFI-83

    Angela Marcobal
    Abstract We report here the identification of an ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene in the putrescine-producer Oenococcus oeni BIFI-83 strain. The gene contains a 2,235-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 745-amino acid residues protein with a deduced molecular mass of 81 kDa. The primary structure of the ODC deduced from the nucleotide sequence has a consensus sequence containing the pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) binding domain, and the critical amino acids residues involved in enzymatic activity are also conserved. As determined by BLAST analysis, the deduced amino acid sequence of the odc gene shares a 67% identity with the ODC protein from Lactobacillus 30a. The odc gene appears to be rarely present in the genome of O. oeni, since in a screening for the presence of this gene in 42 oenococcal strains none of the strains possessed an odc gene copy. [source]

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of Gram-positive organisms based on comparative sequence analysis of molecular chaperones from the ruminal microorganism Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1

    Dionysios A. Antonopoulos
    Abstract Primers designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences conserved in DnaK and GroEL from Gram-positive organisms were used to PCR amplify internal regions of the cognate genes from the anaerobic ruminal cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1. Genome walking was then utilized to elucidate the remainder of the sequences in addition to upstream and downstream regions. The full sequence of the gene encoding the GroES protein (groES) was found directly upstream from groEL. The deduced amino acid sequence of the groEL gene showed the highest homology with the amino acid sequence of the Clostridium thermocellum GroEL protein (72% amino acid identity). Similarly, translation of the groES nucleotide sequence showed highest homology to the C. thermocellum GroES protein (61% amino acid identity). Analysis of the upstream region of this chaperonin operon revealed a CIRCE regulatory element 45 bp upstream from the putative start of the groES ORF. The deduced amino acid sequence of the putative dnaK gene showed the highest homology with the amino acid sequence of the Clostridium acetobutylicum DnaK protein (68% amino acid identity). Phylogenetic analyses based on the translated sequences reiterate this relationship between R. flavefaciens and the Clostridia. However, when the nucleotide sequences of Gram-positive organisms are analyzed, a different topology occurs of the relationship between high- and low-G+C Gram-positive organisms to the 16S rRNA interpretation. [source]

    Cloning and sequence analysis of cnaA gene encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin from Aspergillus oryzae

    Praveen Rao Juvvadi
    Abstract Calcineurin has been implicated in ion-homeostasis, stress adaptation in yeast and for hyphal growth in filamentous fungi. Genomic DNA and cDNA encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (cnaA) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae. The cnaA open reading frame extended to 1727 bp and encoded a putative protein of 514 amino acids. Comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequence of cnaA genomic DNA and cDNA confirmed the presence of three introns and a highly conserved calmodulin binding domain. The deduced amino acid sequence was homologous to calcineurin A from Aspergillus nidulans (92%), Neurospora crassa (84%), human (67%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (58%) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (54%). Further, A. oryzae cnaA cDNA complemented S. cerevisiae calcineurin disruptant strain (,cmp1,cmp2), which was not viable in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (1.2 M) and at alkaline pH 8.5. [source]

    Spatial distribution and differential expression of the PBAN receptor in tissues of adult Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    A. Rafaeli
    Abstract Pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) regulates sex pheromone production in many female moths. PBAN-like peptides, with common FXPRLamide C-terminals are found in other insect groups where they have other functions. The ubiquity and multifunctional nature of the pyrokinin/PBAN family of peptides suggests that the PBAN receptor proteins could also be present in a variety of insect tissues with alternative functions from that of sex pheromone biosynthesis. Previously we showed the presence of the PBAN-R in Helicoverpa armigera at the protein level. In the present study we confirm the similarities between the two Helicoverpa species: armigera and zea by (1) demonstrating the presence of the receptor protein in Sf9 cells, cloned to express the HezPBAN receptor, as compared with the endogenous receptor protein, previously shown in H. armigera pheromone glands, and (2) by identifying the nucleotide sequence of the PBAN-R from mRNA of H. armigera pheromone glands. Sequences of the two Helicoverpa spp. are 98% identical with most changes taking place in the 3,-end. We demonstrate the spatial distribution of the PBAN receptor protein in membranes of H. armigera brain (Br), thoracic ganglion (TG) and ventral nerve cord (VNC). We also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of the PBAN receptor gene (using reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription,quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively) in the neural tissues (Br, TG and VNC) of adult H. armigera female moths as compared with its presence in pheromone glands. Surprisingly, the gene for the PBAN receptor is also detected in the male tissue homologous to the female pheromone gland, the aedeagus, although the protein is undetectable and PBAN does not induce physiological (pheromone production) or cellular (cyclic-adenosine monophosphate production) responses in this tissue. Our findings indicate that PBAN or PBAN-like receptors are present in the neural tissues and may represent a neurotransmitter-like function for PBAN-like peptides. In addition, the surprising discovery of the presence of the gene encoding the PBAN receptor in the male homologous tissue, but its absence at the protein level, launches opportunities for studying molecular regulation pathways and the evolution of these G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). [source]

    Expression and characterization of ,-glucosidase III in the dwarf honeybee, Apis florea (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae)

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    Abstract Alpha-glucosidase is synthesized in the hypopharyngeal glands located in the head of worker bees including Apis florea. To analyze the developmental stage-specific expression of the ,-glucosidase gene in A. florea, total RNA was isolated from eggs, and the heads of nurse and forager bees. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that the highest expression levels of the ,-glucosidase III gene, in the three examined developmental stadia, were found in forager bees, with much lower expression levels in nurse bees and no detectable expression in eggs. A complete ,-glucosidase III cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced. The 1 701 bp cDNA nucleotide sequence and the predicted 567 amino acids it encodes were assayed by BLASTn, BLASTp and BLASTx programs and revealed a 95% and 94% similarity to the A. mellifera,-glucosidase III gene at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. For purification of the active encoded enzyme, forager bee heads were homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer solution and the crude extract (0.30 U/mg) sequentially precipitated with 95% saturated ammonium sulfate (0.18 U/mg), and purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange chromatography (0.17 U/mg), and gel filtration on Superdex 200 (0.52 U/mg). After resolution through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a single enzymically active band (73 kDa) was identified from renatured substrate gels. Excision of this band, elution of the protein and tryptic peptide digestives identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed six matching masses to the A. mellifera (Q17958) and predicted A. florea,-glucosidase III protein with 12% coverage, supporting the probable purification of the same ,-glucosidase III protein as that encoded by the cloned cDNA. [source]

    Analysis of the genetic variability of the 1st (CCC/ACC, P52T) and the 10th exons (bp 1012,1704) of the TSH receptor gene in Graves' disease

    Viktória Kaczur
    We determined the genetic variability of the 1st (CCC/ACC, P52T polymorphic variant) and 10th exons (bp 1012,1704) of the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene in Graves' disease. A total of 101 Graves' patients and 163 control subjects were screened. The A253 mutant allele was carried by nine patients with Graves' disease (8.91%) and 13 control subjects (7.98%) in heterozygous genotype. No significant difference in the frequency of the mutant allele was found between Graves' patients and control subjects. These results provide evidence that the A253 polymorphism has no genetic relevance in Graves' disease. Moreover, the DNA nucleotide sequence of 693 bp of the 10th exon (bp 1012,1704) of the TSHR gene was determined in 15 Graves' patients. Six patients were homozygous for the wild-type allele and nine were heterozygous for the mutant allele at the 253rd nucleotide of the first exon. No polymorphism was found in the DNA sequences obtained from leukocytes of Graves' patients, similarly to the sequences obtained from the nine control subjects. None of the nine patients carrying the A253 polymorphism in the 1st exon of the TSHR had polymorphism in the examined part of the 10th exon, including two additional patients whose thyroid tissue was directly analysed. In all likelihood, the polymorphisms of the examined regions of either the 1st or the 10th exon of the THSR gene do not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease. [source]

    New computational algorithm for the prediction of protein folding types

    Nikola, tambuk
    Abstract We present a new computational algorithm for the prediction of a secondary protein structure. The method enables the evaluation of ,- and ,-protein folding types from the nucleotide sequences. The procedure is based on the reflected Gray code algorithm of nucleotide,amino acid relationships, and represents the extension of Swanson's procedure in Ref. 4. It is shown that six-digit binary notation of each codon enables the prediction of ,- and ,-protein folds by means of the error-correcting linear block triple-check code. We tested the validity of the method on the test set of 140 proteins (70 ,- and 70 ,-folds). The test set consisted of standard ,- and ,-protein classes from Jpred and SCOP databases, with nucleotide sequence available in the GenBank database. 100% accurate classification of ,- and ,-protein folds, based on 39 dipeptide addresses derived by the error-correcting coding procedure was obtained by means of the logistic regression analysis (p<0.00000001). Classification tree and machine learning sequential minimal optimization (SMO) classifier confirmed the results by means 97.1% and 90% accurate classification, respectively. Protein fold prediction quality tested by means of leave-one-out cross-validation was a satisfactory 82.1% for the logistic regression and 81.4% for the SMO classifier. The presented procedure of computational analysis can be helpful in detecting the type of protein folding from the newly sequenced exon regions. The method enables quick, simple, and accurate prediction of ,- and ,-protein folds from the nucleotide sequence on a personal computer. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 84: 13,22, 2001 [source]

    Transcriptional analysis of the gdhA gene in Streptococcus thermophilus

    C. Lazzi
    Abstract Aims:, To study the transcriptional analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase gene, involved in the amino acid conversion to aroma compound in Streptococcus thermophilus. Methods and Results:, Analysis of the gdhA gene nucleotide sequence of S. thermophilus CNRZ1066 revealed that the coding region is 1353 nucleotides long. The deduced amino acids sequence exhibits the putative GDH active site and some conserved domains characteristic of family I of hexameric GDHs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gdh gene of S. thermophilus clustered with the orthologues of other streptococci such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus infantarius. Studying the structural organization of the gdhA locus the amino acid similarity of GDHs was higher than 87%, but the locus organization was not conserved. A dominant transcript of approximately 1·4 kbp was revealed by Northern blot hybridization, suggesting that gdhA mRNA is monocystronic. Primer extension showed that transcription start point of gdhA was localized 43 bp upstream of the potential start codon (ATG). Conclusions:, The gdhA represents a monocistronic operon highly conserved in phylogenetic-related bacteria. Significance and Impact of the Study:, A deeper knowledge of gdh transcriptional mechanisms could lead to develop S. thermophilus industrial starter cultures with optimized aromatic properties. [source]

    Sequencing, expression, and characterization of cDNA expressed flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 from mouse

    Edward D. Karoly
    Abstract The cDNA clone of mouse flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 (FMO2) was obtained as an expressed sequence tag (EST) isolated from a female mouse kidney cDNA library from the I.M.A.G.E. consortium (I.M.A.G.E. CloneID 1432164). Complete sequencing of the EST derived a nucleotide sequence for mouse FMO2, which contains 112 bases of 5, flanking region, 1607 bases of coding region, and 309 bases of 3, flanking region. This FMO2 sequence encodes a protein of 535 amino acids including two putative pyrophosphate binding sequences (GxGxxG/A) beginning at positions 9 and 191. Additionally, this mouse FMO protein sequence shows 87 and 86% homology to rabbit and human FMO2 respectively. The mouse FMO2 sequence was subcloned into the expression vector pJL-2, a derivative of pKK233-2 and used to transform XL1-Blue Escherichia coli. FMO activity in particulate fractions isolated from isopropyl-,-D-thiogalactopyanoside (IPTG) induced cells was heat stable (45°C for 5 min) and demonstrated optimal activity at a relatively high pH of 10.5. The expressed FMO2 enzyme showed catalytic activity towards the FMO substrate methimazole and further analysis of E. coli fractions utilizing NADPH oxidation demonstrated that the mouse FMO2 enzyme also exhibits catalytic activity towards thiourea, trimethylamine, and the insecticide phorate. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 15:300,308, 2001 [source]

    RANKL Treatment Releases the Negative Regulation of the Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 on Tcirg1 Gene Expression During Osteoclastogenesis,

    Guillaume E Beranger
    Abstract The Tcirg1 gene encodes the osteoclast-specific a3 isoform of the V-ATPase a subunit. Using the mouse osteoclastic model RAW264.7 cells, we studied Tcirg1 gene expression, and we identified PARP-1 as a transcriptional repressor negatively regulated by RANKL during osteoclastogenesis. Introduction: The TCIRG1 gene encodes the a3 isoform of the V-ATPase a subunit, and mutations at this locus account for ,60% of infantile malignant osteopetrosis cases. Using RAW264.7 cells as an osteoclastic differentiation model, we undertook a transcriptional study of the mouse Tcirg1 gene focused on the 4-kb region upstream of the transcription starting point. Materials and Methods: The promoter activity of serial-deletion fragments of the Tcirg1 gene promoter was monitored throughout the RAW264.7 cell differentiation process. We next performed EMSA, UV cross-linking, affinity purification, mass spectrometry analysis, gel supershift, and siRNA transfection experiments to identify the factor(s) interacting with the promoter. Results: The ,3946/+113 region of the mouse Tcirg1 gene displayed a high basal promoter activity, which was enhanced by RANKL treatment of RAW264.7 cells. Constructs deleted up to ,1589 retained this response to RANKL. A deletion up to ,1402 induced a 3-fold enhancement of the basal activity, whereas RANKL response was not affected. EMSA experiments led us to identify within the ,1589/,1402 region, a 10-nucleotide sequence, which bound a nuclear protein present in nondifferentiated RAW264.7 cells. This interaction was lost using nuclear extracts derived from RANKL-treated cells. Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis and gel supershift assay allowed the identification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as this transcriptional repressor, whereas Western blot experiments revealed the cleavage of the DNA-binding domain of PARP-1 on RANKL treatment. Finally, both PARP-1 depletion after siRNA transfection and RAW264.7 cell treatment by an inhibitor of PARP-1 activity induced an increase of a3 mRNA expression. Conclusions: We provide evidence that the basal transcription activity of the Tcirg1 gene is negatively regulated by the binding of PARP-1 protein to its promoter region in mouse pre-osteoclast. On RANKL treatment, PARP-1 protein is cleaved and loses its repression effect, allowing an increase of Tcirg1 gene expression that is critical for osteoclast function. [source]

    X-linked mental retardation and epigenetics

    Guy Froyen
    Abstract The search for the genetic defects in constitutional diseases has so far been restricted to direct methods for the identification of genetic mutations in the patients' genome. Traditional methods such as karyotyping, FISH, mutation screening, positional cloning and CGH, have been complemented with newer methods including array-CGH and PCR-based approaches (MLPA, qPCR). These methods have revealed a high number of genetic or genomic aberrations that result in an altered expression or reduced functional activity of key proteins. For a significant percentage of patients with congenital disease however, the underlying cause has not been resolved strongly suggesting that yet other mechanisms could play important roles in their etiology. Alterations of the ,native' epigenetic imprint might constitute such a novel mechanism. Epigenetics, heritable changes that do not rely on the nucleotide sequence, has already been shown to play a determining role in embryonic development, X-inactivation, and cell differentiation in mammals. Recent progress in the development of techniques to study these processes on full genome scale has stimulated researchers to investigate the role of epigenetic modifications in cancer as well as in constitutional diseases. We will focus on mental impairment because of the growing evidence for the contribution of epigenetics in memory formation and cognition. Disturbance of the epigenetic profile due to direct alterations at genomic regions, or failure of the epigenetic machinery due to genetic mutations in one of its components, has been demonstrated in cognitive derangements in a number of neurological disorders now. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the cognitive deficit in a significant percentage of patients with unexplained mental retardation results from epigenetic modifications. [source]

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus infection in M. rosenbergii (de Man) with white tail disease cultured in Taiwan

    C S Wang
    Abstract White tail disease (WTD) is a serious problem in Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatcheries and nursery ponds in Asia. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and its associated extra small virus. This is the first report demonstrating MrNV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD signs in Taiwan by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified fragments of 850 and 425 bp for RNA-1 and RNA-2 of MrNV, respectively, were obtained by RT-PCR. RT-PCR products of about 850 and 1121 bp for RNA-1 and RNA-2 of MrNV were also obtained using different primer pairs. The amplicons were individually cloned into pGEM-T vector and sequenced. Using this recombinant plasmid of MrNV RNA-2 as DNA template, the non-radioactive DNA probes were prepared by PCR amplification with DIG,11-dUTP. The probes were used to successfully detect MrNV infection in the striated muscle tissues of WTD-diseased prawns using in situ hybridization. The 1121 bp genomic fragment of RNA-2 of MrNV consisted of a unique open reading frame with 1116 nucleotides, and it encoded a structural protein with 371 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of the partial genome of MrNV RNA-2 revealed a 97% identity with an Indian isolate. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the nucleotide sequence of the viral capsid gene from insect and fish nodaviruses revealed that the MrNV Taiwan isolate could be interpreted as a new genus within the family Nodaviridae. However, its position showed more affinity with Alphanodavirus than with Betanodavirus. The study confirmed the presence of MrNV infection in freshwater prawns cultured in Taiwan suffering from WTD. [source]

    Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    R B Shivappa
    Abstract Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 °C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 101 TCID50 mL,1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. [source]

    Aquabirnaviruses isolated from marine organisms form a distinct genogroup from other aquabirnaviruses

    C X Zhang
    Abstract A phylogenetic tree of aquabirnaviruses, including marine birnaviruses (MABV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), was developed based on the nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences of the polyprotein and VP5 genes of genomic segment A. In the polyprotein of MABV strains, the amino acid sequences were very similar, with identities of 98.3,99.7%. Twenty-one unique amino acid residues were found in the deduced amino acid sequences of the polyprotein gene of MABV strains. The phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequence of genomic segment A and polyprotein sequences showed that 31 aquabirnavirus strains were clustered into seven genogroups. All MABV strains isolated in Japan and Korea were clustered into one genogroup which was distinct from other aquabirnaviruses. The seventh genogroup containing all MABV strains showed amino acid sequence similarities of 80.7,90.6% with other genogroups. In VP5, four unique residues were found in MABV strains when compared with IPNV strains. The MABV strains exhibited amino acid sequence similarities of 63.9,86.4% with IPNV strains. The amino acid sequences of VP5 were conserved among MABV strains, but differed from those of IPNV strains. The MABV strains isolated from different host species and different geographical areas were very similar to each other, suggesting that the MABV are distinct from the other genogroups. [source]

    Detection of nodavirus in barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), using recombinant coat protein-based ELISA and RT,PCR

    The coat protein encoded by the nodavirus RNA2 gene originally isolated from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, was cloned, expressed as a recombinant polyhistidine-tailed fusion protein and characterized by immunoblot analysis. The purified recombinant protein was used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect body exudate and plasma antibodies against the coat protein in both experimentally infected and commercial barramundi. In addition, the nucleotide sequence was employed to develop a RT,PCR detection assay based on the T4 region. The results showed that the virus could be detected as early as 3 days post-infection by RT,PCR while antibodies against the recombinant coat protein were detectable on day 6 post-infection. Among 112 commercial barramundi samples collected from October 1999 to April 2000, 9% showed positive ELISA results which were further verified by Western blot. [source]

    Influence of RNA titre and amino acid changes in the NS5A region of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus on the effectiveness of interferon therapy

    Tomoki Fujisawa
    Abstract Background: A relationship between the pretreatment RNA titre of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) and the effectiveness of interferon (IFN) therapy has been reported previously. However, the influence of changes in the amino acid sequence of the NS5A region of GBV-C/HGV on the effectiveness of IFN therapy has not been examined, although this influence has been explored in patients with chronic hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. We examined the relationship between changes in the amino-acid sequence of the NS5A region and the effectiveness of IFN therapy. Methods: The subjects were 10 patients with chronic hepatitis C coinfected with GBV-C/HGV and treated with IFN. The pretreatment level of GBV-C/HGV-RNA (copies/mL) in their sera was measured by real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. At 6 months after cessation of therapy, four of 10 patients had become negative for GBV-C/HGV-RNA (CR, complete response) and six patients were still positive for GBV-C/HGV-RNA (NR, non-response). We determined the nucleotide sequence of the NS5A region (amino acid residues 1865,2279; NS5A1865,2279) of pretreatment GBV-C/HGV-RNA by direct sequencing. Results: The pretreatment GBV-C/HGV-RNA level of CR patients (7.8 × 104,6.2 × 105, mean 3.30 × 105) was significantly lower than that of NR patients (6.3 × 107,7.2 × 108, mean 3.55 × 108; P < 0.01). The number of amino acid substitutions in NS5A1865,2279 was five to seven (mean 5.8 ± 1.0) in CR patients, and four to eight (mean 6.8 ± 1.6) in NR patients, a difference that is not significant. Moreover, there were no amino acid substitutions or sites of substitution in NS5A1865,2279 that were specific to either group. Conclusions: The effectiveness of IFN therapy for GBV-C/HGV is strongly related to the pretreatment GBV-C/HGV-RNA level, but is not related to changes in NS5A1865,2279. [source]

    Genetic Diversity: Geographical Distribution and Toxin Profiles of Microcystis Strains (Cyanobacteria) in China

    Zhong-Xing Wu
    Abstract Twenty strains of Microcystis Kütz were isolated from different freshwater bodies in China to analyze the diversity, geographical distribution and toxin profiles. Based on whole-cell polymerase chain reaction of cpcBA-IGS nucleotide sequence, the derived neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) trees indicate that these strains of Microcystis can be divided into four clusters. The strains from south, middle and north region of China formed distinct lineages, suggesting high diversity and a geographical distribution from south to north locations. Moreover, the results being indicating high variable genotypes of the strains of the Microcystis strains from the same lake show that there is high diversity of Microcystis within a water bloom population. Comparing the results of the present study with those reported for compared with 43 strains of Microcystis from other locations, also reveals Chinese strains have high similarity with those from regions in the North Hemispherical. This suggests that the Microcystis strains in the world might have a geographical distribution. Analysis of 30 strains using the primers MCF/TER and TOX2P/TOX2M showed that there was no correlation between the gene of cpcBA-IGS and the presence of mcy. Toxic strains were founded to be predominant in different water bodies throughout China. [source]

    Determination of HIV-1 subtypes (A,D, F, G, CRF01_AE) by PCR in the transmembrane region (gp41) with novel primers

    Fumihiro Yagyu
    Abstract HIV-1 has a huge genetic diversity. So far, nine subtypes have been isolated, namely, subtypes A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, and K. Epidemiological study provides information which may help in the development of HIV-1 prevention programs or health policies. In the future, subtyping may also be critical for vaccine development, and an effective anti-viral drug will need to be effective for different subtypes of HIV virus. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the v3 region is considered the most reliable method for determining the HIV-1 subtype. However, the procedures for determining the v3 sequences are complicated and time consuming, requiring expensive reagents, equipment, and well-trained personnel. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using subtype-specific primers for HIV-1 subtyping is easier and faster. The objective of this study was to develop subtype-specific primers for subtyping PCR. The specific primers were designed for subtypes A, B, C, D, F, G, and CRF01_AE, and these primers could be applied to assay for various HIV-1 subtypes in the clinical samples. The specific primers were designed for each subtypes in the gp41 region. The result of PCR was compared with the subtypes which was determined by the v3 sequence. The results of subtyping by PCR using the newly designed primers could detect 29 of 33 patients tested, and all matched those obtained by nucleotide sequencing of the env v3 region except for three subjects, which were differentiated as CRF02_AG. The newly designed primers functioned accurately and conclusively. In comparison with PCR as a method for the determination of subtypes, sequence analysis requires better-trained personnel, more expensive reagents, and more equipment and time. J. Med. Virol. 76:16,23, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]