Northeastern United States (northeastern + united_states)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interaction between psychiatric and autoimmune disorders in coeliac disease patients in the Northeastern United States

Summary Background, Previous studies yielded conflicting results regarding the presence of an association between coeliac disease (CD) and psychiatric disorders including depression. This association has not been studied in the United States. Aim, To determine the prevalence of psychiatric and autoimmune disorders in patients with CD in the US compared with control groups. Methods, In a case control study, the prevalence of psychiatric and autoimmune disorders was compared in 600 CD patients, 200 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and 200 healthy controls. Results, The prevalence of depression in CD was 17.2% and was similar to that in IBS (18.5%, P = 0.74) and controls (16.0%, P = 0.79). Among CD patients, type I diabetes mellitus (DM) was identified as a significant risk factor for depression (P < 0.01) with 37% of patients with both CD and type I DM having clinical depression. Conclusion, The prevalence of depression in CD is similar to that in other chronic gastrointestinal diseases and healthy controls. However, there is a markedly elevated risk of depression in patients with both type I DM and CD. Differing rates of type 1 DM among coeliac populations may account for disparity in published rates of depression in patients with CD. [source]

Memory, Identity, and NAGPRA in the Northeastern United States

April M. Beisaw
ABSTRACT, Determinations of cultural affiliation in compliance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) often rely on culture history and the direct-historical approach. Both methods ignore important developments in our understanding of identity. A recent NAGPRA claim illustrates an alternative. Using culture history and the direct-historical approach, it was difficult to ascribe the Engelbert Site of New York State to a federally recognized tribe because it contained material from multiple culture-historic taxa, often in the same feature. Taphonomic analyses of selected mixed deposits revealed a previously undocumented mortuary ritual that has since been found at other sites. Using memory as a framework for interpretation, this ritual appears reflective of a kinship-based shared identity between culture-historic taxa. The multivocality of this ritual provided an additional means for evaluating cultural affiliation by ascribing a consciousness of history to the subjects of this repatriation claim. [source]

On a level field: the utility of studying native and non-native species in successional systems

Scott J. Meiners
Abstract Questions: How do successional systems contribute to our understanding of plant invasions? Why is a community-level approach important in understanding invasion? Do native and non-native plant species differ in their successional trajectories within communities? Location: Northeastern United States, in the Piedmont region of New Jersey. Previously farmed since the 1700s, ten fields were experimentally retired from agriculture beginning in 1958. Methods: Fifty years of permanent plot data were used to quantify the population demographics of the 84 most abundant species during succession. These measures were then used to compare native, non-native and non-native invasive species' population dynamics in succession. Results: Once basic life-history characteristics were accounted for, there were no differences in the population dynamics of native, non-native, and non-native invasive plant species. However, the species pool in this study was biased towards ruderal species, which largely constrained non-native species to early succession. Conclusion: Successional systems are crucial to our understanding of invasions as they constrain all species to the role of colonizer. By focusing on the whole community, rather than on individual problematic species, we found no systematic differences between native and non-native species. Thus, knowing simple life-history information about a species would be much more useful in setting management priorities than where the species originated. [source]

Spatial analysis of an invasion front of Acer platanoides: dynamic inferences from static data

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2005
Wei Fang
It is an open question whether the invading tree species Acer platanoides is invading and displacing native trees within pre-existing forest stands, or merely preferentially occupying new stands of secondary forest growth at the edges of existing forests. Several threads of spatial pattern analyses were used to assess the invasibility of A. platanoides, and to link the invasion to the structure of a plant community in the deciduous forest of the northeastern United States. The analyses were based on maps of a contiguous 100×50 m area along an A. platanoides infestation gradient. The distribution of A. platanoides was highly aggregated and the population importance value increased from 28.1 to 38.5% according to mortality estimated from standing dead trees, while the distribution of native tree species was close to random and importance value of Quercus spp. decreased from 33.4 to 26.9% over time. The size distributions of each tree species across distance indicated that A. platanoides was progressively invading the interior of the forest while the native species (including A. rubrum) were not spreading back towards the A. platanoides monospecific patch. The null hypothesis of no invasibility was rejected based on quantile regressions. There were negative correlations between A. platanoides density and the densities of native species in different functional groups, and negative correlation of A. platanoides density and the species diversity in forest understory. The null hypothesis that A. platanoides invasion did not suppress native trees or understory was rejected based on Dutilleul's modified t-test for correlation, consistent with experimental results in the same study site. The combination of multiple spatial analyses of static data can be used to infer historical dynamical processes that shape a plant community structure. The concept of "envelop effects" was discussed and further developed. [source]

Motivation and patch treatment for HIV+ smokers: a randomized controlled trial

ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson
ABSTRACT Aims To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in a HIV positive (HIV+) sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV+ smoker referrals from eight immunology clinics in the northeastern United States. Participants A total of 444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age = 42.07 years; 63.28% male; 51.80% European American; mean cigarettes/day = 18.27). Interventions SC participants received two brief sessions with a health educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME participants received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. Measurements Biochemically verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups. Findings Intent-to-treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, in the ME condition, and 13%, 10% and 10%, respectively, in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were associated positively with low nicotine dependence (P = 0.02), high motivation to quit (P = 0.04) and Hispanic American race/ethnicity (P = 0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.99,1.75). Conclusions Motivationally enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients to quit smoking. [source]

Measured partitioning coefficients for parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 114 historically contaminated sediments: Part 1.

KOC values
Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning coefficients between sediment organic carbon and water (KOC) values were determined using 114 historically contaminated and background sediments collected from eight different rural and urban waterways in the northeastern United States. More than 2,100 individual KC values were measured in quadruplicate for PAHs ranging from two to six rings, along with the first reported KOC values for alkyl PAHs included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) sediment narcosis model for the prediction of PAH toxicity to benthic organisms. Sediment PAH concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 8,600 ,g/g (U.S. EPA 16 parent PAHs), but no observable trends in KOC values with concentration were observed for any of the individual PAHs. Literature KOC values that are commonly used for environmental modeling are similar to the lowest measured values for a particular PAH, with actual measured values typically ranging up to two orders of magnitude higher for both background and contaminated sediments. For example, the median log KOC values we determined for naphthalene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.7, respectively, compared to typical literature KOC values for the same PAHs of 2.9, 4.8, and 5.8, respectively. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common practice of using PAH KOC values derived from spiked sediments and modeled values based on n -octanol,water coefficients can greatly overestimate the actual partitioning of PAHs into water from field sediments. [source]

Empirical and modeling evidence of regional atmospheric transport of current-use pesticides

Derek C. G. Muir
Abstract Water samples from 30 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States were analyzed for the occurrence of 27 current-use pesticides (CUPs). Eleven CUPs were frequently detected in lakes receiving agricultural inputs as well as in remote lakes hundreds of kilometers from known application areas. These included the triazine herbicide atrazine and its desethylated degradation product; the herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, and dacthal; the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and disulfoton; the organochlorine insecticides ,-endosulfan and lindane; and the fungicides chlorothalonil and flutriafol. For six of the pesticides, empirical half-distances on the order of 560 to 1,820 km were estimated from the water-concentration gradient with latitude. For most of the pesticides, a suite of assessment models failed to predict such atmospheric long-range transport behavior, unless the effect of periods of lower hydroxyl radical concentrations and dry weather were taken into account. Observations and model results suggest that under the conditions prevailing in south-central Canada (relatively high latitude, low precipitation rates), many CUPs will be able to undergo regional-scale atmospheric transport and reach lakes outside areas of agricultural application. When assessing the potential of fairly reactive and water-soluble substances to undergo long-range transport, it is imperative to account for periods of no precipitation, to assure that degradation rate constants are correct, and to apply oxidant concentrations that are valid for the region and time period of interest. [source]

Children's Sense of Self in Relation to Clinical Processes: Portraits of Pharmaceutical Transformation

ETHOS, Issue 3 2009
Elizabeth Carpenter-Song
This article presents in-depth accounts of pharmaceutical transformation from the perspective of two children diagnosed with behavioral and emotional disorders. These portraits provide the basis for an examination of the complex interrelation between self and clinical processes. Narrative data were collected in the context of a 13-month anthropological study of the lived experiences of children diagnosed with behavioral and emotional disorders and their families living in the northeastern United States. Participating families (N=20) were from diverse racial/ethnic (African American, Euro-American, and Latino) and socioeconomic backgrounds. Psychiatric diagnoses and pharmaceuticals present tangible constraints in the lives of children that call attention to otherwise fluid and ephemeral self processes. These accounts suggest that psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medications present dilemmas for children's developing sense of self, revealing limitations to biopsychiatric "pharmaceutical promises." [children, self processes, subjective experience, psychiatric disorder, pharmaceuticals] [source]

The relative importance of local conditions and regional processes in structuring aquatic plant communities

Summary 1. The structure of biological communities reflects the influence of both local environmental conditions and processes such as dispersal that create patterns in species' distribution across a region. 2. We extend explicit tests of the relative importance of local environmental conditions and regional spatial processes to aquatic plants, a group traditionally thought to be little limited by dispersal. We used partial canonical correspondence analysis and partial Mantel tests to analyse data from 98 lakes and ponds across Connecticut (northeastern United States). 3. We found that aquatic plant community structure reflects the influence of local conditions (pH, conductivity, water clarity, lake area, maximum depth) as well as regional processes. 4. Only 27% of variation in a presence/absence matrix was explained by environmental conditions and spatial processes such as dispersal. Of the total explained, 45% was related to environmental conditions and 40% to spatial processes. 5. Jaccard similarity declined with Euclidean distance between lakes, even after accounting for the increasing difference in environmental conditions, suggesting that dispersal limitation may influence community composition in the region. 6. The distribution of distances among lakes where species occurred was associated with dispersal-related functional traits, providing additional evidence that dispersal ability varies among species in ways that affect community composition. 7. Although environmental and spatial variables explained a significant amount of variation in community structure, a substantial amount of stochasticity also affects these communities, probably associated with unpredictable colonisation and persistence of the plants. [source]

Poleward shifts in breeding bird distributions in New York State

Abstract Like other regions of the northern hemisphere, the northeastern United States has experienced a general increase in regional temperatures over the past 20 years. Quantifying the ecological implications of these changing temperatures has been severely constrained by a lack of multispecies distributional data by which to compare long-term changes. We used the New York State Breeding Bird Atlas, a statewide survey of 5332 25 km2 blocks surveyed in 1980,1985 and 2000,2005, to test several predictions that the birds of New York State are responding to climate change. Our objective was to use an information-theoretic approach to analyze changes in three geographic range characteristics, the center of occurrence, range boundaries, and states of occurrence to address several predictions that the birds of New York State are moving polewards and up in elevation. As expected, we found all bird species (n=129) included in this analysis showed an average northward range shift in their mean latitude of 3.58 km [Prob(Ha|data)=0.87)]. Past studies have found that northern range boundaries are more likely to be influenced by climatic factors than southern range boundaries. Consequently, we predicted that northward shifts would be more evident in northern as opposed to southern range boundaries. We found, however, that the southern range boundaries of northerly birds moved northward by 11.4 km [n=43, Prob(Ha|data)=0.92], but this pattern was less evident in northern range boundaries of southerly birds. In addition, we found that bird species demonstrated a general shift downhill in their mean elevation, but demonstrated little change in their elevational boundaries. The repeated pattern of a predicted northward shift in bird ranges in various geographic regions of the world provides compelling evidence that climate change is driving range shifts. [source]

North American Brant: effects of changes in habitat and climate on population dynamics

David H. Ward
Abstract We describe the importance of key habitats used by four nesting populations of nearctic brant (Branta bernicla) and discuss the potential relationship between changes in these habitats and population dynamics of brant. Nearctic brant, in contrast to most geese, rely on marine habitats and native intertidal plants during the non-breeding season, particularly the seagrass, Zostera, and the macroalgae, Ulva. Atlantic and Eastern High Arctic brant have experienced the greatest degradation of their winter habitats (northeastern United States and Ireland, respectively) and have also shown the most plasticity in feeding behavior. Black and Western High Arctic brant of the Pacific Flyway are the most dependent on Zostera, and are undergoing a shift in winter distribution that is likely related to climate change and its associated effects on Zostera dynamics. Variation in breeding propensity of Black Brant associated with winter location and climate strongly suggests that food abundance on the wintering grounds directly affects reproductive performance in these geese. In summer, salt marshes, especially those containing Carex and Puccinellia, are key habitats for raising young, while lake shorelines with fine freshwater grasses and sedges are important for molting birds. Availability and abundance of salt marshes has a direct effect on growth and recruitment of goslings and ultimately, plays an important role in regulating size of local brant populations. [source]

The effects of an ethics training program on attitude, knowledge, and transfer of training of office professionals: A treatment- and control-group design

Deloise A. Frisque
This study examines the effects of ethics training on the attitudes, knowledgebased scores, and analysis of ethical dilemmas among office professionals. A treatment-and control-group design was used with variables of interest measured before, immediately after, and ninety days following completion of a six-hour ethics training workshop. A Web-based research randomizer was used with an electronic file to identify full-time office professionals at a large university in the northeastern United States. Seventy-one participants were assigned to the treatment (training) group, twenty to the control group. Results indicate significant differences in attitude and analysis of ethical dilemmas between the two groups. [source]

Assessing the effects of post-pine beetle forest litter on snow albedo

Rita Winkler
Abstract The effect of forest litter on snow surface albedo has been subject to limited study, mainly in the hardwood-dominated forests of the northeastern United States. Given the recent pine beetle infestation in Western North America and associated increases in litter production, this study examines the effects of forest litter on snow surface albedo in the coniferous forests of south-central British Columbia. Measured changes in canopy transmittance provide an indication of canopy loss or total litterfall over the winter of 2007,2008. Relationships between percent litter cover, an index of albedo, snow depth, and snow ablation during the 2008 melt season are compared between a mature, young, and clearcut coniferous stand. Results indicate a strong feedback effect between canopy loss and subsequent enhanced shortwave transmittance, and litter accumulation on the snow surface from that canopy loss. However, this relationship is confounded by other variables concurrently affecting albedo. While results suggest that a relatively small percent litter cover can have a significant effect on albedo and ablation, further research is underway to extract the litter signal from that of other factors affecting albedo, particularly snow depth. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown myotis Myotis lucifugus

Winifred F. Frick
Summary 1. Estimating variation in demographic rates, such as survival and fecundity, is important for testing life-history theory and identifying conservation and management goals. 2. We used 16 years (1993,2008) of mark,recapture data to estimate age-specific survival and breeding probabilities of the little brown myotis Myotis lucifugus LeConte in southern New Hampshire, USA. Using Kendall & Nichols' (1995) full-likelihood approach of the robust design to account for temporary emigration, we tested whether survival and breeding propensity is influenced by regional weather patterns and timing of reproduction. 3. Our results demonstrate that adult female survival of M. lucifugus ranged from 0·63 (95% CL = 0·56, 0·68) to 0·90 (95% CL = 0·77, 0·94), and was highest in wet years with high cumulative summer precipitation. First-year survival [range: 0·23 (95% CL = 0·14, 0·35) to 0·46 (95% CL = 0·34, 0·57)] was considerably lower than adult survival and depended on pup date of birth, such that young born earlier in the summer (c. late May) had a significantly higher probability of surviving their first year than young born later in the summer (c. mid-July). Similarly, the probability of young females returning to the maternity colony to breed in the summer following their birth year was higher for individuals born earlier in the summer [range: 0·23 (95% CL = 0·08, 0·50) to 0·53 (95% CL = 0·30, 0·75)]. 4. The positive influence of early parturition on 1st-year survival and breeding propensity demonstrates significant fitness benefits to reproductive timing in this temperate insectivorous bat. 5. Climatic factors can have important consequences for population dynamics of temperate bats, which may be negatively affected by summer drying patterns associated with global climate change. 6. Understanding long-term demographic trends will be important in the face of a novel disease phenomenon (White-Nose Syndrome) that is associated with massive mortalities in hibernating bat species, including M. lucifugus, in the northeastern United States. [source]

Fungi associated with a natural epizootic in Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) populations

J. A. P. Marcelino
Abstract Stands of eastern hemlock [(Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] in the northeastern United States are in decline, in part from the attack of elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). From 2001 to the present, a natural epizootic has been observed in populations of F. externa. Initially discovered at the Mianus River Gorge Preserve in Bedford, New York, the epizootic has also been detected in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Understanding and assessing the identity of the pathogenic micro-organisms responsible for this natural mortality is crucial for developing biological controls for this pest. We have isolated and taxonomically and genetically identified entomopathogens, phytopathogens and endophytic fungi associated with F. externa. Isolates of the following were obtained: Colletotrichum sp., Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhiziopsis microspora, Myriangium sp., Mycosphaerella sp. anamorph, Nectria sp., Botrytis sp., Phialophora sp. and Fusarium sp. [source]

Prevalence of Pelvic Paget's Disease of Bone in the United States

R. D. Altman M.D.
Abstract The objective of this article was to estimate the prevalence of Paget's disease of bone in the United States from a statistically derived sample of the general population. Pelvic radiographs obtained in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-I) were reviewed for the presence of Paget's disease. Age, sex, and geographic distribution of Paget's disease of the pelvic region were determined. The overall prevalence of Paget's disease in the United States was estimated. Pelvic Paget's disease is estimated to be present in 0.71 + 0.18% of the radiographs of the general population. The disease was higher in frequency in people who were in the older decades of life with the highest prevalence of 2.32 + 0.54% in the 65- to 74-year-old people. There is a slight male predominance in the 45- to 74-year age group. The regional distribution suggests the highest prevalence in the Northeast (1.48 + 0.52%) with the lowest prevalence in the South (0.26 + 0.25%). The prevalence was equal in white people and black people. An estimate of the overall prevalence of Paget's disease in the United States was at least 1% and perhaps as much as 2% of the general population with near equal sex distribution and the highest prevalence in the northeastern United States. [source]

Spatial and genetic structure of host-associated differentiation in the parasitoid Copidosoma gelechiae

Abstract Host-associated differentiation (HAD) appears to be an important driver of diversification in the hyperdiverse phytophagous and parasitoid insects. The gallmaking moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis has undergone HAD on two sympatric goldenrods (Solidago), and HAD has also been documented in its parasitoid Copidosoma gelechiae, with the intriguing suggestion that differentiation has proceeded independently in multiple populations. We tested this suggestion with analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers for C. gelechiae collections from the midwestern and northeastern United States and eastern Canada. AFLP data were consistent with the existence of HAD, with between-host FST significant before Bonferroni correction in two of seven sympatric populations. amova analysis strongly rejected a model of HAD with a single historical origin, and thus supported the repeated-HAD hypothesis. Copidosoma gelechiae shows significant host-associated divergence at a number of allozyme loci (Stireman et al., 2006), but only weak evidence via AFLPs for genome-wide differentiation, suggesting that this species is at a very early stage of HAD. [source]

The Effect of Temperature on First Feeding, Growth, and Survival of Larval Witch Flounder Glyptocephalus cynoglossus

Deborah A. Bidwell
Witch flounder Glyptocephalus cynoglossus has recently been identified as a candidate species for aquaculture in the northeastern United States and the Canadian Atlantic Provinces. This study investigated the optimal temperatures for witch flounder larval first feeding and for long term larval culture from hatching through metamorphosis. Maximum first feeding occurred between 15.0 and 16.2 C. Larvae did not survive beyond first feeding when reared at mean temperatures of 5.1, 10.4, or 19.5 C and were unable to initiate feeding at mean rearing temperatures below 6.0 C. At a rearing temperature of 15.0 C in 16-L tanks, mean larval survival to 60 days post hatch (dph) was 14.1%. Mean overall length-specific growth rate for larvae reared to 60 dph at 15.0 C was 3.5%/d and mean absolute growth was 0.62 mm/d. Subsequent larval growth at 15.6 C began to taper off towards 70 dph at the onset of weaning which overlapped with larval metamorphosis. Growth plateaued at 85 dph, followed by a rebound between 90 and 95 dph. Survival was 100% when weaning onto a dry, pelleted diet was initiated at 70 dph with a 10-d live diet co-feeding period. These results are favorable and encourage the further pursuit of commercial witch flounder culture. [source]

West Nile virus: lessons from the 21st century

DACVECC, DACVIM, Pamela A. Wilkins DVM
Abstract Introduction: West Nile virus (WNV) first appeared in the United States in 1999, causing illness and death in birds, horses, and humans. While the initial outbreak of this sometimes deadly viral disease was limited to the northeastern United States, the virus had an inexorable migration across the continental United States over the next 3 years, causing huge losses among the affected species. The purpose of this review is to present currently available information regarding the epi-demiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of WNV infection. Veterinarians, particularly those in an emergency practice, serve as an important source of reliable information regarding this disease for animal owners and the public in general. Data sources: Data sources used for the preparation of this review include computer-based searches of PubMed and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) abstracts. A search in PubMed using ,West Nile' retrieved 1468 ,hits' or references, while a similar search in CAB abstracts produced 815 references. Additional information was obtained from various meeting proceedings, particularly data presented in abstract form, and from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website dedicated to WNV. Human data synthesis: Prior to the mid-1990s, reported large-scale epidemics of WNV infection in humans predominantly presented as acute, mild, febrile disease, sometimes associated with lymphadenopathy and skin rash. The recent large epidemic in the United States, in contrast, has prominently featured encephalitis, particularly among the elderly. Additionally, polio-encephalomyelitis-like complications resulting in long-term neurologic sequelae have been reported. There are many WNV-permissive native avian and mosquito hosts in the Unites States and there appear to be few limitations to the spread of the disease in the United States. It is expected that the virus will be identified in all 48 continental states, Mexico, and Canada by the end of 2003. Veterinary data synthesis: The horse is the animal species most affected by the recent WNV epidemic in the United States, and losses to the equine industry have been large and unprecedented. A United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-approved vaccine against WNV has been in use in horses since 2001 and appears to be effective in limiting the incidence of disease in well-vaccinated populations. WNV infection has been documented in other species of mammals, including camelids (alpaca/llamas) and dogs, and veterinarians should include WNV as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with clinical signs consistent with central nervous system infection. A large concern exists for endangered bird populations, particularly birds of prey, whether in zoos or in the wild. [source]

Application timing and efficacy of alternatives for the insecticidal control of Tipula paludosa Meigen (Diptera: Tipulidae), a new invasive pest of turf in the northeastern United States

Daniel C Peck
Abstract BACKGROUND: Two invasive crane flies, Tipula paludosa Meigen and Tipula oleracea L. (Diptera: Tipulidae), were detected in New York State for the first time in 2004. Both are damaging pests of turfgrass and other horticultural systems in North America where establishment has already been documented. To develop management recommendations for the Northeast and define opportunities for preventive (autumn) and curative (spring) control, four insecticide trials targeting T. paludosa larvae were conducted over a 2 year period. RESULTS: The most efficacious (,70% control in both trials) products against early instars in autumn were bifenthrin, carbaryl, chlorantraniliprole, clothianidin and trichlorfon. Results varied for azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana, cyfluthrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, imidacloprid + bifenthrin and indoxacarb. Clothianidin and dinotefuran were most efficacious against fourth instars in spring; results varied for imidacloprid, indoxacarb and trichlorfon. CONCLUSION: Several insecticides offer alternatives for preventive and curative control of T. paludosa, but, because there is little overlap with application windows for scarab larvae pests, management may entail an entirely new insecticide treatment window, implying new economic and environmental burdens to the turfgrass industry. Moreover, curtailing the impact and spread of these invasives may be severely hampered because the best performing alternatives (clothianidin, dinotefuran) are not registered in New York. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

The effects of aerosols on intense convective precipitation in the northeastern United States,

Alexandros A. Ntelekos
Abstract A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol mesoscale model (WRF-Chem) is used to assess the effects of aerosols on intense convective precipitation over the northeastern United States. Numerical experiments are performed for three intense convective storm days and for two scenarios representing ,typical' and ,low' aerosol conditions. The results of the simulations suggest that increasing concentrations of aerosols can lead to either enhancement or suppression of precipitation. Quantification of the aerosol effect is sensitive to the metric used due to a shift of rainfall accumulation distribution when realistic aerosol concentrations are included in the simulations. Maximum rainfall accumulation amounts and areas with rainfall accumulations exceeding specified thresholds provide robust metrics of the aerosol effect on convective precipitation. Storms developing over areas with medium to low aerosol concentrations showed a suppression effect on rainfall independent of the meteorological environment. Storms developing in areas of relatively high particulate concentrations showed enhancement of rainfall when there were simultaneous high values of convective available potential energy, relative humidity and wind shear. In these cases, elevated aerosol concentrations resulted in stronger updraughts and downdraughts and more coherent organization of convection. For the extreme case, maximum rainfall accumulation differences exceeded 40 mm. The modelling results suggest that areas of the northeastern US urban corridor that are close to or downwind of intense sources of aerosols, could be more favourable for rainfall enhancement due to aerosols for the aerosol concentrations typical of this area. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Structural Validity and Generalisability of a Referent Cognitions Model of Turnover Intentions

David G. Allen
A model proposed and empirically tested by Aquino, Griffeth, Allen, and Hom (1997) using employees of a hospital in the northeastern United States was replicated in samples of Korean factory workers from two divisions of a large organisation. Results in both samples suggested that the relationships among model variables and relationships with withdrawal cognitions replicated quite closely. Results also suggested that the way people are treated in an organisation by their supervisors exerts a powerful effect on their turnover-related responses. Most importantly, the results of this study in combination with the earlier results from Aquino et al. (1997) highlight the impact of employee expectations of future job advancement on turnover-related responses. Employees who perceive that their present situation will improve are more satisfied with their present outcomes and their supervisors. They are also less likely to consider quitting even when being unsatisfied with their present situation. Un modèle proposé et testé empiriquement par Aquino, Griffeth, Allen, and Hom (1997) sur des employés d'un hôpital du nord des Etats-Unis a été réutilisé auprès de plusieurs échantillons de travailleurs d'une usine coréenne appartenant à deux divisions d'une grande organisation. Les résultats sur les deux échantillons montrent que les relations entre les variables du modèle et les relations avec les cognitions défaillantes reproduisent de très près ceux du modèle original. Les résultats montrent aussi que la façon dont les salariés sont traités dans une organisation par leurs supérieurs a de fortes retombées sur leurs réponses concernant les démissions. Plus important encore, les résultats de cette étude en concordance avec ceux initiaux obtenus par Aquino et al. (1997), soulignent l'impact des attentes des employés à propos de leur avancement dans leur futur emploi sur leurs réponses concernant les démissions. Les employés qui perçoivent que leur situation présente va s'améliorer sont plus satisfaits de leur rémunération présente et de leurs supérieurs. Ils sont aussi moins enclins à envisager de démissionner même s'ils sont insatisfaits de leur situation présente. [source]